Anda di halaman 1dari 6

# Quiz 4 (Ch.

6)
Impulse - momentum theorem
r r r r
F∆t = ∆p = mv f − mv i Chapter 7
r r r r
if F = 0, then ∆p = 0 and mv f = mv i

## Conservation of momentum for 2 objects colliding

r r r r Rotational Motion
m1 v1i + m2 v 2i = m1 v1 f + m2 v 2 f
For two-dimensional collisions can be applied along x-axis
and y-axis

1 2

Concepts of
Linear Motion Linear vs. Rotational
r r r
 Displacement ∆r = r f − ri  In linear motion: displacement
r mostly along the straight trajectory
v ∆r
 Velocity v=  In rotational motion: displacement -
∆t along the circular trajectory
v
r ∆v Velocity and acceleration are always
a=

 Acceleration changing
∆t  Can introduce “angular” quantities for an
easier description of the rotational
motion
3 4

Concepts of
Rotational Motion Angular Displacement
 Angular  Axis of rotation is
Displacement ∆θ = θ f − θi the center of the
disk
Angular ∆θ Need a fixed
ωav =


Velocity reference line
∆t
 During time t, the
∆ω reference line
 Angular α av = moves through
Acceleration ∆t angle θ
5 6

1
Angular Displacement,
Rigid Body cont.
 Every point on the object undergoes  The angular displacement is defined as
circular motion about the point O the angle the object rotates through
 All parts of the object of the body rotate during some time interval
through the same angle during the  ∆θ = θ f − θ i
same time
 Each point on the object undergoes the
 The object is considered to be a rigid
body same angular displacement
 This means that each part of the body is  The unit of angular displacement is the
fixed in position relative to all other parts of radian
the body

7 8

Conversion Between
unit of angular
measure 360°
 The radian can be 2π
defined as the arc  Converting from degrees to
circle divided by π
 θ =
s 57.3° 180°
r
9 10

## Average Angular Speed Angular Speed, cont.

 The average  The instantaneous angular speed is
angular speed, ω, defined as the limit of the average
of a rotating rigid speed as the time interval approaches
object is the ratio zero
of the angular  Units of angular speed are radians/sec
the time interval  Speed will be positive if θ is increasing
θf − θi ∆θ (counterclockwise)
ω av = =  Speed will be negative if θ is decreasing
tf − ti ∆t (clockwise)
11 12

2
Average Angular
Quick Quiz 7.1-2 Acceleration
 Set of initial and final angular positions:  The average angular acceleration α
of an object is defined as the ratio
Which of the sets can occur only if the rigid body


## rotates through more than 180°?

of the change in the angular speed
to the time it takes for the object
∆θ = θ f − θ i
to undergo the change:
t = 1 s. Which choice represents the lowest average
ωf − ωi ∆ω


angular speed?
ωav = ∆θ / ∆t α av = =
tf − ti ∆t
13 14

## Angular Acceleration, cont Angular Acceleration, final

 Units of angular acceleration are rad/s²  The sign of the acceleration does
 Positive angular accelerations are in the not have to be the same as the
counterclockwise direction and negative sign of the angular speed
accelerations are in the clockwise
direction
 The instantaneous angular
acceleration is defined as the limit
 When a rigid object rotates about a
fixed axis, every portion of the object of the average acceleration as the
has the same angular speed and the time interval approaches zero
same angular acceleration
15 16

## Rotational Motion under

Quick Quiz 7.3 Constant Angular Acceleration
 Set of initial and final angular positions:  Described by a set of equations of
 The object moves counterclockwise with α = const ω = ωi + α t
ω1i = ω2i = ω3i = 0
1
ω1f = ω2f = ω3f = ωf ∆θ = ωi t + αt 2
 For which choice is the angular acceleration the
2
highest?
ω = ∆θ / ∆t ω = ωi + 2α∆θ
2 2

## α = ∆ω / ∆t  Similar to one-dimensional kinematics

17 18

3
Analogies Between Linear
Example: Problem#6 and Rotational Motion
 ωi = 3600 rev/min
 ωf= 0
 ∆θ = 50 rev

 α -?

19 20

## Relationship Between Angular

and Linear Quantities Quick Quiz 7.4-5
 Displacements The merry-go-round is rotating at a constant angular speed
 Andrea’s angular speed is (a) twice Chuck’s (b) the same as
s = θr Chuck’s (c) half of Chuck’s (d) impossible to determine.
 Speeds  Andrea’s tangential speed is (a) twice Chuck’s (b) the same
as Chuck’s (c) half of Chuck’s (d) impossible to determine.
vt = ω r
Accelerations rA

=2
at = α r rC
rC rA
For circular motion: linear becomes tangential v t = rω
 Every point on the rotating object has the same angular motion
 Every point on the rotating object does not have the same linear
motion
21 22

## Example: Problem#12 Centripetal Acceleration

 d=2.4 cm  An object traveling in a circle,
 ωi = 18 rad/s ωi ωf even though it moves with a
constant speed, will have an
 ω = 0
f d acceleration
 α = -1.9 rad/s2  The centripetal acceleration is due
to the change in the direction of
 s -?
s the velocity

23 24

4
Centripetal Acceleration, Centripetal Acceleration,
cont. final
 Centripetal refers to  The magnitude of the centripetal
“center-seeking” acceleration is given by
The direction of the
v2

velocity changes ac =
 The acceleration is r
directed toward the  This direction is toward the center of
center of the circle the circle
of motion
r r r
∆v = v f − v i
25 26

Centripetal Acceleration
and Angular Velocity Total Acceleration
 The angular velocity and the linear  The tangential component of the
velocity are related (v = ωr) acceleration is due to changing
speed
 The centripetal acceleration can
also be related to the angular  The centripetal component of the
acceleration is due to changing
velocity
direction
aC = ω2r  Total acceleration can be found
from these components
a = a 2t + aC2
27 28

## Vector Nature of Angular Velocity Directions,

Quantities Example
 Angular displacement,  In a, the disk
velocity and
acceleration are all rotates clockwise,
vector quantities the velocity is into
 Direction can be more the page
completely defined by
using the right hand
 In b, the disk
rule rotates
 Grasp the axis of rotation counterclockwise,
 Wrap your fingers in the
the velocity is out
direction of rotation of the page
 Your thumb points in the
direction of ω
29 30

5
Forces Causing Centripetal
Acceleration Directions Acceleration
 If the angular acceleration and the  Newton’s Second Law says that
angular velocity are in the same the centripetal acceleration is
direction, the angular speed will accompanied by a force
increase with time  FC = maC
 FC stands for any force that keeps an
 If the angular acceleration and the object following a circular path
angular velocity are in opposite  Tension in a string
directions, the angular speed will  Gravity
decrease with time  Force of friction

31 32

## Problem Solving Strategy,

Problem Solving Strategy cont.
 Draw a free body diagram,  Find the net force toward the
showing and labeling all the forces center of the circular path (this is the
acting on the object(s) force that causes the centripetal
 Choose a coordinate system acceleration, FC)
that has one axis perpendicular to  Use Newton’s second law
the circular path and the other axis  The directions will be radial, normal, and
tangent to the circular path tangential
The acceleration in the radial direction will
 The normal to the plane of motion is 

## be the centripetal acceleration

also often needed
33 34

 m=55 kg
 vi=4.0 m/s
vi
 r=0.8 m
r
r
T
 a) T-?
 b) T/W-?

35