Anda di halaman 1dari 6

Quiz 4 (Ch.

6)
Impulse - momentum theorem
r r r r
F∆t = ∆p = mv f − mv i Chapter 7
r r r r
if F = 0, then ∆p = 0 and mv f = mv i

Conservation of momentum for 2 objects colliding

r r r r Rotational Motion
m1 v1i + m2 v 2i = m1 v1 f + m2 v 2 f
For two-dimensional collisions can be applied along x-axis
and y-axis

1 2

Concepts of
Linear Motion Linear vs. Rotational
r r r
 Displacement ∆r = r f − ri  In linear motion: displacement
r mostly along the straight trajectory
v ∆r
 Velocity v=  In rotational motion: displacement -
∆t along the circular trajectory
v
r ∆v Velocity and acceleration are always
a=

 Acceleration changing
∆t  Can introduce “angular” quantities for an
easier description of the rotational
motion
3 4

Concepts of
Rotational Motion Angular Displacement
 Angular  Axis of rotation is
Displacement ∆θ = θ f − θi the center of the
disk
Angular ∆θ Need a fixed
ωav =


Velocity reference line
∆t
 During time t, the
∆ω reference line
 Angular α av = moves through
Acceleration ∆t angle θ
5 6

1
Angular Displacement,
Rigid Body cont.
 Every point on the object undergoes  The angular displacement is defined as
circular motion about the point O the angle the object rotates through
 All parts of the object of the body rotate during some time interval
through the same angle during the  ∆θ = θ f − θ i
same time
 Each point on the object undergoes the
 The object is considered to be a rigid
body same angular displacement
 This means that each part of the body is  The unit of angular displacement is the
fixed in position relative to all other parts of radian
the body

7 8

Conversion Between
 The radian is a  Comparing degrees and radians
unit of angular
measure 360°
1 rad = = 57.3°
 The radian can be 2π
defined as the arc  Converting from degrees to
length s along a radians
circle divided by π
the radius r θ [rad] = θ [deg rees]
 θ =
s 57.3° 180°
r
9 10

Average Angular Speed Angular Speed, cont.

 The average  The instantaneous angular speed is
angular speed, ω, defined as the limit of the average
of a rotating rigid speed as the time interval approaches
object is the ratio zero
of the angular  Units of angular speed are radians/sec
displacement to  rad/s
the time interval  Speed will be positive if θ is increasing
θf − θi ∆θ (counterclockwise)
ω av = =  Speed will be negative if θ is decreasing
tf − ti ∆t (clockwise)
11 12

2
Average Angular
Quick Quiz 7.1-2 Acceleration
 Set of initial and final angular positions:  The average angular acceleration α
of an object is defined as the ratio
Which of the sets can occur only if the rigid body


rotates through more than 180°?

of the change in the angular speed
to the time it takes for the object
∆θ = θ f − θ i
to undergo the change:
t = 1 s. Which choice represents the lowest average
ωf − ωi ∆ω


angular speed?
ωav = ∆θ / ∆t α av = =
tf − ti ∆t
13 14

Angular Acceleration, cont Angular Acceleration, final

 Units of angular acceleration are rad/s²  The sign of the acceleration does
 Positive angular accelerations are in the not have to be the same as the
counterclockwise direction and negative sign of the angular speed
accelerations are in the clockwise
direction
 The instantaneous angular
acceleration is defined as the limit
 When a rigid object rotates about a
fixed axis, every portion of the object of the average acceleration as the
has the same angular speed and the time interval approaches zero
same angular acceleration
15 16

Rotational Motion under

Quick Quiz 7.3 Constant Angular Acceleration
 Set of initial and final angular positions:  Described by a set of equations of
 The object moves counterclockwise with α = const ω = ωi + α t
ω1i = ω2i = ω3i = 0
1
ω1f = ω2f = ω3f = ωf ∆θ = ωi t + αt 2
 For which choice is the angular acceleration the
2
highest?
ω = ∆θ / ∆t ω = ωi + 2α∆θ
2 2

α = ∆ω / ∆t  Similar to one-dimensional kinematics

17 18

3
Analogies Between Linear
Example: Problem#6 and Rotational Motion
 ωi = 3600 rev/min
 ωf= 0
 ∆θ = 50 rev

 α -?

19 20

Relationship Between Angular

and Linear Quantities Quick Quiz 7.4-5
 Displacements The merry-go-round is rotating at a constant angular speed
 Andrea’s angular speed is (a) twice Chuck’s (b) the same as
s = θr Chuck’s (c) half of Chuck’s (d) impossible to determine.
 Speeds  Andrea’s tangential speed is (a) twice Chuck’s (b) the same
as Chuck’s (c) half of Chuck’s (d) impossible to determine.
vt = ω r
Accelerations rA

=2
at = α r rC
rC rA
For circular motion: linear becomes tangential v t = rω
 Every point on the rotating object has the same angular motion
 Every point on the rotating object does not have the same linear
motion
21 22

Example: Problem#12 Centripetal Acceleration

 d=2.4 cm  An object traveling in a circle,
 ωi = 18 rad/s ωi ωf even though it moves with a
constant speed, will have an
 ω = 0
f d acceleration
 α = -1.9 rad/s2  The centripetal acceleration is due
to the change in the direction of
 s -?
s the velocity

23 24

4
Centripetal Acceleration, Centripetal Acceleration,
cont. final
 Centripetal refers to  The magnitude of the centripetal
“center-seeking” acceleration is given by
The direction of the
v2

velocity changes ac =
 The acceleration is r
directed toward the  This direction is toward the center of
center of the circle the circle
of motion
r r r
∆v = v f − v i
25 26

Centripetal Acceleration
and Angular Velocity Total Acceleration
 The angular velocity and the linear  The tangential component of the
velocity are related (v = ωr) acceleration is due to changing
speed
 The centripetal acceleration can
also be related to the angular  The centripetal component of the
acceleration is due to changing
velocity
direction
aC = ω2r  Total acceleration can be found
from these components
a = a 2t + aC2
27 28

Vector Nature of Angular Velocity Directions,

Quantities Example
 Angular displacement,  In a, the disk
velocity and
acceleration are all rotates clockwise,
vector quantities the velocity is into
 Direction can be more the page
completely defined by
using the right hand
 In b, the disk
rule rotates
 Grasp the axis of rotation counterclockwise,
with your right hand
 Wrap your fingers in the
the velocity is out
direction of rotation of the page
 Your thumb points in the
direction of ω
29 30

5
Forces Causing Centripetal
Acceleration Directions Acceleration
 If the angular acceleration and the  Newton’s Second Law says that
angular velocity are in the same the centripetal acceleration is
direction, the angular speed will accompanied by a force
increase with time  FC = maC
 FC stands for any force that keeps an
 If the angular acceleration and the object following a circular path
angular velocity are in opposite  Tension in a string
directions, the angular speed will  Gravity
decrease with time  Force of friction

31 32

Problem Solving Strategy,

Problem Solving Strategy cont.
 Draw a free body diagram,  Find the net force toward the
showing and labeling all the forces center of the circular path (this is the
acting on the object(s) force that causes the centripetal
 Choose a coordinate system acceleration, FC)
that has one axis perpendicular to  Use Newton’s second law
the circular path and the other axis  The directions will be radial, normal, and
tangent to the circular path tangential
The acceleration in the radial direction will
 The normal to the plane of motion is 

be the centripetal acceleration

also often needed
33 34

 m=55 kg
 vi=4.0 m/s
vi
 r=0.8 m
r
r
T
 a) T-?
 b) T/W-?

35