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Winston Churchill

Winston Churchill was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again
from 1951 to 1955. A multi-faceted man, he was also an officer in the British Army, a writer and
a historian.
The product of an alcoholic, syphilitic father and promiscuous American mother, Winston
Churchill was one of the greatest figures of the twentieth century. Ironically, he would never
have come to greatness but for his contemporary and bitter rival Adolf Hitler.
Descended from the Dukes of Marlborough, Churchill was primed for success despite his
parental problems. He graduated from the Sandhurst military academy in 1895 and embarked
upon a dizzying army career. He reported news from Cuba, served in India, and in 1898 he
fought in the battle of Omdurman in Sudan, where he rode in one of the last great cavalry
charges. The following year he was a newspaper correspondent in South Africa, covering the
Boer War. Not yet twenty-five, he received a thousand dollars a month plus expensesa
staggering amount, but Londons Morning Post considered him worth it. He was audacious and
innovative, and as a later biographer said, Churchill used the English language as if he invented
it. He also provided drama: captured by the Boers, he completed a daring escape and returned
to safety despite a bounty on his head.
Government posts came Churchills way almost automatically. Before the Great War he sat in
Parliament as a Conservative, Tory, and Liberal. He became Undersecretary of the Colonies,
president of the Board of Trade, and Home Secretary. He also found time to marry the Honorable
Clementine Hozier in 1908. They had a son and two daughters.
In 1911 Churchill became First Sea Lord, bringing important changes to the Royal Navy. He
recognized the potential of the submarine and airplane, learned to fly, and established the Royal
Naval Air Service. However, in 1915, during World War I his ambitious strategy for the
Dardenelles led to the debacle at Gallipoli. Forced from the cabinet, he cheerfully returned to the
army and commanded a Scottish battalion on the western front. He also was a major factor
behind development of the armored fighting vehiclewhich he named, for all time, the tank.
Churchill was back in the cabinet by mid-1917 and finished the war as minister of munitions. He
opposed postwar accommodations with Indian separatists such as Gandhi and was involved in
other international affairs as colonial secretary, including establishment of the Iraqi nation in
1921. Over the next several years he was in and out of Parliament and government, earning an
exceptional living from writing.
During the 1930s Churchill expressed growing concern over the resurgence of German
nationalism. After Adolf Hitler assumed power in 1933, the former sea lord urged strengthening
the Royal Navy, but few Britons heeded him. However, as the German Fhrer went from success
to success, it became apparent that Nazi ambition could not be contained. Churchill had only
contempt for appeasers like Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain and U.S. ambassador Joseph
Kennedy, but with declaration of war in September 1939 Churchill the warhorse felt justified in
returning to harness. When he resumed his position as First Sea Lord after twenty-four years, the
Admiralty signaled the fleet, Winston is back.
With Chamberlains policies and moral authority irrefutably discredited, Churchill became prime
minister on 10 May 1940. Immediately faced with the fall of France and the possible invasion of
England, Churchill directed his immense energy and ability to defense of Shakespeares
scepterd isle. He shrugged off suggestions by some right-wing politicians and allegedly a
few members of the royal family to reach an accommodation with Hitler. Through the summer
and fall the Battle of Britain was fought and won in English skies, and the Nazi invasion fleet
such as it wasnever sailed. Churchills masterful oratory gripped the worlds attention in
concert with the epic events unfolding about him.
The following year was equally crucial, witnessing Germanys attack on Russia and Americas
entry into the war. Churchill had already established a warm relationship with President Franklin
Roosevelt and put aside an instinctive dislike and distrust for Soviet premier Joseph Stalin.
Churchill, a firm anticommunist, knew Stalin for what he wasunlike Roosevelt, who
consistently made allowances for the Soviet dictator, fondly calling the genocidal despot Uncle
Joe. Despite their personal and national differences with respect to communist Russia,
Churchill and Roosevelt remained staunch allies throughout the war. They quickly decided on a
Germany first strategy, but in early 1942 the main threat was from Japan, which was rolling
up easy victories in the Philippines, Singapore, and Malaya.
In December 1943 the first Big Three meeting was held in Tehran, Iran, agreeing upon the
Anglo-American landings in northern France sometime in the summer of 1944. Churchill and
Roosevelt maintained almost daily contact by phone and mail, with some 1,700 messages
between the two leaders; a frequent topic was Overlord and its myriad details.
Despite his enthusiasm and aggressiveness, Churchill retained doubts about Overlord. Perhaps he
still stung from the Gallipoli failure twenty-nine years before, but in any case Churchill was
atypically cautious. He favored a Mediterranean approach, up the boot of Italy via the soft
underbelly of Europe. Even when the Italian campaign bogged down he told Gen. Dwight
Eisenhower, If [by winter] you have secured the port at Le Havre and freed beautiful Paris
from the hands of the enemy, I will assert the victory to be the greatest of modern times.
Once the decision had been made, Churchill was Overlords fierce advocate. He reveled in the
tactics and gadgets that characterized the greatest amphibious operation yet attemptedhe was
especially taken with the Mulberry portable harbors. He also informed Eisenhower of his
intention to observe the landings from a British cruiser. The supreme commander replied that
Churchill was far too valuable to risk and prohibited it. Churchill calmly replied that as a British
citizen he would sign on aboard one of His Majestys ships, whereupon Eisenhowers
headquarters contacted Buckingham Palace. King George thereupon called Churchill, declaring
that if the prime minister went to Normandy, the monarch could do no less. Churchill relented.
While largely unstated, one of Churchills major concerns was limiting Soviet territorial gains in
Europe. Having an eye toward the postwar world, he did not want Stalin in control of formerly
democratic nations. However, geopolitics required further cooperation with his unlikely ally, and
Churchill met Roosevelt for the last time in Stalins domainYalta in the Crimea, in February
1945. Victory in Europe was visible by then, though with more hard fighting to come in the
Pacific. Roosevelts premature death in April ended the original Big Three.
The English-speaking world was stunned when Churchill was turned out of office in July 1945.
What appeared to be staggering ingratitude by the British voters probably was better explained
by the approaching peace. Winston Churchill was a warrior by instinct and by preference; his
countrymen recognized that fact and considered Labours candidate, Clement Atlee, better suited
for peacetime challenges. With Japans surrender in September, those concerns became even
more immediate. He regained the prime ministership in 1951.
Churchill finally retired in 1955 at the age of eighty-one. He continued writing, speaking, and
painting for the next decade, gaining additional honors. His multivolume history The Second
World War received the 1953 Nobel Prize for literature, but he wrote twenty other histories and
biographies as well. That same year he was knighted by Queen Elizabeth. He was made an
honorary American citizen in 1963.
Sir Winston Churchill died in his ninetieth year, on 24 January 1965. Two generations mourned
him; kings, queens, and presidents paid him tribute, and historians acknowledged their debt.
Churchills place in history is assured; with Hitler he remains a towering political figure of the
twentieth century. His courage, determination, and leadership during Britains greatest peril mark
him for the ages. However unlikely the success of a German invasion of Britain in 1940 now
seemsOverlord in reverseit did not seem so at the time. When some of his fellow Britons
and not a few Americans called for capitulation or accommodation, Winston Churchill chomped
his cigar, flashed his V-for-victory sign, and uttered a defiant No! that echoes down the ages.
Dolf Hitler

Dolf Hitler was born on April 20, 1889 in Braunau, Austria, a small town across the Inn River
from Germany. Soon after Hitler's birth, his father, Alois Hitler, moved the family to Linz,
Austria. Hitler attended school in Linz and at first was a good student, but in high school he was
a very poor student. Hitler's academic abilities angered his father because his father hoped that
Hitler would study to become a government worker as he had been. Hitler, however, wanted to
become an artist.

In 1907, Hitler went to Vienna Austria. in an attempt to fulfill his dream of becoming an artist.
This attempt ended when he failed the entrance exam to the Academy of Fine Arts. When
Hitler's mother died in 1907, he decided to remain in Vienna. He took the entrance exam a year
later and failed again. He did not have steady work in Vienna, but, instead, took a variety of odd
jobs. He lived in cheap rooming houses or slept on park benches and he often had to get meals
from charity kitchens. During his time in Vienna Hitler learned to hate non-Germans. Hitler was
a German-speaking Austrian and considered himself German. He ridiculed the Austrian
government for recognizing eight languages as official and believed that no government
couldlast if it treated ethnic groups equally.

In 1913, Hitler went to Munich, Germany and when World War I began in 1914, he volunteered
for service in the German army. Hitler was twice decorated for bravery, but only rose to the rank
of corporal. When World War I ended. Hitler was in a hospital recovering from temporary
blindness possibly caused by a poison gas attack. The Versailles Treaty that ended the war
stripped Germany of much of its territory, forced the country to disarm, and ordered Germany to
pay huge reparations. When the army returned to Germany. the country was in despair. The
country was bankrupt and millions of people were unemployed.

In 1920, Hitler joined the National Socialist German Workers Party known as the Nazis. The
Nazis called for all Germans, even those in other countries, to unite into one nation; they called
for a strong central government; and they called for the cancellation of the Versailles Treaty.
Hitler became leader of the Nazi party and built up membership quickly, mostly because of his
powerful speaking ability. Hitler organized an army for the Nazi party called the Storm Troopers
("Brown Shirts") who were called upon to fight groups seeking to disband the Nazi rallies.

On November 9, 1923, Hitler led more than 2,000 Storm Troopers on a march to seize the
Bavarian government. The attempt failed and Hitler was arrested and sentenced to prison for five
years for treason. While in prison, Hitler wrote Mein Kampf (My Struggle). In this book. he
stated his beliefs and plans for Germany's future. Hitler only served nine months in prison and
when he was released, he began to rebuild the party again. He set up a private battle-ready elite
guard known as the "Schutzstaffel" (SS). By 1929, the Nazis had become an important minor
political party.

In 1930, a worldwide depression hit Germany, yet Germany also had the debt of paying for the
damage it had caused in World War I. Hitler protested against paying the debt and said that the
Jews and Communists were the cause for Germany's defeat in World War I. He promised to rid
Germany of Jews and Communists and to reunite the German speaking part of Europe.

In July, 1932, the Nazis received about 40% of the vote and became the strongest party in
Germany. On January 30,1933, President Paul von Hindenburg appointed Hitler Chancellor of
Germany. Once in this position, Hitler moved quickly toward attaining a dictatorship. When von
Hindenburg died in 1934, Hitler already had control of Germany and he gave himself the title
"Fuehrer" (leader).

Under Hitler's government, called the Third Reich, there was no place for freedom. The
government controlled every part of one's life. Hitler used extensive propaganda to brainwash
the nation into believing his theory about creating the perfect Aryan or nordic race. Therefore, it
was Hitler's plan to rid the nation and eventually the world of Jews, Gypsies, Negroes,
handicapped, and mentally ill persons. This plan was called the "Final Solution."

World War II began in 1939 when Hitler invaded Poland to begin his unification of all German-
speaking peoples. By this time extermination camps were being established throughout
Germany, Poland, and Russia.

Before Hitler was stopped in 1945 by the Allied countries, he had caused the extermination over
12 million people. Hitler committed suicide in his bunker on April 30,1945 and seven days later,
Germany surrendered
The hardest way to learn anything is by experience, and the easiest or at least the less
challenging way is by learning from other peoples experience. This concept can also be applied
when you want to achieve success in either business, work or personal life.
Let us take a look at a man who faced many hurdles and setbacks before he made success and
revolutionized how we do business online. You might get inspired by the life of this Chinese
tycoon Jack Ma. Alibaba Founder Jack Ma Success Story is truly inspiring for young
entrepreneurs.

JACK MA ACHIEVEMENTS
He is the Executive Chairman and founder of Alibaba Group and is among the top Chinese
entrepreneurs.

The Chinese internet shopping market was valued at over 150 billion USD in the third quarter of
2015. Only ten years ago, in early 1995 Jack MA was in the US, and did an internet search for
the word beer, he realized that there were no results from his home country of China. In just
over ten years he has helped the China become one of the top countries when it comes to online
shopping.

Jack Mas Company Alibaba had the biggest Initial public offer (IPO) in history when it went
public. With over $150 billion raised in the filing it officially made Jack MA the richest man in
China with a value of $25 billion.

Who is this man is known as Jack MA, and how did he come to achieve such great success?

THE YOUNG JACK MA


He was born Ma Yun in 1964 in the Chinese region of Hangzhou. 1964 was a tumultuous time in
Chinese history, the chinas Cultural Revolution was well underway. The young Ma found
himself on the wrong side of Maos communist party that was leading the revolution as his
grandparents were members of the Chinese Nationalist Party; which opposed Maos party.

WHEN YOU FAIL TO TRY AGAIN!


His education was not all smooth sailing either. Ma failed in his primary school examinations
two times before he got it right. Continuing to middle school, he failed the graduating exams
three times before going through.

This was not the end of his failures in the education system; after high school when applying for
universities, he flopped the entrance exams three times. He wanted to join the university as he
even applied to Harvard University and got rejected all of ten times! Eventually, he joined
Hangzhou Normal University where he graduated with a bachelor in English.

After University, it was time to look for a job. When the American fast food company came to
China Jack Ma and 23 other people applied for a post there. All of them were accepted apart
from Ma. In another instance Ma and four other men applied for a job in the police force; the
only ma was not hired.

At an early age, Ma decided he wanted to learn English. The only English speaking people he
could get were the tourists staying at a nearby hotel. Every morning he would ride his bicycle to
the hotel and talk to the foreigners giving free tours as he practiced his oral English.

Through these tours, Ma developed pen pal relationships with some of the tourists. This gave
him knowledge about the outside world. He learned to ask questions and not believe or
disbelieve everything he was told; something he applies to this day.
CREATING AN EMPIRE, ONE STEP AT A TIME
After graduating Ma could not find stable employment. He taught at a local university and
opened a translation service business. He visited the US in 1995 as a translator and was
introduced to the internet.

This was when he did a beer internet search and could not find any beer from China on the
World Wide Web. How could a country of over a billion people have no presence on the
internet? He immediately saw the potential the internet had, and how it could help develop
business interactions in china and the world.

Ma and his friends decided to build a site about china and the products that it offers. They called
the place China page. Mas eyes were opened when after launching the site he began to get
emails from people around the world. China page fate was sealed when Ma looking for better
funding joined with a government entity giving it majority control.

This was a mistake as the unmoving bureaucracy hijacked many of his visions and frustrated him
greatly. This eventually led to Mas departure. He developed his philosophy of never working
with the government again from then on.

In the second half of the 90s Ma got a job in the ministry of foreign trade and economic
cooperation. While he was there for only a short time, he built connections with a man who
would later come to impact his life; Yahoo was founding member Jerry Yang. Jerry got Yahoo to
invest 1 Billion dollars in Alibaba in 2005.

THE BIRTH OF ALIBABA


In 1999 Ma decided to pursue his dream of selling Chinese products on the internet to a much
bigger market. This idea had been criticized and repeatedly rejected when he was in the
government. Now with renewed vigor after leaving his government job, Ma gave it one more
shot. He got together 18 people (including his wife) and pitched them his idea of an internet
based company to be known as Alibaba.

Like all start-ups Alibaba faced the dilemma of getting funding. Ma tried his luck at Silicon
Valley in the United States; his proposal was deemed to be unprofitable by many of the
companies he approached. After many trials and rejections, he succeeded in getting funding from
Softbank and Goldman Sachs, who invested $25 million in Alibaba.

Alibaba still had not turned up a profit by 2003 and Ma had to get creative. He launched
Taobao.com an online shopping and auction site. eBay already had a big piece of the auction
market in China and Taobao committed itself to charge zero commission on any purchase made
on the site.

With no profits, this zero commission policy put Alibaba under a lot of financial pressure. Ma
and his colleagues began offering other value added services like pages to online merchants for
small prices. In less than four years Alibaba had pushed eBay out of the Chinese market. Yahoo
invested $1 billion dollars for a 40% stake in the company in 2014. This helped catapult the
company into the international market.

ALIBABA TODAY
The company is among the worlds leading platforms for online retailing with a presence in
hundreds of countries. By acquiring small technology-related companies, Alibaba Holding group
is turning into a massive conglomerate.

INSPIRING MOMENTS
Jack Ma has proved that failure is an only failure when one gives up. If you never give up, your
failure will only act as a learning experience or a chance to better yourself. His struggles in the
academic realm are a clear indication that the human will can overcome any hurdles. In life it is
important to stick it out, never to give up.

If Jack Ma had not learned English and made friends with the tourists who came to his local
region, he would never have been able to travel to the United States later in life. It is paramount
that we make use of the opportunities that life avails us as we dont know what the future holds.

Jack Ma dream of helping the small Chinese companies get a footprint on the internet was noble
and unselfish. It is a great inspiration for future businesses that have no vision of helping their
communities. It is not all about the money sometimes
Jeff Bezos

Entrepreneur and e-commerce pioneer Jeff Bezos was born on January 12, 1964, in
Albuquerque, New Mexico. Bezos had an early love of computers and studied computer science
and electrical engineering at Princeton University. After graduation he worked on Wall Street,
and in 1990 he became the youngest senior vice president at the investment firm D.E. Shaw.
Four years later, he quit his lucrative job to open Amazon.com, a virtual bookstore that became
one of the internet's biggest success stories. In 2013, Bezos purchased The Washington Post in a
$250 million deal. His successful business ventures have made him one of the richest people in
the world.

Early Life and Career


Jeff Bezos was born on January 12, 1964, in Albuquerque, New Mexico, to a teenage mother,
Jacklyn Gise Jorgensen, and his biological father, Ted Jorgensen. The Jorgensens were married
less than a year, and when Bezos was 4 years old his mother re-married, to Cuban immigrant
Mike Bezos.

As a child, Jeff Bezos showed an early interest in how things work, turning his parents' garage
into a laboratory and rigging electrical contraptions around his house. He moved to Miami with
his family as a teenager, where he developed a love for computers and graduated valedictorian of
his high school. It was during high school that he started his first business, the Dream Institute,
an educational summer camp for fourth, fifth and sixth graders.

Bezos pursued his interest in computers at Princeton University, where he graduated summa cum
laude in 1986 with a degree in computer science and electrical engineering. After graduation, he
found work at several firms on Wall Street, including Fitel, Bankers Trust and the investment
firm D.E. Shaw. It was there he met his wife, Mackenzie, and became the company's youngest
vice president in 1990.

While his career in finance was extremely lucrative, Bezos chose to make a risky move into the
nascent world of e-commerce. He quit his job in 1994, moved to Seattle and targeted the
untapped potential of the internet market by opening an online bookstore.

Launching Amazon.com
Bezos set up the office for his fledgling company in his garage where, along with a few
employees, he began developing software. They expanded operations into a two-bedroom house,
equipped with three Sun Microstations, and eventually developed a test site. After inviting 300
friends to beta test the site, Bezos opened Amazon.com, named after the meandering South
American River, on July 16, 1995.

The initial success of the company was meteoric. With no press promotion, Amazon.com sold
books across the United States and in 45 foreign countries within 30 days. In two months, sales
reached $20,000 a week, growing faster than Bezos and his start-up team had envisioned.

Amazon.com went public in 1997, leading many market analysts to question whether the
company could hold its own when traditional retailers launched their own e-commerce sites.
Two years later, the start-up not only kept up, but also outpaced competitors, becoming an e-
commerce leader.

Bezos continued to diversify Amazons offerings with the sale of CDs and videos in 1998, and
later clothes, electronics, toys and more through major retail partnerships. While many dot.coms
of the early '90s went bust, Amazon flourished with yearly sales that jumped from $510,000 in
1995 to over $17 billion in 2011.

In 2006, Amazon.com launched its video on demand service; initially known as Amazon Unbox
on TiVo, it was eventually rebranded as Amazon Instant Video. In 2007, the company released
the Kindle, a handheld digital book reader that allowed users to buy, download, read and store
their book selections. That same year, Bezos announced his investment in Blue Origin, a Seattle-
based aerospace company that develops technologies to offer space travel to paying customers.

Bezos entered Amazon into the tablet marketplace with the unveiling of the Kindle Fire in 2011.
The following September, he announced the new Kindle Fire HD, the company's next generation
tablet designed to give Apple's iPad a run for its money. "We haven't built the best tablet at a
certain price. We have built the best tablet at any price," Bezos said, according to ABC News.
Buying 'The Washington Post'
Bezos made headlines worldwide on August 5, 2013, when he purchased The Washington
Post and other publications affiliated with its parent company, The Washington Post Co., for
$250 million. The deal marked the end of the four-generation reign over The Post Co. by the
Graham family, which included Donald E. Graham, the company's chairman and chief executive,
and his niece, Post publisher Katharine Weymouth.

"The Post could have survived under the company's ownership and been profitable for the
foreseeable future," Graham stated, in an effort to explain the transaction. "But we wanted to do
more than survive. I'm not saying this guarantees success, but it gives us a much greater chance
of success."

In a statement to Post employees on August 5, Bezos wrote: "The values of The Post do not need
changing. ...There will, of course, be change at The Post over the coming years. That's essential
and would have happened with or without new ownership. The internet is transforming almost
every element of the news business: shortening news cycles, eroding long-reliable revenue
sources, and enabling new kinds of competition, some of which bear little or no news-gathering
costs. There is no map, and charting a path ahead will not be easy. We will need to invent, which
means we will need to experiment. Our touchstone will be readers, understanding what they care
aboutgovernment, local leaders, restaurant openings, scout troops, businesses, charities,
governors, sportsand working backwards from there. I'm excited and optimistic about the
opportunity for invention."

Amazon Prime & Amazon Studios


In early December 2013, Bezos made headlines when he revealed a new, experimental initiative
by Amazon, called "Amazon Prime Air," using dronesremote-controlled machines that can
perform an array of human tasksto provide delivery services to customers. According to
Bezos, these drones are able to carry items weighing up to five pounds, and are capable of
traveling within a 10-mile distance of the company's distribution center. He also stated that
Prime Air could become a reality within as little as four or five years.

Bezos oversaw one of Amazon's few major missteps when the company launched the Fire Phone
in 2014; criticized for being too gimmicky, it was discontinued the following year. However,
Bezos did score a victory with the development of original content through Amazon Studios.
After premiering several new programs in 2013, Amazon hit it big in 2014 with the critically
acclaimed Transparent and Mozart in the Jungle. In 2015, the company produced and released
Spike Lee's Chi-Raq as its first original feature film.

In 2016, Bezos stepped in front of the camera for a cameo appearance playing an alien in Star
Trek Beyond. A Star Trek fan since childhood, Bezos is listed as a Starfleet Official in the movie
credits on IMDb.
In July 2017, Bezos briefly surpassed Microsoft founder Bill Gates to become the richest person
in the world, according to Bloomberg. Gates, who was the richest person in the world since
2013, made $90.7 billion, shy of Bezos' worth of $90.9 billion, which rose with a surge in
Amazon.com Inc. shares. However, by the close of the market, Gates' net worth climbed to $90
billion while Bezos' had a net worth of over $89 billion