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Toy Story

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hunt by far hemisphere grew promoting both

items ultimate attached move on pride ownership

upset sort enjoyment fairs

This story is about collecting toys.

We'll look at the expression 'by far', the phrasal verb 'move on', and a common irregular past tense.

We love it I think Yeah Something we have a passion for both of us, collecting and meeting collectors and the hobby as
a hobby. We're the biggest toy show in the southern . We usually get around 24oo people over the two days. There's 328 tables today.
Each year I always vow like a month earlier "that's it, this is the last one" I've just, it's too much. As soon as when I walked into the hall by "Ah, this is great!
This is super." There's always you hope to see. You're looking for that one that you haven't got or the ones you don't
have but you don't always think you'll find it but you hope you do.

It's the biggest toy show in the Southern hemisphere 'by far'. 'By far' means by a long way or to a large degree. It's much bigger than any other toy show in
the southern hemisphere. The southern hemisphere is Australia, New Zealand, some parts of Africa and South America, and Antarctica. It sounds more
impressive than just saying the biggest in Australia.

And what are people looking for at the biggest toy show in the southern hemisphere?

As kids you it open, you play with it. To find something in the box still very . And
that's why the price - $600, but , there's people with that sort of money to spend and it just keeps going up every year.

Something mint in the box. Here, mint means in perfect condition. The collectors want a toy that has not been taken out of the box and played with. Or they
want something that completes a collection:

So there's probably a hundred or 200 figures that I'm just looking for. I saw 'em here last year and I 'em, I said to the
guy "I'll think about it, I'll come back" and when I came back they were gone. So , found 'em this year, which was good.

Notice that he uses the future tense form of 'come':

I said to the guy "I'll think about it, I'll come back"

And then the irregular past tense, came:

and when I came back they were gone.

Now listen for 'move on':

I got a first one given to me from my and it started from there. We used to just go to markets and and
and it into this obsession and I've got more under the desk and it's just ponies everywhere. Just the
that it brought me I just want people to of have the same. Yeah, I just decided to .

She's decided to 'move on'. She is now interested in other things.

Why has she moved on?

I've got real horses and they're more important to me now. I'm not fussed. I'm happy to let them go.

She's 'moved on' to real horses. And she's 'not fussed' about selling the toy horses - this means she's not about it.

So we've seen that came is the past tense of come, that mint can mean 'in perfect condition' and that by far means by a large amount.

We'll finish with the expression of the hunt' which means the excitement of searching for something you really want:

Collecting is very addictive. So you never stop. It's the thrill of the knowing that you're looking for something that you'd like to find and
then suddenly finding it and then the of of that item that you have spent a lot of time looking for, wanting to find and
finding it.
claim commodities pretty seed virtually release

whole sorted produce dust wilts crop bark

variety bush bushy sort mind-altering techniques out


This story is about hemp not the drug marijuana, but the of cannabis that is only grown for fibre and .

We'll look at prefixes that mean not and some forms of the word pollen.

Industrial hemp is a cannabis variety that is used for the manufacture of that we use in everyday life. The big one, of course, is clothing, and
the clothing is manufactured from the of the plant itself. In the family of cannabis plants globally, there are some hundreds of
varieties. And the varieties that are chosen for industrial hemp have no components in them at all. The illegal variety has
tetrahydrocannabinol in it and these plants don't have that.

This of cannabis is legal. Listen for the word that means the opposite of legal.

The illegal variety has tetrahydrocannabinol in it and these plants don't have that.

Illegal. The prefix il- is used to mean 'not'. Illegal means that something is not legal. It's against the law. Other words that use the il- prefix to mean 'not' all
start with the letter 'l':

logical/illogical literate/ illiterate legitimate/ illegitimate legible/ illegible licit/ illicit

But not all words that start with 'l' take the il- prefix to form an opposite meaning. Listen:

Well, the number of products that can be made from industrial hemp are unlimited. If you read the book on hemp, they that
there's 32,000 commodities that you can make.

Unlimited. It means without limit. Un- is the most common prefix used like this.

Now listen out for another prefix that means 'not'

This is the bast fibre - this is the bark - on an immature plant.

Immature. It means not mature or young. Some of the words with this im- prefix are:


and impatient

So what do the mature plants do?

They give off a lot of pollen, so when it's windy - on a windy day - you will see pollen just flowing like clouds through the and that is
pollinating the females. Now, the female, it becomes pollinated and it begins to bush up. And as the female becomes pollinated, the male plant just
away and dies. The female then fills out and becomes very .. And as she becomes pollinated, the little seeds are formed, and you
can see one there.

The mature male plants 'give off' or pollen into the air. Listen:

They give off a lot of pollen

Let's look at the word pollen. Pollen is the yellow plants .

so when it's windy - on a windy day - you will see pollen just flowing like clouds through the crop

The verb is pollinate, here used in its -ing form, pollinating.

you will see pollen just flowing like clouds through the crop and that is pollinating the females.

In the next clip, pollinated is used as an adjective: Now, the female, it becomes pollinated and it begins to up. And as the female becomes
pollinated, the male plant just wilts away and dies.

So we've looked at three prefixes that create opposite meanings - legal / illegal, limited/ unlimited and mature/immature. Pollen is the noun and pollinate is
the verb.

We'll finish with the farmer who says he's got it all or solved.

My main area has been in growing varieties and evaluating varieties and developing cultural management . And this I've been doing since
1995 and we've well got it all sorted out.

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fuel worse hopefully spelled heights certain longer nerve-wracking
scared pretty tanks

This story is about ballooning. First, listen for when Shaiful uses 'a' and 'an':

I've never done this before and I believe this will be a experience especially since I have a fear of . We're about an hour
from Adelaide. Such a beautiful morning here.

A beautiful morning, a of heights, a nerve-wracking experience, an hour from Adelaide. Listen again:

I believe this will be a nerve-wracking experience especially since I have a fear of heights. We're about an hour from Adelaide. Such a beautiful morning here.

The rule for using 'a' or 'an' is that 'a' is used before words that start with a consonant sound - a nerve-wracking, a fear, a beautiful - and 'an' is used before
words that begin with a vowel sound - an hour. Hour iswith a consonant at the beginning - 'h', but it is pronounced with a vowel sound -
"our", so you say an hour, like this:

It is an hour flight so probably for the first few minutes or at least quarter of an hour I won't look down, but I'll eventually get to that and I
won't be of heights after that.

Lean back, lean back, lean back.

Lean back.

He won't look down - so where will he look?

Kay told us if you're scared of heights you don't look down, you look out. You look out and not down and your brain and it so amazed at
taking in the views you're no scared of heights.

He'll look out - that's looking straight in front of you. Where else can you look?

I did to look down and actually I enjoyed the view. Couldn't say the same about looking up though. Looking up was still a bit scary, but
looking down was fine.

The phrases 'Looking up' and 'looking down' can also be used to mean that things are going well or going badly. If things are looking up, they are improving.
If they're looking down they are getting . Next, listen for the way he describes the challenge:

When I face a challenge I normally expect the worst so that it can only get better I like to face the challenges , so I can feel the full
of it so...whatever doesn't kill me makes me stronger.

He likes to face challenges 'head on' or directly. He uses a saying to express this another way - whatever doesn't kill me makes me stronger. Let's see what
else makes him stronger:

So, going around in trying to find a good place to land, that was pretty scary.

Yeah turned off Lesley heading down a little dirt road. You're heading straight for me through the trees if you look straight ahead through the trees. That's
where we are. I'm not sure just which you're going to end up in.

Ok just hold there. Is there any where you are at all Bailly?

Kept looking at the gas hoping that there is still for the balloons, but everything turned out well.

Everything turned out well - something that 'turns out' a particular way happens that way. So how did it turn out well?

Could we land on your property if need be?

Could we land on your property 'if need be'. 'If need be' means 'if we have to' or 'if it is necessary'. Listen again:

Could we land on your property if need be?

Well if you've gotta, go, you've gotta go.

We'll finish with Shaiful using the expression 'no question about that', which means that he is about what he says:

I'm just so happy that I did it and I would do it again, yeah, no question about that.
City Lights

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businesses state of the art alleys devised clamped

down on reveal narrow reputations line up

laneways wide meant focuses brought whom

Strangely queue dump

This story is about a graffiti art project in Melbourne called City Lights.

We'll look at some words for streets and what clamp down means.

I'm Andrew Mac. I'm the director of city lights project. It's an arts project which on art in public spaces. We're here in Hosier lane. It's
right in the middle of Melbourne city. We this project to be in public so that we could reach a very audience.
inside a gallery you might get 30 to 50 people a day but in the street and in this street in particular thousands of people come down here every day so it's
primarily about reaching a big audience

Hosier Lane is called a and a street. What else do they call it?

In the mid-90s when I started the city Lights project Melbourne city was a lot and actually people didn't use these

The narrow streets are also called laneways. Another word for them is .

And what were they like in the past?

The city is on a structure which is city design in the 1850s. Over the years the laneways became
and unused and so people didn't come down here.

They were misused and unused. The prefix un- means not - they were not used. the prefix mis- here means wrong- something misused is used for the wrong
purpose. The lanes were used to rubbish and for various criminal activities.

Now listen for the word 'gentrified':

There was no graffiti here there was no businesses here there was nothing but I knew that these streets would eventually become to
some degree and people would start to use them.

Gentrified means that middle class or professional people start to use them or live near them.

And why did they become gentrified?

The graffiti has grown with the light boxes and have been attracted to this street and other streets because of the graffiti and because
of the people that come to look at the graffiti. There are now apartments here as well. So all this has come after the fact.

The development - the gentrification - has come after the fact - it's come after the graffiti.

Is this what usually happens?

It's kind of the opposite people often talk about this broken windows effect that graffiti destroys areas but in this case graffiti has life
to this area.

No. It's the opposite. Usually graffiti destroys areas' because it's associated with vandalism like broken windows.

Listen for the phrasal verb 'line up':

So you see a lot of really interesting uses of the street. enough people come to shoot weddings here on the weekends. Sometimes
there will be up to 5 or 6 weddings. They for a particular spot.

Here, line up means to form a . You line up to get on a bus.

Now listen for clamp down: It's important because there are so few avenues for free speech and increasingly we're - there are so
many rules and regulations about what you can and can't do in a city.

They're clamped down on. to clamp down is to take official action to stop something. The police clamp down on graffiti in other places. They try to stop it .

So we've seen that street is a general term and that the particular words for streets are lane, laneway and alley. To gentrify is to make
a place attractive to professionals and to line up is to queue. misused means used in the wrong way and unused means not used.

we'll finish with the term 'in the street', which refers to any public space:

Melbourne has grown to really love the graffiti. I see people from every age, from little kids to people in their 70s some of are quite
expert on the changes that they see happening in the streets - they really take not of it. So in Melbourne I think it's had a positive effect on the culture and
it's that people can understand that art doesn't just have to exist inside an institution that it can be in the street.

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spelled quite else throughout outcrops Indigenous quickly unique
approximately known as well feed amount

This story is about a national park known as The Grampians. We'll look at two, to and too, as well as explaining what 'some time' means.

Grampians national park is 168 thousand hectares in size. It's quite a area to the Grampians region. There are many diverse
throughout the park from wetlands to rocky outcrops to some of the plains to the north of the park.

There are many ways of using one of the words in English, 'to'. For most of them, the spelling is t-o, such as here:

There are many diverse environments the park ranging from wetlands to rocky to some of the plains further to the north of
the park.

The number 2 has the curious spelling t-w-o:

Look, there's plenty of things to do in the Grampians. There's a large diversity of environments out there. So people can go rock climbing, ,
4wheel driving, 2 wheel driving - plenty of room for people to go mountain bike riding even .

But there are times when the word is with 2 o's. Listen for an example in the next clip:

These animals out in the park are wild and need to be as such and certainly view and enjoy the wildlife that's out here in the Grampians but
don't the animals and get too . The animals are there for everybody to enjoy.

He said 'to' 3 times. Listen:

These animals out in the park are wild and need to be treated as such.

Need to be treated as such - that's a 'to' spelled t-o. What about the next one?

Certainly view and enjoy the wildlife that's out here in the Grampians but don't feed the animals and get too close.

Get too close. That's the one spelled with 2 o's. When too means 'more than is liked' it is spelled t-o-o. It's too hot today. You pronounce this 'to' clearly with
a slightly longer "oo" sound. - need to be treated, don't get too close. Sometimes the 'to' with one 'o' is said so it's hard to hear.

Listen: The animals are there for everybody to enjoy.

There is another use for the word 'too'. It can be used to mean 'as well'. So this sentence: Grampians national park is commonly as Gariwerd
as well.

Could be changed to "Grampians National Park is known as Gariwerd too."

And why is the Grampians called Gariwerd too?

Grampians national park is commonly known as Gariwerd as well which is the indigenous term used.

It's the term - it's the name used by the local Aboriginal people.

What other name is associated with the area?

Look, I love the work around here. I've been a ranger here at Halls Gap for some time.

Halls Gap. That's the closest town. He's been a ranger there for 'some time'. That means quite a long time, not just an of time. And a ranger is
someone who works in a National Park. He's worked in the Grampians for a long time.

So we've seen that the number 2 is spelled t-w-o, that when meaning 'as well' or 'more than liked' the word too is spelled t-o-o and with only one 'o' for all
other uses.

We'll finish with some spectacular : It's such a beautiful area out there that where would you want to come and work?
Bush Retreat

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critters cabins sort pouch campground logging

wallaby afford heathland network

This story is about a place to stay in the .. bush. We look at the confused words bought and brought, and show you how to
list things.

I'm Paul Dymock, one of the owners of Huon Bush Retreats and Huon Bush Retreats is just 50 minutes south from Hobart. We have 3 studio cabins, 2 two
bedroom cabins, 2 tepees and a.

Listen again to how Paul lists his accommodation.

We have 3 studio cabins, 2 two bedroom , 2 tepees and a campground.

Only the last thing is introduced with 'and'. Here's another list:

We are on 1 square kilometre of various habitats here including forest, sub-alpine and of course the accommodation village.

Again, he only uses 'and' for the final thing.

So what do you find in these various habitats?

Being a private nature reserve we've got all sorts of that live here in the wide range of habitats that we have.

All sort of critters. Critters is slang for creatures or animals.

What critter is he holding?

This little fella here - his name's Rory and he's a rufous wallaby. We've him from a little joey.

It's a wallaby. They've raised him from a joey - that's the term for a baby kangaroo or .

So why do they have him?

Someone brought him up when his mum got killed on the road and we've had him for about 6 or 8 months now.

His mum got killed on the road and he was still alive in her . Someone brought him up - this means someone brought him to the bush
retreat. Here brought is the past tense of bring. You bring things to places. In the past someone brought the joey to Paul.

Now listen for the word 'bought':

We actually bought this property from a company with the idea of saving it and then the Huon Bush Retreats business came along as a
way that we could actuallyto do that.

Bought is the past tense of buy. They bought the property a while ago. that bought, like buy, has no 'r'. Look and listen: buy bought; bring

What do people do at the bush retreat?

We have 4 kilometres of tracks We've got an easy half to three quarter hour loop. Most people can do that with ordinary fitness, ordinary
street shoes. People can have a really nice 5 or 6 hours just enjoying our whole bushwalking track .

They can go bushwalking, which is walking in the bush, or wild country.

So we've seen that lists have only one 'and' at the end, that brought is the past tense of bring, while bought is the past tense of buy and that critters are

We'll finish with the expression 'where we're coming from', which means the of ideas or philosophy people have.

We want our to understand where we're coming from with the conservation thing. It's a great place where people can actually come and
experience alternative energy and alternative ways of looking after the environment. Try it out for themselves and go away with some ideas of maybe how
they can look after the environment in their own homes in the future.