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Volume 9, Issue 1, Fall2014

Performance of Terry Towel - A Critical Review


Part I: Water Absorbency

J.P. Singh and B.K. Behera*


Department of Textile Technology, U. P. Textile Technology Institute, Kanpur
*Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
New Delhi, India

ABSTRACT

There is nothing wrong in saying that water absorbency is a synonym for terry fabric as it may not
existed without this property. So, this paper intended to collect, critically analyze, rearrange and
present the scattered information scientifically and to provide a single source of all information.
In this paper, a critical review of the evolved theories and mechanisms of water absorption in terry
fabric has been presented along with the key factors to improve the water absorption. Randomly
scattered information throughout the current as well as last century, has been collected, analyzed
and concluded judicially. Critical analysis of all the information helps to understand and choose
the most realistic theory and mechanism of water absorption of terry fabric which will be helpful
in designing the most absorbent terry fabric. An attempt has also been made to conclude findings
of the researches that have been directed towards understanding the effect of washing, dyeing and
finishing treatment on water absorbency of terry fabric. Both dynamic and static water absorbency
along with the initial time lag immerses to be the equally important attributes of the water
absorbency performance of terry fabrics. High loop shape factor is the key to improve the
absorbency behavior of the terry fabric. This article provides a collective source of information to
understand the philosophy of absorbency and the ways to develop highly absorbent terry fabric.
This is the first review article providing a comprehensive source of information regarding all
aspect of water absorbency behavior. Study of cross-section images of different fabric is the
original work of the authors for supporting the concluding theory, mechanism and results.

Keywords: Capillary action, dynamic water absorption, static water absorption, loop geometry,
terry fabric

1. INTRODUCTION the first half of the 20thcentury (Stevenson


and Lindsay, 1926; Larose, 1942; Holland,
The performance of terry fabric is
1943) with the conceptual development of
mainly assessed by its absorbency that refers
absorbency, the theory of absorption and
to both the rate at which the fabric absorbs the
suitable method of water absorption (Jackson
water i.e. dynamic water absorbency; and the
and Roper, 1949; Buras et al., 1950).
total water retention ability of the fabric i.e.
Research in the beginning of the second half
static water absorption. Systematic research
of 20th century is focused on the absorbency
on water absorbency of terry fabric started in

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performance of terry fabric after certain wet are important to their chemical processing
processing treatment and home laundering and functional performance. Liquid must wet
(Murphy and Macormac, 1958; Aycock, the fiber surface before being transported
1972).Later some research has been done to through the inter fiber pores by means of
see the effect of different yarn on water capillary action /capillary force. Absorbency
absorbency characteristics along with the characteristic of fiber assemblies depends on
investigation of best suited test method the geometry of fiber assemblies, especially
(Lord, 1974; Cary and Sproles, 1979; surface roughness as well as pore size
Swaniet al., 1984). More extensive work distribution (Buraset al., 1950; Nyoni and
have been done in the end of the 20thcentury Brook, 2006). The amount of water absorbed
utilizing capillary theory, surface tension, or the static water absorption by the terry
wetting, wicking, pore size and its fabric is important for its end use. However,
distribution etc.(Akira et al., 1990; Bozgeyik, it does not give any idea as how quickly a
1991; Hsiesh and Yu, 1992; Hsiesh, 1995; terry fabric absorbs the water, or how water
Kissa, 1996; Jacques and Schramm, 1997; absorption changes with time. This aspect of
Nostadt, Zyschka, 1997; Crow, 1998; water absorbency is particularly known as
Kadolph, 1998). Static and dynamic water rate of water absorption or dynamic water
absorption has been studied in relation with absorption which is also important from the
fabric construction and yarn properties. Now practical point of view. So the terry fabrics
in 21st century, numerous developments have must be evaluated in terms of static and
been made towards increasing absorbency of dynamic water absorption. Optimum
terry fabric (Meeren et al., 2002; Izabela and absorbency performance can be achieved by
Snycerski, 2004; Yamamoto et al., 2005; controlling the pore sizes and their
Karahan and Eren, 2006; Nyoni and Brook, distribution (Hsiesh, 1995).
2006; Karahan, 2007; Petrulyte and
Balatakyte, 2008; Petrulyte and Balatakyte,
2. THEORY OF WATER ABSORPTION
2009a; Petrulyte and Balatakyte, 2009b;
Petrulyte and Nasleniene, 2010; Behera and The three primary phenomenon -
Singh, 2012; Sekerden, 2012; Singh and time lag, the dynamic absorption and the
Behera, 2013). Zero twist yarn, low twist, static absorption must be explained by would
wrap yarn etc. have entered in the terry fabric be successful theory of absorption
as pile yarn with the primary aim to increase mechanism (Buras et al., 1950). The initial
the absorbency and got success. Still the hunt period during which no significant volume of
is on for the ways to improve the absorbency liquid is absorbed is termed as time lag. The
of terry fabric. Recent research is focused on weight of water absorbed by unit weight of
the loop geometry and its effect on water oven dry weight of the fabric per unit time is
absorbency (Singh and Behera, 2012). the dynamic water absorption while the
Wetting and wicking are quite maximum weight of water absorbed by unit
distinct from each other (Kissa, 1996). weight of oven dry weight of the fabric is
Wetting in completely dependent on static water absorption. The dynamic water
properties of fiber surface and wetting liquid absorption can be defined as the ratio of
while wicking is dependent on the absorptive forces to the resistance of fabric
arrangement of fiber and yarn into the fabric. wetting.
Wetting characteristic of fibrous materials

= (1)

The resistance, r, is the resistance to wet plate affects this resistance. Smoother
wetting centered in the initial contact areas. fabric surface offer less resistance than
Number of contact pints between fabric and surfaces having loops e.g. terry fabric. The

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absorptive forces, a, can be determined by capillaries and channels contribute to the
extension of the tangents to the curves ultimate absorption whereas smaller ones are
relating maximum rate of flow and head to effective in initial phase of absorption, in
interception with the zero flow axis. All which the maximum rate is observed.

= 1 / (2)

Equation (2) can represent the general rate. Static water absorption (wst) is the
absorption curve (Buras et al., 1950). weight ratio of the absorbed water over the
Where wt = amount absorbed at time t, oven dry weight of the fabric. Static water
wst = static water absorption, I = initial flow absorption can be calculated as:

(%) = 100 (3)

Where Wst is static water absorbency, ww is attributes can qualify the overall fabric
wet weight of fabric and wd is dry weight of porosity. Porosity is a function of void space
fabric. In spite of extremely complex pore in a porous medium.
structure, combination of several fabric

() = 1 =1 (4)

So, the static water absorption as a function and fiber density ( ) can be given as
of porosity (p), water density ( ) (Hsieh, 1995).


= [ ] (5)
1

The proposed mechanism (Hsieh, liquid is taken up by the net positive force
1995) of water absorption depends on pore (f) across the liquid-solid interface (Hsieh,
size, pore size distribution, pore connectivity, 1995):
and total pore volume. Inside a capillary, the
= (6)

sample

air f

Figure 1.Capillary action


water
contact angle ()

Figure 1.Capillary action

Where w is water density (g/cm3), g is height of liquid rise (cm). The internal
gravitational acceleration (cm/s2), and h is wetting force (fw) in the capillary area (r2) is

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known as the capillary force (f), which is
given by the Laplace equation (De Gennes,
1985; Miller, 1985):
2
= 2
= (7)

Where is liquid surface tension (dyne/cm), force becomes zero and the liquid stops going
r is inner radius of capillary (cm), is liquid- above the equilibrium water column height
solid contact angle. When weight of the inside the capillary.
liquid (hwg) is lower than the capillary Hegen-Poiseuilles law of laminar
pressure (f), the liquid is taken up by the flow (Yoo and Barker, 2004) can explain the
positive force. At equilibrium point where volumetric liquid flow through textile
weight of liquid column inside capillary is structure
equal to the capillary pressure, the net driving

4
= (8)
8

4 4 2
= [ ] (9)
8

Linear flow rate (dh/dt) in equilibrium is based on Hagen-Poiseuilles equation considering dV=dh
r2 (Washburn, 1921).

= (10)
4

Under the influence of gravity of the risen liquid, linear flow rate changes to:
2
= (11)
4 8

After integration and simplification, Lucas-Washburn equation can be written as Equation and is
known as Lucas-Washburn kinetics.
= (12)


Where m= rate constant and = ( 2
). Further research (Laughlin and Davis, 1961) modified
the relationship (Equation 12) as the time exponent is less than 0.5 and C is a constant.

= (13)

Actually, the water column rises moment of inertia, which is the basis of
until the surface tension is equal to the controversy over the Washburn equation.
weight of the water column whereas the Despite the limitations mentioned above,
equation (11) suggest that it should rise Lucas-Washburn theory effectively
continuously with time. The researchers addresses the liquid behavior during
(Fisher, 1979; Jeje, 1979; Jooset al., 1990; absorption (Hodgson and Berg, 1988).
Zhuanget al., 2002) have not considered all Several researchers (Good and Lin, 1976;
factors i.e. change of contact angle with Marmur and Cohen, 1997; Nyoni and Brook,
increase of water level, effect of gravity and 2006) tried to accommodate the effect of

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gravity into the Lucas-Washburn theory. viscose flow, gives the rate of liquid rise
Landaus theory (Zohnget al., 2001), special considering gravity and the angle of capillary
form of Hagen-Poiseuilles law for laminar to the vertical.

2
= (14)
4 8

Where =liquid density, is liquid viscosity, experimentally investigated by researchers


= angle of the capillary to the vertical and (Jooset al., 1990) and proved that it is
h = liquid rise along the tube axis. The variable and reduces with as the liquid rises.
changes of the contact angle was
1
2
= cos 0 2(1 + cos 0 ) ( ) (15)

Where d= dynamic contact angle, 0= static kinetics of the vertical liquid penetration into
advancing contact angle, = viscosity, = a capillary, considering the effect of gravity,
velocity and = surface tension of the liquid. gave the equation for liquid rise (h) with time
A study (Marmur and Cohen, 1997) on the (t) as

= ln(1 ) (16)

2 2 3
Where = 16, and = 2

untwisted vertical yarn under variable


Using two dimensional Isings tension found that wicking height is
model and the Monte Carlo simulations, inversely proportional to twist but directly
researchers (Zohnget al., 2001) described the proportional to the tension. The study also
wetting process and concluded that concludes that the heterogeneity of pore size,
travelling rate of liquid is inversely shape and orientation affects the penetration
proportional to the packing density and the and retention of liquid leading to saturated,
liquid column width is inversely unsaturated and dry zones in the yarns. The
proportional to the height due to balance of study (Saeed, 2006) of liquid uptake by
surface tension and gravity. The study various knitted structure with different yarns
(Nyoni and Brook, 2006) of wicking further developed the theoretical model for
mechanism of textured twisted and liquid uptake considering gravity.
2 cos 0
= ( ) [1 ( )] (17)
1 8

Where A= fabric area, x= fabric weight, p= fabric porosity, l = liquid density and
y= yarn density.

and surface tension of the water (Hsieh and


Time lag depends on the fabric-
Yu, 1992). Higher fabric surface roughness
liquid contact angle. Contact angle depends
and low liquid surface tension reduces the
on the surface roughness of the fabric surface
contact angle thus promotes

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volume of these spaces. The continuous inter
wetting. If the contact pressure of the cloth
fiber absorption wets the walls of inter yarn
against the porous plate is low, initially the
spaces and further capillary action fill these
fabric is wetted only at elevated points of the
spaces. This is the point of significant flow
fabric like cross over points of warp and weft
and maximum dynamic water absorption.
(in plain fabric) and at some portion of the
These actions happen at the same time i.e. in
loop (in terry fabric) as shown in Figure
certain portion of the sample inter yarn
2.These elevated point of the fabric surface
absorption are in progress while in other
which comes in contact with the water
portion this action is still waiting for the
containing surface like porous plate.
completion of the inter fiber action. Inter
At the cross over points, the inter
yarn wall surface progressively gets more
fiber spaces were filled rapidly as the water
and more wet due to more amount of water
is drawn into the fiber bundle. Dynamic
drawn into the cloth causing the rapid
water absorption is low due to the small
increase in the volume effect.

Figure 2. Cross-sectional views of terry and plain fabrics


(a) Plain Fabric (b) Terry fabric

3. FABRIC VARIABLES AFFECTING for dynamic water absorption. Around 65 %


ABSORBENCY PERFORMANCE OF of water is absorbed during the first 30
TERRY FABRICS second of contact and rest 35% take another
270 sec to absorb so the complete absorption
Now, it is clear that the terry fabric is
curve can be approximated with logarithmic
quite different from normal plain fabric and
curve. Yarn type has the most significant
so are its absorbency characteristics. It is
effect on dynamic water absorption
important to identify the key fabric variable
properties of terry fabric. Ring spun single
so that one can alter it to produce highly
ply yarn has the quicker water absorption
absorbent fabric.
than ring spun double ply yarn which itself
has quicker water absorption than rotor spun
3.1 Fabric variables affecting dynamic
single ply yarn. Double ply rotor spun yarn
water absorption
has lowest dynamic water absorption.
A time dependent water absorption
Looking at the cross-section view of terry
property of terry fabric is known as the
fabric produced using rotor and ring spun pile
dynamic water absorption or the rate of water
yarn (Figure 3), these results seems more
absorption. It is one of the most important
realistic than those of Swani et al. It is clearly
properties of terry fabric which tells that how
visible from the Figure 3 that the terry loop
quickly a fabric can absorb water. Dynamic
produced from ring spun yarn are straighter,
water absorption can be measured by various
well oriented than from rotor spun yarn;
methods like porous plate method; Bureau
consequently producing less tortuous
Veritas Consumer Products service BV
capillaries which explains higher dynamic
S1008 etc. Research (Karahan, 2007) shows
water absorption. The reason behind the
that fabric and yarn parameters are important
different loop structure is the fact that the

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higher twist level and shorter fiber used for
the production of rotor yarn.

Figure 3. Cross-section view of terry fabric made of rotor and ring pile yarn
(a) Rotor pile terry fabric (b) Ring pile terry fabric

Warp density, weft density and pile with loop density and loop length. Fabric
height have only a small effect on the cross-section image (Figure 4) clearly shows
percentage of the water absorption speed of that how fabric and loop geometry changes
terry fabrics, which is not worth considering with change in loop density and loop length.
when designing them (Karahan, 2007). This Loop become straighter with increase in loop
result seems contradictory to the latest density and loop shape factor increases with
findings by the researchers (Behera and increase in loop length. Both these reasons
Singh, 2012). In which, it has been illustrated improve the dynamic water absorbency.
that the dynamic water absorption increases

Figure 4. Cross-section of terry fabric having different loop length and loop density
(a) High loop length but low loop density (b) Low loop length but high loop density

Figure 5. Cross-section of fabric made up of double-ply and single-ply


(a) Double ply yarn fabric (b) Single ply yarn fabric

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Looking into the structural details of the uniform distribution of the split
the terry fabric, it can be found that loop microfibers. It seems that the capillary size
density is directly proportional to the warp and their distribution are the key factors to
and weft density and loop length is directly govern the dynamic absorption of water. The
proportional to the pile height. It has also studies conducted on the absorbency of terry
been found that fabrics produced from pile fabric (Behera and Singh, 2012) tells the
yarn having high staple length, low twist, effect of pile yarn count, pile yarn twist, fiber
combed and porous yarn gives high dynamic quality, combed yarn and yarn structure.
water absorbency. Terry loop having high These entire factors affect the capillary size
loop shape factor also gives high dynamic and their distribution. High dynamic water
water absorbency. Researchers (Petrulyte et absorption has been found with fabric made
al., 2008) measured the dynamic water of pile yarn having finer count, low twist,
absorption using image processing technique high staple length, combed yarn and porous
and studied the effect of pile height and yarn. Finer yarn usually produced from high
different process variables on it. Their staple length fibers using low twist which
method measures the rate of change of wet helps to form long continuous and less
spot area. Principally they have measured the tortuous capillaries causing high dynamic
rate of water flow in a horizontal plane. Since water absorption. Combing process removes
the presence of loops on surface of terry the short fiber from the raw material
fabric make it different from two dimensional improving its staple length hence producing
fabrics. It becomes nearly 3D or more the above condition. Porous yarn is produced
precisely 2.5D fabric. So it becomes by mixing poly vinyl alcohol fibers with
important to consider the water flow in all cotton fiber before spinning. After weaving
possible direction and their method seems not the fabric goes into wet processing where the
doing the right thing. Their conclusion poly vinyl fiber is washed out at 100 C
regarding the effect of pile height differs from leaving behind a void space thus producing
that of Behera and Singhs. However another large number of capillaries. Loop density can
research (Yamamoto et al., 2005) supports be increased by increasing weft density and
the finding of Behera and Singh i.e. dynamic warp density. In both the cases, ground of the
water absorption of water increases with fabric becomes compact thus reducing the
increase in pick density and pile length. They capillaries the increasing their tortuosity
also compared the absorption phenomenon in which will reduced the dynamic water
plain and terry fabric. They found that absorption of the ground fabric. But the
dynamic water absorption is almost constant higher number of loops per unit area
with increase in weft density and fabric areal increases the overall capillary population in
density for plain fabric. Cross-section view of the loops consequently increasing the
the terry fabrics (see Figure 4) clearly shows dynamic water absorption of the terry fabric.
the structural changes due to pick density and Loop shape factor is a measure of the
pile height. circularity of the loops. The portion of the
In a study (Kim et el., 2003) studied loop in contact with water increases with
the absorbency behavior of pile fabrics and increasing circularity of the loops. Thus
found that pile yarn having dense and even exposing more and more number of
splits have more micro-pores so they can capillaries into the contact of the water and
absorb much liquid at high speed. Separated increasing the dynamic water absorption of
microfibers form dense voids with each the terry fabric. Terry loops produced from
filament so that effective capillary pressure finer yarn will have the higher loop shape
can be created. So the water absorption factor and hence the higher dynamic water
properties of pile knit rely heavily on the absorption which is clearly visible from the
splitting of the multi-filaments and also on Figure 6.

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Figure 6. Cross-section of fabric having loops of different shape factor
(a) Loops of lower shape factor (b) Loops of higher shape factor

3.2 Fabric variables affecting static water height and pile yarn type had been studied
absorption and found that ring spun yarn gives more
The weight ratio of amount of water static water absorbency than rotor spun yarn.
absorbed to the dry weight of the terry fabric Double ply yarn gives more static water
is known as the static water absorption absorption than single ply due to the fact that
properties. It tells the maximum amount of double ply yarn can produce terry loop with
water that can be absorbed by the terry fabric. higher shape factor which is clearly visible
Dynamic water absorption can be measured from the fabric cross section shown in Figure
by various methods like porous plate method; 5 and 7. These results are very well supported
Bureau Veritas Consumer Products service by the latest research (Behera and Singh,
BV S1008 etc. 2012). Karahan and Eren (2006) also found
In a systematic research (Yamamoto et that an increase in warp and/or weft density
al., 2005) studied the effect of weft density, reduces the static water absorption which is
fabric areal density and mean pile length on contradicted by both Yamamoto et al., (2005)
the absorbency of terry fabrics. They found and Behera and Singh (2012). Yamamoto et
that static water absorption increases with al. and Behera and Singh found that higher
increasing weft density, fabric areal density warp and weft densities give higher static
and mean pile length. But increasing weft water absorption. In another research
density and fabric areal density for plain (Bozgeyik, 1991) had found that the water
fabric does not change the static water absorption increased with increase in fabric
absorption. This can be explained by the fact areal density and pile height. The reasons in
that the increasing the said parameters makes support to these results were given in the
the fabric more compact and reduced the previous section. Double ply yarn gives more
capillary size and air space inside the fabric. static water absorption than single ply yarn.
Thinner capillary promotes the dynamic This is due to the fact that the double ply yarn
water absorption but on the other hand is more voluminous as compared to its
reduced the static water absorption. In equivalent single ply yarn along with higher
another research (Karahan and Eren, 2006), loop shape factor (see Figure 7).
the effect of warp density, weft density, pile

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Figure 7. Cross-section of terry fabrics produced from single ply and double ply yarn
(a) Terry fabric from single ply yarn (b) Terry fabric from doubly ply yarn

In another research (Petrulyte and Baltakyte, High static water absorption has been found
2009) investigated the effect of pile height on with fabric made of pile yarn having finer
the static water absorption. They had found count, low twist, high staple length, combed
that fabric with high pile height gives more yarn and porous yarn. Finer yarn usually
static water absorption. This result is also produced from high staple length fibers using
supported by another research (Petrulyte and low twist which helps to form long
Nasleniene, 2010). The studies conducted on continuous and less tortuous capillaries
the absorbency of terry fabric (Behera and leading to bulky structure causing high static
Singh, 2012) tells the effect of pile yarn water absorption. Combing process removes
count, pile yarn twist, fiber quality, combed the short fiber from the raw material
yarn and yarn structure. These entire factors improving its staple length hence producing
affect the capillary size and their distribution. the above condition.

Figure 8. Cross-section of fabric with zero twisted and long staple bamboo fiber yarn
(a) Zero twisted pile yarn (b) Long staple bamboo fiber yarn

Porous yarn is produced by mixing density can be increased by increasing weft


poly vinyl alcohol fibers with cotton fiber density and warp density. In both the cases,
before spinning. After weaving the fabric ground of the fabric becomes compact thus
goes into wet processing where the poly vinyl reducing the capillaries the increasing their
fiber is washed out at 100 C leaving behind tortuosity which will reduced the static water
a void space thus producing large number of absorption of the ground fabric. But the
capillaries leading to bulky structure. Loop higher number of loops per unit area

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increases the overall capillary population in porosity and pore size, and so on the static
the loops consequently increasing the static water absorption of terry fabric.
water absorption of the terry fabric. Loop Another research (Aycock, 1972)
shape factor is a measure of the circularity of shows that the absorbency and aesthetic
the loops. The portion of the loop in contact characteristics are affected more by the type
with water increases with increasing of softeners than the number of laundering.
circularity of the loops. Thus exposing more Latest research (Meeren et al., 2002) shows
and more number of capillaries into the that the types of conditioners play important
contact of the water and increasing the static role in dynamic water absorption. Cationic
water absorption of the terry fabric. Figure 8 fatty acid based surfactants are the main
shows the fabric cross section produced from ingredients of the fabric conditioners and
zero twisted and low twisted high stable they cover the fibers with a fatty acid coating
cotton. It is clearly visible here that the loops (Jaques et al., 1997). This mechanism may
are not in proper shape neither their shape make the treated fabric surface more
factor can be defined but the surface is really hydrophobic leading into the reduction of
more fluffy and bulky which explains the water uptake. Pronounce effect of fabric
high dynamic water absorption but low static conditioners on dynamic water absorption
water absorption of such fabrics. due to change in wettability (contact angle
with water) of cotton had been recorded.
4. PROCESSING FACTORS Liposomal fabric conditioner reduced the
AFFECTING ABSORBENCY dynamic water absorption up to a great extent
PERFORMANCE OF TOWEL whereas isotropic formulation had no
significant effect. Some of the enzymes like
Apart from the raw material and
Cellulase, when applied alone on cotton,
fabric construction related factor, there are
produce detectable improvements in static
other factors that affect the performance of
and dynamic water absorption (Hartzell and
terry fabric. Considerable amount of research
Hsieh, 1998).
had been directed towards this area. Starting
Another research (Nostadt and
from an important research (Murphy and
Zyschka, 1997) in support to this result
Macormac, 1958) in which the effect of home
explains the suitability of hydrophilic
laundering and fabric areal density has been
softeners. Static water absorption of fabric
studied. They found that the maximum
increases with number of washing cycles
dynamic absorption increased with the
(Izabela and Snycerski, 2004). Another
number of washing cycles until the finish was
research (Belkis and Erdem, 2006) says that
completely removed, showed no significant
softener type affects the degree of
change with additional washing cycles
hydrophility. Fabric dyed samples has more
indicating that fabric surface is the important
hydrophility than yarn dyed samples.
factor in dynamic water absorption. The areal
Washing cycles improve the static and
density does not have any effect on dynamic
dynamic water absorption. Hydrophility of
water absorption. Static water absorption
uncut pile towel was found higher than those
increases consistently with number of
of cut pile towel. Dynamic water absorption
washing cycles and with increasing fabric
is high for washed fabric than grey and
areal density. Measuring static absorption in
macerated fabrics (Petrulyte and Balatakyte,
per gram of fabric indicate the importance of
2008). Static water absorption depends on the
fabric construction as the absorption per gram
king and intensity of the finishing (Petrulyte
of fabric is higher for fabrics of lower areal
and Nasleniene, 2010; Petrulyte and
density. The results of effect of washing
Balatakyte, 2009) applied to the fabric.
cycles were also supported by earlier research
Washing with detergent and water alone
(Bura et el., 1950). Fabric conditioner has no
improves the static water absorption.
effect on physical characteristics such as
Macerating also improves it a little but using
softeners reduce it. Tumbling process

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improves both the static and dynamic water Aycock, B.F. (1972). The effect of repeated
absorption. All these results can be explained application of home softeners upon
by the fact that washing and tumbling opens absorbency and other properties of terry
up the structure and makes it voluminous thus towels. Textile Chemist and Colourist,
increasing static water absorption. Recently, Vol. 4, p16-21.
more extensive research (Singh and Behera, Behera, B.K. & Singh, J.P. (2012).
2013) has been done and found no Investigation of factors contributing to
considerable change in the dynamic water absorbency behavior of pile fabrics.
absorption has been observed after repeated Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
wash of the samples until 4th wash after which (In press).
it decreased. Static water absorption Belkis, Z. &Erdem, K.(2006). An
increases with increasing number of wash experimental approach on the
until 8th wash after which it decreased. performance of towels part-II degree of
hydrophility and dimensional variation.
5. CONCLUSIONS Fibres and Textiles in Eastern Europe,
Vol. 14, p 56-62.
Producing highly absorbent terry
Bozgeyik, K. (1991). A Quantitative
fabric is the ultimate goal of the textile
Investigation about Towels. M.Sc.
technologist in the industry which can be
Thesis, University of Ege, Institute of
achieved by using longer, finer and
Natural and Applied Science,
hydrophilic fiber to produce soft, bulky, low
Department of Textile Engineering,
twisted fine ring spun pile yarn; further
Izmir.
producing terry fabric having high loop
Buras, E.M., Goldthwait, C.F., & Kraemer,
density, optimum loop length, high thread
R. M. (1950). Measurement and theory of
density and loop shape factor. Macerating,
absorbency of cotton fabric. Textile
tumbling, hydrophilic softeners and washing
Research Journal, Vol. 20, p239-48.
are the post production treatment for further
Cary, R.T. & Sproles, G. (1979). Absorbency
improvement in absorbency. The crucial
of terry towels: A comparative evaluation
outcome of the latest research regarding the
of test methods. Textile Research
absorbency of the terry fabric is the loop
Journal, Vol. 49, p 69198.
shape factor which is the main factor behind
Crow, R.M. (1998). Interaction of water with
the super absorbency of terry fabric. Fiber
fabrics. Textile Research Journal, Vol.
and yarn characteristics, fabric constructional
68, p 280-88.
parameters and wet processing treatments
De Gennes, P.G. (1985). Wetting- statics and
affects the loop shape factor which
dynamics. Reviews of Modern Physics,
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