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Primitive or Spinal Reflex

Age of Onset Age of Supression/
Reflex Stimulus Response Integration
Flexor Noxious stimuli to sole of Toes extend, foot DF, entire LE flexes 28 weeks of gestation 1-2 mos
Withdrawal foot. Tested in supine or uncontrollably
sitting position.

Crossed Noxious stimulus to ball of Opposite LE flexes; then adducts and 28 weeks of gestation 1-2 mos
Extension foot of LE fixed in extension; extends
tested in supine position

Traction Grasp forearm and pull up Grasp and total flexion of UE 28 weeks of gestation 2-5 mos
from supine into sitting

Moro Sudden Neck Extension Shoulder abduction, Elbow flexion 28 weeks of gestation Molnar: 4-6 mos.
and finger extension followed by arm Sullivan: 5-6 mos
flexion and adduction

Startle Sudden Noise or Clapping Sudden Extension or abduction of UE Birth Molnar: 4-6 mos
and/or Crying Sullivan: Persists in Life

Palmar Grasp Touch Pressure on Palm or Flexion of all fingers or hand fisting Birth Molnar: 5-6 mos
Stretching of finger flexors Sullivan: 4-6 mos

Plantar Grasp Pressure on sole distal to Flexion of all toes 28 weeks of gestation M: 12-14 mos, when
metatarsal heads walking is achieved
Sullivan: 9 mos
V. Tonic or Brainstem Reflex
Age of Onset Age of Suppression/
Reflex Stimulus Response Integration
Associated Resisted voluntary Involuntary movement in a resting Birth 3 mos 8-9 yrs
Reactions movement in any part of the extremity

Asymmetrical Head turning to one side Extremities extend on face side, flex Birth M: 6-7 mos
Tonic Neck on occiput side S: 4-6 mos

Symmetrical Neck flexion Neck extension Arms flex, legs extend Arms extend, 4-6 Mos M: 6-7 mos
Tonic Neck legs flex S: 8-12 mos
Symmetrical Prone or Supine position Prone predominant Flexor Tone Birth M: 4-6 mos
Tonic Supine Predominant Extensor Tone S: 6 months
(TLR or

Positive M: Light pressure or light Legs extend for partial support of Birth M: 3-5 mos replaced by
Supporting weightbearing on plantar body volitional weightbearing
surface S: Contact to the ball with support
of the foot in upright S: 6 mos
standing pos