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A Sentence In English Must Have At Least One Subject And One Verb

1 . All Subjects Are Nouns Or Noun Phrases


2. Verbs Have Many Forms, Like:
A. To Be: Is, Am, Are, Was, Were, Be, Been
B. Verb 1 (Present Form) Or Verb 1 + -S/-Es:
Eat, Sleep, Look, Goes, Watches, Studies,
Etc.
C. Verb 2 (Past Form) : Ate, Slept, Looked, Went, Watched, Studied,
Etc.
D. Modal + (Infinitive Or Base Verb): Will Eat, Can Sleep,
Must Look, Etc. E. Have / Has + V3: Have Eaten, Has Slept,
Etc.
F. Had + V3: Had Eaten, Had Slept, Had Looked, Etc
1.Object Of Prepositions

A Preposition Is Followed By A Noun, Pronoun, Gerund Or Noun Clause That Is


Called An Object Of Preposition.
If A Word Is An Object Of A Preposition, It Is Not The Subject.

2.Appositives

An Appositive Is A Noun That Comes Before Or After Another Noun And Is


Generally Set Off From The Noun With Commas.
If A Word Is An Appositive, It Is Not The Subject.
Example :
The beast, a lion, was starting to show interest in our party. (In this example, the
appositive is a noun.)
The beast, a large lion with a mane like a bonfire, was starting to show interest in
our party. (In this example, the appositive is a noun phrase.)
The beast, a large lion with a mane like a bonfire which was looking hungry, was
starting to show interest in our party. (In this example, the appositive is a noun clause.)

3.Verb+Ing And V3

Verb+Ing

1. Verb+Ing Will Be A Present Participle As Part Of The Verb When It Is Preceded


By To Be
Example :
The man is talking to his friend (is talking is verb)
2. Verb+Ing Will Be Adjective When It Is Not Preceded By To Be
Example :
The man talking to his friend has a beard (talking is adjective)

V3

1.V3 Will Be A Present Participle As Part Of The Verb When It Is Preceded By Has,
Have,Had, Or To Be.
Example :
1. She had walk* to school. (should be had walked)
2. Paul has took* the test. (should be has taken)
3. They have see* the film. (should be have seen)
4. Having ate*, he went to school. (should be Having eaten)
5. I could have like* you. (should be could have
liked)

2.V3 Will Be Adjective When It Is Not Preceded By Has, Have, Had,


Or To Be
Example :
1. This film is terrifying
2. Your comments are alarming
3. The defendant's answers were misleadi