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Quiz 4 (Ch.

6)
Impulse - momentum theorem
r r r r
F∆t = ∆p = mv f − mv i Chapter 7
r r r r
if F = 0, then ∆p = 0 and mv f = mv i

Conservation of momentum for 2 objects colliding


r r r r Rotational Motion
m1 v1i + m2 v 2i = m1 v1 f + m2 v 2 f
For two-dimensional collisions can be applied along x-axis
and y-axis

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Concepts of
Linear Motion Linear vs. Rotational
r r r
„ Displacement ∆r = r f − ri „ In linear motion: displacement
r mostly along the straight trajectory
v ∆r
„ Velocity v= „ In rotational motion: displacement -
∆t along the circular trajectory
v
r ∆v Velocity and acceleration are always
a=
„
„ Acceleration changing
∆t „ Can introduce “angular” quantities for an
easier description of the rotational
motion
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Concepts of
Rotational Motion Angular Displacement
„ Angular „ Axis of rotation is
Displacement ∆θ = θ f − θi the center of the
disk
Angular ∆θ Need a fixed
ωav =
„
„
Velocity reference line
∆t
„ During time t, the
∆ω reference line
„ Angular α av = moves through
Acceleration ∆t angle θ
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Angular Displacement,
Rigid Body cont.
„ Every point on the object undergoes „ The angular displacement is defined as
circular motion about the point O the angle the object rotates through
„ All parts of the object of the body rotate during some time interval
through the same angle during the „ ∆θ = θ f − θ i
same time
„ Each point on the object undergoes the
„ The object is considered to be a rigid
body same angular displacement
„ This means that each part of the body is „ The unit of angular displacement is the
fixed in position relative to all other parts of radian
the body

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Conversion Between
The Radian Degrees and Radians
„ The radian is a „ Comparing degrees and radians
unit of angular
measure 360°
1 rad = = 57.3°
„ The radian can be 2π
defined as the arc „ Converting from degrees to
length s along a radians
circle divided by π
the radius r θ [rad] = θ [deg rees]
„ θ =
s 57.3° 180°
r
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Average Angular Speed Angular Speed, cont.


„ The average „ The instantaneous angular speed is
angular speed, ω, defined as the limit of the average
of a rotating rigid speed as the time interval approaches
object is the ratio zero
of the angular „ Units of angular speed are radians/sec
displacement to „ rad/s
the time interval „ Speed will be positive if θ is increasing
θf − θi ∆θ (counterclockwise)
ω av = = „ Speed will be negative if θ is decreasing
tf − ti ∆t (clockwise)
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Average Angular
Quick Quiz 7.1-2 Acceleration
„ Set of initial and final angular positions: „ The average angular acceleration α
(a) 3 rad, 6 rad; (b) −1 rad, 1 rad; (c) 1 rad, 5 rad.
of an object is defined as the ratio
Which of the sets can occur only if the rigid body
„

rotates through more than 180°?


of the change in the angular speed
to the time it takes for the object
∆θ = θ f − θ i
to undergo the change:
t = 1 s. Which choice represents the lowest average
ωf − ωi ∆ω
„

angular speed?
ωav = ∆θ / ∆t α av = =
tf − ti ∆t
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Angular Acceleration, cont Angular Acceleration, final


„ Units of angular acceleration are rad/s² „ The sign of the acceleration does
„ Positive angular accelerations are in the not have to be the same as the
counterclockwise direction and negative sign of the angular speed
accelerations are in the clockwise
direction
„ The instantaneous angular
acceleration is defined as the limit
„ When a rigid object rotates about a
fixed axis, every portion of the object of the average acceleration as the
has the same angular speed and the time interval approaches zero
same angular acceleration
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Rotational Motion under


Quick Quiz 7.3 Constant Angular Acceleration
„ Set of initial and final angular positions: „ Described by a set of equations of
(a) 3 rad, 6 rad; (b) −1 rad, 1 rad; (c) 1 rad, 5 rad. motion:
„ The object moves counterclockwise with α = const ω = ωi + α t
ω1i = ω2i = ω3i = 0
1
ω1f = ω2f = ω3f = ωf ∆θ = ωi t + αt 2
„ For which choice is the angular acceleration the
2
highest?
ω = ∆θ / ∆t ω = ωi + 2α∆θ
2 2

α = ∆ω / ∆t „ Similar to one-dimensional kinematics


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Analogies Between Linear
Example: Problem#6 and Rotational Motion
„ ωi = 3600 rev/min
„ ωf= 0
„ ∆θ = 50 rev

„ α -?

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Relationship Between Angular


and Linear Quantities Quick Quiz 7.4-5
„ Displacements The merry-go-round is rotating at a constant angular speed
„ Andrea’s angular speed is (a) twice Chuck’s (b) the same as
s = θr Chuck’s (c) half of Chuck’s (d) impossible to determine.
„ Speeds „ Andrea’s tangential speed is (a) twice Chuck’s (b) the same
as Chuck’s (c) half of Chuck’s (d) impossible to determine.
vt = ω r
Accelerations rA
„
=2
at = α r rC
rC rA
For circular motion: linear becomes tangential v t = rω
„ Every point on the rotating object has the same angular motion
„ Every point on the rotating object does not have the same linear
motion
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Example: Problem#12 Centripetal Acceleration


„ d=2.4 cm „ An object traveling in a circle,
„ ωi = 18 rad/s ωi ωf even though it moves with a
constant speed, will have an
„ ω = 0
f d acceleration
„ α = -1.9 rad/s2 „ The centripetal acceleration is due
to the change in the direction of
„ s -?
s the velocity

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4
Centripetal Acceleration, Centripetal Acceleration,
cont. final
„ Centripetal refers to „ The magnitude of the centripetal
“center-seeking” acceleration is given by
The direction of the
v2
„
velocity changes ac =
„ The acceleration is r
directed toward the „ This direction is toward the center of
center of the circle the circle
of motion
r r r
∆v = v f − v i
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Centripetal Acceleration
and Angular Velocity Total Acceleration
„ The angular velocity and the linear „ The tangential component of the
velocity are related (v = ωr) acceleration is due to changing
speed
„ The centripetal acceleration can
also be related to the angular „ The centripetal component of the
acceleration is due to changing
velocity
direction
aC = ω2r „ Total acceleration can be found
from these components
a = a 2t + aC2
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Vector Nature of Angular Velocity Directions,


Quantities Example
„ Angular displacement, „ In a, the disk
velocity and
acceleration are all rotates clockwise,
vector quantities the velocity is into
„ Direction can be more the page
completely defined by
using the right hand
„ In b, the disk
rule rotates
„ Grasp the axis of rotation counterclockwise,
with your right hand
„ Wrap your fingers in the
the velocity is out
direction of rotation of the page
„ Your thumb points in the
direction of ω
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5
Forces Causing Centripetal
Acceleration Directions Acceleration
„ If the angular acceleration and the „ Newton’s Second Law says that
angular velocity are in the same the centripetal acceleration is
direction, the angular speed will accompanied by a force
increase with time „ FC = maC
„ FC stands for any force that keeps an
„ If the angular acceleration and the object following a circular path
angular velocity are in opposite „ Tension in a string
directions, the angular speed will „ Gravity
decrease with time „ Force of friction

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Problem Solving Strategy,


Problem Solving Strategy cont.
„ Draw a free body diagram, „ Find the net force toward the
showing and labeling all the forces center of the circular path (this is the
acting on the object(s) force that causes the centripetal
„ Choose a coordinate system acceleration, FC)
that has one axis perpendicular to „ Use Newton’s second law
the circular path and the other axis „ The directions will be radial, normal, and
tangent to the circular path tangential
The acceleration in the radial direction will
„ The normal to the plane of motion is „

be the centripetal acceleration


also often needed
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Example: Problem #19


„ m=55 kg
„ vi=4.0 m/s
vi
„ r=0.8 m
r
r
T
„ a) T-?
„ b) T/W-?

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