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WEFTEC.

06

TWO YEAR CASE STUDY OF INTEGRATED FIXED FILM


ACTIVATED SLUDGE (IFAS) AT BROOMFIELD, CO WWTP

Mr. Ken Rutt1, Jim Seda1 and Mr. Chandler H. Johnson2


1
City & County of Broomfield
2985 West 124th Street
Broomfield, CO 80020
2
AnoxKaldnes, Inc.

ABSTRACT

The City & County of Broomfield wastewater treatment plant secondary treatment processes
were upgraded to a new biological nutrient removal process described as Integrated Fixed Film
Activated Sludge (IFAS) back in 2003 using a moving bed plastic carrier element to help grow
the biomass. This allows the existing aerobic reactors to maintain nitrification during year round
operation while still operating near conventional activated sludge solids retention times (SRT)
one would find in just carbonaceous treatment plants. The upgraded IFAS system includes
anaerobic and anoxic reactors to help meet new effluent Total Nitrogen and Total Phosphorus
limits. The performance of the entire system since July 2003 averaged effluent concentrations of
2.4 mg/L for BOD, 4.2 mg/L for TSS, 0.3 mg/L for NH3-N, 8.3 mg/L for NOx-N and 1.25 mg/L
for TP while operationally during this period of time the aerobic suspended MLSS SRT averaged
4 days, the MLSS concentration averaged 1,718 mg/L and the SVI averaged 120 mL/L. The
plant has operated with one set point for both the RAS and WAS rates for months at a time while
meeting these very consistent effluent results.

KEYWORDS

IFAS, municipal wastewater, nutrient removal, Moving Bed biofilm process, MBBR,
nitrification.

INTRODUCTION

Following an expansion in 1988, the City & County of Broomfield wastewater treatment plant
secondary treatment processes consisted of a roughing biofilter (Trickling Filter) followed by
activated sludge for meeting discharge limits of 25 mg/L cBOD and 30 mg/L TSS at a flow rate
of 5.4 MGD.

Due to population increases & new regulations with respect to NH3-N, the city needed to
upgrade its facility. To further add to the design and treatment requirements, the City was also
adding treatment processes to reuse a large portion of its wastewater as reuse irrigation water.
The storage system for the reuse water includes converting a former water supply reservoir into a
water reuse reservoir. Therefore, the added treatment requirements of lower total phosphorus
(TP) and total nitrogen (TN) levels became part of the overall plan. Table 1 shows the effluent
requirements the Citys WWTP would have to meet for the reuse water storage standards.

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Table 1 City of Broomfield WWTP Effluent Requirements

Parameter Effluent Requirement

BOD <10 mg/L


TSS <10 mg/L
NH3-N <1.5 mg/L Summer
<3.0 mg/L - Winter
TIN <10 mg/L
TP <1.0 mg/L

The City & County of Broomfield evaluated six (6) options put forward by their engineer. Each
option was evaluated based on a) future expansion, b) similar treatment process, c) land usage, as
the selected approach needed to leave room at the site for eventual expansion to 16 MGD and d)
overall cost. The City selected an IFAS (Integrated Fixed Film Activated Sludge) type process
based on free floating plastic media.

The first process train was converted during the summer months of 2002. Wastewater was
treated through the process train in September 2002 and media was first added in November
2002. The second process train was converted in the summer of 2003 with final media addition
by fall 2003. After 2 years of operation, the staff has had the opportunity to play and learn from
the new IFAS system.

Figure 1 - IFAS principle with biofilm carrier (K1) used at the Broomfield WWTP

INTEGRATED FIXED FILM ACTIVATED SLUDGE

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In the simplest definition, IFAS takes a conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plant
and adds into its existing aerobic basins some form of media to help the slower growing bacteria,
mainly nitrification type bacteria, to inhabit the media. The overall goal is to take the investment
provided in the existing system (to perform BOD removal and potentially a portion of
nitrification) while simply adding to it rather then building all new tanks or unit processes. An
IFAS system is a process using kinetics from a suspended growth treatment system (namely
conventional activated sludge) and adding to it kinetics from a fixed film treatment system.
Fixed film technologies are well known for biological treatment of ammonia in cold
temperatures as the bacteria / biofilm grows on a substrate / media and are kept within the system
rather than being washed out during colder temperatures as in a conventional activated sludge
system would typically see happen. Thus, during the winter time operation, the majority of the
ammonia degrading nitrification bacteria are found on the media and retained within the system
rather than washed out due to low aerobic SRTs.

Factors that affect the overall design of an upgrade are: media type, aeration system pattern &
type (complete floor coverage vs. spiral roll & fine bubble vs. course bubble), operational
dissolved oxygen concentration, effluent NH3-N concentration, basin configuration and
hydraulic profiles through the basin. All are necessary design factors which are required to help
create a well working IFAS treatment system. Should one of these factors not be considered or
designed properly, the overall treatment system could be adversely affected.

Currently there are two (2) types of IFAS media categories in the market place, fixed media and
free floating media. Fixed media can be similar to trickling filter type plastic media fixed in
place and submerged in the reactor, or rope type media placed in a web or cage configuration and
also submerged in the reactor. For both of these types of fixed media systems, the media is static
and does not move around. These types of systems are placed above the activated sludge
systems aeration system and flow makes its way through the basin and though the fixed media
allowing contact of the wastewater constituents with the bacteria housed inside the fixed media.
Free floating media are generally small plastic buoyant media or sponges which are placed in a
reactor and move freely throughout the entire aeration basin volume. Since this media is moving
around freely in the reactor, screens are required to retain them inside the aeration basin so they
dont escape.

THE BROOMFIELD WWTP

Founded in the latter quarter of the Nineteenth Century, Broomfield, Colorado began as an
agrarian community. Hard-working, community-oriented families located there on the heels of
adventurous gold-seekers seeking their fortunes and hoping to strike gold in Colorados
wilderness. In 1961, the city incorporated with a population of 6,000. Its growth continued at a
moderate pace throughout the 70s and 80s. In the 1990s with the development of one of
Colorados premier employment centers, Interlocken Business Park, home to Sun Microsystems,
Level 3 and the Flatiron Crossing regional shopping area, Broomfields population nearly
doubled from 24,638 in 1990 to over 50,000 today.

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Broomfields original wastewater treatment facility was constructed in 1954 and consisted of a
single treatment train of primary clarification, a trickling filter and secondary clarification. Over
time as flows and loads increased, expansions took place in 1962, 1974, and 1988. As housing
developments approached the treatment facilitys boundaries, odor control improvements were
constructed in 1996 and 1998.

A Wastewater Utility Plan was completed in 1999 and contained the necessary information and
direction to meet demands of providing wastewater collection and treatment service to the
residents of Broomfield until the year 2020. The proposed wastewater system upgrades and
expansions coordinated with water system upgrades and expansions.

Based on flow projections according to population, and industrial growth estimates to the year
2020, the WWTP needed to be expanded to a capacity of 12 MGD. It was proposed that the
expansion take place in two phases with the first phase expanding the plant to 8 MGD, including
upgrades to meet the new stream standards and to control odors.

FULL SCALE PLANT RESULTS

The full scale design criteria for the system were based on winter wastewater temperatures and
the maximum month primary effluent concentrations. Specific design criteria and a flow
diagram of the treatment facility are shown in Table 2 Broomfield WWTP Design
Specifications and Figure 2 Full Scale Flow Diagram, respectively.

Table 2. Broomfield WWTP Design Specifications

Flow Average Month 6.7 MGD


Maximum Month 8.0 MGD Summer
6.7 MGD Winter

TSS Maximum Month 6,504 lbs/day (97.5 mg/L)

BOD5 Maximum Month 9,725 lbs/day (145.8 mg/L)

Soluble BOD5 Maximum Month 6,005 lbs/day (90 mg/L)

NH3-N Maximum Month 2,480 lbs/day (37.2 mg/L)

TKN Maximum Month 2,724 lbs/day (40.8 mg/L)

NO3-N Maximum Month 350 lbs/day (5.2 mg/L)

MLSS Concentration 3,500 mg /L


Solids Retention Time Suspended Growth 4.7 days
Wastewater Temperature 13 - 25 C

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Figure 2 - Full Scale Flow Diagram

M ix ed Liquor Re cycle Pre-Anoxic


P rim ary 12,846 ft3
(364 m3)
E fflu ent

To S eco ndary
Clarifiers
Anaerobic
21,313 ft3
FE Q (604 m3)
R eturn M ix ed Liquor Re cycle
RAS from
C larifiers
Anoxic
Flow Jun ction/ A nae robic an d IFA S A eratio n Ba sins
46,590 ft3
S plitter Bo x A nox ic B asin s
(m ix ed liq uor on ly )
(m edia an d
m ix ed liq uor)
(1,319 m3)
Aerobic
Pro cess Schem atic o f 160,526 ft3
Broo m field BNR/IF AS Facilities (4,546 m3)

Figure 3 & Table 3 show in graphic form and table form, the monthly averages for the main
influent characteristics of the facility. The overall flow to the facility over the past 3 years has
been fairly consistent in the 4 - 5 MGD range, while the Figure 3 shows good variability in the
concentrations for BOD, TSS & ammonia throughout the years. It should be noted that the table
and graphs are only showing the influent ammonia while Organic N is not included as the facility
doesnt perform TKN analysis and as such the overall nitrification load is higher.

Figure 3 Monthly Average Influent Data (Flow, BOD, TSS, Ammonia, Temp)

Broomfield WWTP Monthly Average Influent Data


50 500

45 450

40 400
Flow (MGD), NH3-N (mg/L), Temp (C)

35 350 BOD & TSS (mg/L)

30 300

25 250

20 200

15 150

Influent Flow Influent Ammonia Wastewater Temperature


10 100
Influent TSS Influent BOD

5 50

0 0
4

5
3

6
3

04

05

06
3

5
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Table 3 Broomfield Monthly Average Influent Data


Raw Influent Characteristics
Month, Year Influent Total Alkalinity
Flow TSS BOD5 NH3-N NO3-N NO2-N Total P PO4-P (as CaCO3) Temp
(MGD) mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L ( C)
July-03 4.73 349.70 185.30 30.71 2.57 2.17 7.02 1.39 246.00 20.63
August-03 4.85 321.81 195.86 32.15 2.74 2.42 6.62 1.66 238.00 21.61
September-03 4.76 337.59 202.32 33.61 2.81 2.17 7.38 1.39 245.20 21.11
October-03 4.48 464.50 221.38 35.16 3.44 2.75 8.38 1.78 244.25 19.98
November-03 4.35 337.33 218.90 33.85 3.81 2.80 7.32 1.27 230.75 17.80
December-03 4.09 322.13 216.83 33.76 3.80 2.77 7.12 1.79 229.40 15.93
January-04 4.28 308.10 206.86 34.88 4.18 2.88 7.36 2.64 204.25 14.62
February-04 4.34 286.71 202.38 35.88 4.36 3.18 7.35 1.57 214.50 14.21
March-04 4.25 376.22 217.35 37.00 4.09 3.03 7.72 2.27 225.40 15.32
April-04 4.52 406.29 223.05 34.83 3.44 2.71 8.56 1.81 234.00 16.18
May-04 4.59 422.77 221.23 36.39 2.99 2.31 8.39 0.93 241.00 17.91
June-04 4.58 421.05 187.73 32.92 2.23 2.10 7.70 1.10 245.00 19.50
July-04 4.90 420.32 188.24 28.41 1.96 2.19 7.12 0.82 242.00 20.77
August-04 5.06 370.22 192.05 29.66 1.72 1.81 6.91 0.92 244.25 21.51
September-04 4.93 368.82 224.00 32.27 1.72 2.04 6.95 1.18 243.33 21.02
October-04 4.93 299.29 226.62 34.48 2.21 1.84 7.66 1.37 249.00 19.80
November-04 4.56 309.82 200.45 36.48 2.57 3.01 7.67 1.86 242.20 17.11
December-04 4.49 315.23 217.14 36.52 2.97 3.45 7.29 1.98 254.50 15.25
January-05 4.37 374.32 201.27 40.43 3.17 3.45 8.24 3.87 297.00 14.27
February-05 4.38 368.21 214.53 40.59 3.25 2.63 9.66 5.05 283.00 14.13
March-05 4.41 380.12 199.60 39.07 3.25 2.88 8.61 3.67 284.00 14.87
April-05 4.75 323.20 169.05 44.30 2.00 1.72 7.90 4.29 274.50 15.85
May-05 4.89 375.57 189.57 34.29 1.87 2.38 9.97 4.67 301.00 17.03
June-05 5.18 372.09 203.32 39.46 0.06 0.12 9.86 4.75 303.40 18.59
July-05 4.83 379.29 197.57 31.08 0.11 0.15 9.50 3.79 254.50 20.81
August-05 5.25 428.22 204.57 29.46 0.06 0.08 8.74 3.10 246.60 21.58
September-05 5.07 419.41 210.82 30.10 7.58 3.08 251.25 21.26
October-05 5.53 344.74 185.65 31.12 7.00 2.89 262.50 19.75
November-05 5.10 292.09 213.36 34.89 9.04 4.93 296.80 18.06
December-05 4.93 285.26 220.43 37.88 10.56 6.77 273.50 15.68
January-06 4.75 375.76 232.29 38.27 12.38 7.22 255.75 15.16
February-06 4.49 373.37 218.10 35.50 8.69 3.51 250.75 14.09
March-06 4.31 313.82 221.91 41.88 9.06 4.25 256.60 14.35
April-06 4.47 375.76 229.17 39.02 9.98 5.11 258.50 15.83

Figure 4 Monthly Average Influent Data (Flow, BOD, TSS, Ammonia, Temp)
Broomfield WWTP Monthly Average Effluent Data

14
Effluent TSS Effluent BOD Effluent NH3-N

12
TSS, BOD, NH3-N, NOx-N, TP (mg/L)

Effluent NOx-N Effluent Total P

10

0
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5
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The IFAS system at Broomfield has performed & operated very consistently over the past 3
years and average monthly effluent data is presented in Figure 4 & Table 4 for BOD, TSS, NH3-
N, NOx-N & Total P.

Table 4 Broomfield Average Monthly Effluent

Final Effluent Characteristics


Month, Year Total
TSS BOD5 NH3-N NOX-N Total P PO4-P Temp
mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L ( C)
July-03 2.37 2.58 0.25 7.16 0.15 0.01 20.63
August-03 2.74 1.60 0.17 6.80 0.74 0.48 21.61
September-03 2.55 2.23 0.18 5.78 1.69 0.99 21.11
October-03 2.96 2.66 0.25 6.33 1.53 0.90 19.98
November-03 2.63 1.62 0.22 7.70 1.12 0.56 17.80
December-03 4.11 1.88 0.25 8.62 1.42 1.01 15.93
January-04 5.73 2.75 0.77 10.48 1.37 1.15 14.62
February-04 4.96 2.33 0.95 9.28 1.17 0.55 14.21
March-04 3.25 2.24 1.02 9.33 2.15 1.45 15.32
April-04 5.58 2.36 0.32 6.78 1.25 0.80 16.18
May-04 4.00 1.85 0.23 7.20 0.18 0.01 17.91
June-04 3.64 1.72 0.16 7.20 0.29 0.08 19.50
July-04 3.70 1.78 0.26 6.15 0.24 0.03 20.77
August-04 2.85 1.91 0.16 5.79 0.23 0.05 21.51
September-04 3.12 1.62 0.17 5.77 0.16 0.03 21.02
October-04 2.22 1.68 0.14 5.93 0.58 0.38 19.80
November-04 3.33 1.67 0.16 7.55 0.48 0.29 17.11
December-04 4.48 2.13 0.17 7.65 0.78 0.46 15.25
January-05 4.93 2.19 0.17 8.21 1.04 0.71 14.27
February-05 5.91 2.66 0.25 8.26 2.63 2.03 14.13
March-05 4.85 2.21 0.25 7.20 1.18 0.87 14.87
April-05 4.92 2.34 0.41 8.03 0.79 0.46 15.85
May-05 4.08 2.51 0.26 8.37 1.48 1.19 17.03
June-05 2.57 2.43 0.14 11.56 1.33 1.11 18.59
July-05 2.54 2.10 0.18 10.89 1.54 1.50 20.81
August-05 3.32 2.10 0.16 11.70 1.17 0.92 21.58
September-05 3.09 1.88 0.11 10.78 0.44 0.38 21.26
October-05 3.76 1.93 0.10 11.42 1.31 1.34 19.75
November-05 4.87 3.33 0.19 12.85 2.43 2.06 18.06
December-05 6.20 3.57 0.21 10.80 1.81 1.18 15.68
January-06 5.87 3.94 1.21 1.83 1.31 15.16
February-06 5.36 3.58 0.04 11.20 1.79 1.42 14.09
March-06 8.17 4.33 0.52 11.78 3.12 2.38 14.35
April-06 7.30 3.00 0.18 12.28 2.05 1.68 15.83

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Table 3 & 4 along with Figures 3 & 4 show a facility operating very consistently. The data
provided in Figure 5 & Table 5 show how the facility operated on an average monthly basis with
respect to aerobic suspended MLSS SRT, Total aerobic SRT (suspended + fixed), Total
Suspended SRT (Anoxic + Aerobic), Sludge Volume Index (SVI) and the operating MLSS &
MLVSS concentrations. The Broomfield WWTP has been operating in typical carbonaceous
removal SRT ranges, in the 3 4 day range, having the average temperature of the wastewater
range between 22C during the summer time and 14C during winter operation, while still meeting
baseline effluent ammonia concentrations.

Figure 5 Broomfield Average Monthly Operational Information

Broomfield WWTP Monthly Operational Data

8.0 180
Aerobic SRT
Aerobic MLSS
7.0 Effluent NH3-N 160
MLSS (g/L); Aerobic SRT (d); NH3-N (mg/L)

SVI
140
6.0
120
5.0

SVI (mL/L)
100
4.0
80
3.0
60
2.0
40

1.0 20

0.0 0
4

5
3

5
03

M 4

04

M 5

6
05
04

05

06
5
3

4
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-0
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-0

-0
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Table 5 Broomfield Average Monthly Operational Information

Operational Characteristics
Month, Year Total SRT Aerobic SRT Aerobic SRT TSS VSS
(susp.) (susp.) (susp.+ fixed) SVI (MLSS) (MLVSS) Temp
d d d mL/g mg/L mg/L ( C)
July-03 9.99 6.62 98.87 2,510 1,887 20.63
August-03 8.40 5.56 102.71 2,181 1,667 21.61
September-03 7.23 4.79 125.72 1,860 1,389 21.11
October-03 6.76 4.48 138.51 1,864 1,534 19.98
November-03 6.15 4.07 5.16 154.91 1,906 1,540 17.80
December-03 5.59 3.70 5.99 150.53 1,738 1,408 15.93
January-04 5.31 3.52 6.72 135.73 1,627 1,303 14.62
February-04 5.78 3.83 7.65 117.22 1,944 1,450 14.21
March-04 6.35 4.21 8.44 105.88 1,917 1,511 15.32
April-04 5.43 3.60 6.13 112.47 1,974 1,673 16.18
May-04 6.29 4.17 6.46 114.01 2,056 1,637 17.91
June-04 6.05 4.01 6.92 116.10 1,745 1,323 19.50
July-04 6.69 4.43 6.47 112.02 1,641 1,251 20.77
August-04 6.19 4.10 5.20 95.86 1,730 1,310 21.51
September-04 5.50 3.65 4.76 103.50 1,893 1,462 21.02
October-04 5.73 3.79 4.99 106.33 1,780 1,377 19.80
November-04 5.76 3.82 5.56 115.21 1,648 1,272 17.11
December-04 5.19 3.44 6.08 119.47 1,633 1,313 15.25
January-05 5.44 3.60 6.39 123.64 1,764 1,412 14.27
February-05 4.91 3.26 6.10 134.76 1,532 1,278 14.13
March-05 5.31 3.52 6.63 130.15 1,708 1,352 14.87
April-05 5.14 3.41 6.49 121.45 1,792 1,417 15.85
May-05 5.70 3.78 7.20 120.20 1,691 1,333 17.03
June-05 5.18 3.43 6.21 107.96 1,748 1,542 18.59
July-05 5.19 3.44 6.32 115.56 1,490 1,146 20.81
August-05 4.69 3.11 5.53 120.78 1,528 1,201 21.58
September-05 5.22 3.46 5.94 120.88 1,488 1,261 21.26
October-05 6.97 4.62 7.74 109.67 1,665 1,387 19.75
November-05 4.82 3.19 7.02 112.43 1,293 1,039 18.06
December-05 4.46 2.96 6.51 111.28 1,401 1,098 15.68
January-06 4.13 2.74 6.33 106.08 1,431 1,184 15.16
February-06 4.70 3.11 7.49 109.95 1,405 1,165 14.09
March-06 10.13 6.71 18.39 99.21 1,357 1,217 14.35
April-06 7.83 5.19 14.58 112.96 1,473 1,220 15.83

The following set of figures show all the data in either 7 day average or daily data points to
illustrate how consistent the overall treatment plant really operates. Figure 6 shows the stability
of the IFAS process with plastic media with respect to the Solids Retention Time (SRT) of the
aerobic MLSS expressed as both suspended MLSS SRT and suspended MLSS + Fixed SRT.
The effluent NH3-N concentration from the secondary clarifiers was consistently below 1 mg/L
even though the temperature of the system was as low as 14C and the aerobic MLSS SRT were
between 3 4 days. The media provides the additional biomass and surface area for growing of
the nitrification bacteria and retains them in the system rather than being washed out.

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Figure 6 Effluent NH3-N, Aerobic MLSS SRT & Temperature Profile vs. Time

Kaldnes HYBAS plant, Broomfield, CO


14 Effluent NH3-N, mg/L 25
Aerobic SRT (suspended), d 7-day running
averages
12 Aerobic SRT (susp. + attached), d 23
Effl. NH 3-N conc. (mg/L),

Temperature, deg. C

Temperature (deg. C)
10 21
or aerobic SRT (d)

8 19

6 17

4 15

2 13

0 11
7/7/2003

9/7/2003

11/7/2003

1/7/2004

3/7/2004

5/7/2004

7/7/2004

9/7/2004

11/7/2004

1/7/2005

3/7/2005

5/7/2005

7/7/2005

9/7/2005

11/7/2005

1/7/2006

3/7/2006
Date

Figure 7 shows the daily results of overall nutrient removal capability of the system with influent
inorganic nitrogen concentrations increasing over time from 40 - 45 mg/L in 2004 to 45 - 50
mg/L in 2005 while still providing a consistently low effluent inorganic nitrogen concentration
of less then 10 mg/L during winter time and less then 7 mg/L during summer time. All the
denitrification was occurring in the pre-denitrification zone and utilized the influent carbon
source for meeting these effluent limits. Based on mass balance of total nitrogen and the RAS
and internal recycle rates, there is some type of simultaneous nitrification / denitrification
occurring in the facility. The data indicates that the simultaneous nitrification / denitrification is
not consistently year round and more research is being conducted to further explain these results.

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Figure 7 Total Inorganic Nitrogen Profile with Temperature vs. Time

Kaldnes HYBAS plant, Broomfield, CO


60 40
55
35
50

Temperature (deg. C)
45 30

Effluent TIN (mg/L)


Influent TIN (mg/L)

40 25
35
20
30
25 15
20 10
15
5
10
Influent TIN, mg/L Temperature, deg. C Effluent TIN, mg/L
5 0
7/1/2003

9/1/2003

11/1/2003

1/1/2004

3/1/2004

5/1/2004

7/1/2004

9/1/2004

11/1/2004

1/1/2005

3/1/2005

5/1/2005

7/1/2005

9/1/2005

11/1/2005

1/1/2006

3/1/2006
Date

Figures 8 & 9 show the daily BOD and daily TSS profile and demonstrates a very stable
secondary clarified effluent concentrations with BODs less then 5 mg/L and TSS less then 10
mg/L during winter time operation and less then 5 mg/L during summer time operation. The
reasoning for the increase in effluent BOD and TSS during 2006 is due to the lower MLSS
concentrations of 1400 1500 mg/L that the facility is currently operating under. During 2004
& most of 2005, the system was operating at 1,800 1,900 mg/L. This loss of suspended
biomass affected the aerobic SRT and as the SRT dropped, the effluent TSS increased, which
likely is a reason for the increase in the effluent BOD. Effluent NH3-N during this period of time
still meets < 0.5 mg/L.

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Figure 8 Influent & Effluent BOD Profile with Temperature vs. Time

Kaldnes HYBAS plant, Broomfield, CO


330 24
300 22
270 20

Effl. BOD 5 conc. (mg/L)


Infl. BOD 5 conc. (mg/L)

Temperature (deg. C)
240 18
16
210
14
180
12
150
10
120
Influent BOD5, mg/L 8
90 Temperature, deg. C 6
Effluent BOD5, mg/L
60 4
30 2
0 0
7/1/2003

9/1/2003

11/1/2003

1/1/2004

3/1/2004

5/1/2004

7/1/2004

9/1/2004

11/1/2004

1/1/2005

3/1/2005

5/1/2005

7/1/2005

9/1/2005

11/1/2005

1/1/2006

3/1/2006
Date

Figure 9 Influent & Effluent TSS Profile with Temperature vs. Time

Kaldnes HYBAS plant, Broomfield, CO


800 Influent TSS, mg/l 24
Temperature, deg. C 22
700 Effluent TSS, mg/l
20

Effl. TSS conc. (mg/L)


Infl. TSS conc. (mg/L)

Temperature (deg. C)
600 18
16
500
14
400 12
10
300
8
200 6
4
100
2
0 0
7/1/2003

9/1/2003

11/1/2003

1/1/2004

3/1/2004

5/1/2004

7/1/2004

9/1/2004

11/1/2004

1/1/2005

3/1/2005

5/1/2005

7/1/2005

9/1/2005

11/1/2005

1/1/2006

3/1/2006

Date

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WEFTEC.06

Figure 10 shows the biofilm characteristics over time and how the biofilm on the media in each
of the reactors grows during winter time operation and decreases during summer time operation.
This effect of the biofilm growing and sloughing is just part of the normal operation. When the
MLSS concentration started a steady decline in March 2005 to April 2006, the overall biofilm
thickness didnt show the dramatic winter vs. summer effects as the overall MLSS system was
being stressed and allowed more biofilm to grow on the fixed media. During the winter of 2006,
the biofilm in reactor 1 showed similar g TS/m2 of biomass as was seen during the winter of
2004. From a design standpoint, one can see that it would be very difficult to say the biomass on
the media is consistent; rather the only consistent value in the IFAS system is the amount of
surface area. Thus, full scale designs shouldnt count MLSS suspended biomass + biomass on
the media. It should be MLSS suspended biomass + surface area kinetics which control the
overall design of IFAS systems.

Figure 10 MLSS Conc., Media TSS Reactor 1, Media TSS Reactor 2 & Temp. vs. Time

Kaldnes HYBAS plant, Broomfield, CO


3000 30
HYBAS MLSS, mg/L
2700 Attached biomass HYBAS 1, g TS/m2 27
Attached biomass HYBAS 2, g TS/m2
Temperature, deg. C

Attached biomass (g TS/m 2)


2400 24

Temperature (deg. C)
2100 21
MLSS (mg/L)

1800 18

1500 15

1200 12

900 9

600 6

300 3

0 0
07/01/03

09/01/03

11/01/03

01/01/04

03/01/04

05/01/04

07/01/04

09/01/04

11/01/04

01/01/05

03/01/05

05/01/05

07/01/05

09/01/05

11/01/05

01/01/06

03/01/06

Date

Figure 11 shows the potential of the effect of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification
(SND) occurring within the aerobic zone and the biofilm on the plastic media. In this figure the
red line is the actual denitrification occurring in the system by monitoring the influent and
effluent inorganic nitrogen. The blue line is a theoretical % removal of nitrogen based on the
internal recycle rate and return activated sludge rate (i.e. 100% RAS + IR = 50% Nitrogen
Removal). As can be seen in the graph, during periods of warmer weather the blue line is above
the red line, indicating the potential for SND. The data from May 2005 to current is missing
influent NOx-N data and thus the evaluation during this period of time is incomplete.

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WEFTEC.06

Figure 11 Potential Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND)

Kaldnes HYBAS plant, Broomfield, CO


10 80

9
70
8
Primary effl. C/N, g BOD 5/g TIN

TIN-removal in bioreactors, %
DN rate, mg NOx-N/g MLSS/h

7 60
Effluent NH 3-N, mg/L

6 7-day running

r/(r+1), %
50
averages
5
Effl. NH3-N Temp
40
4 TIN-removal r/(r+1)

3 30
2
20
1

0 10
7/7/2003

9/7/2003

11/7/2003

1/7/2004

3/7/2004

5/7/2004

7/7/2004

9/7/2004

11/7/2004

1/7/2005

3/7/2005

5/7/2005

7/7/2005

9/7/2005

11/7/2005

1/7/2006

3/7/2006
Date

CONCLUSION

The full scale IFAS system operating at the City & County of Broomfields WWTP has
demonstrated over the past three (3) years a very consistent operating and stable effluent system,
which operates at low solids retention times and that the Hybrid MBBR process is effective in
removing NH3-N to below the effluent requirements of 1 mg/L on a consistent basis. Based on
the results obtained from this pilot study it is recommended that the full scale treatment system
look at running a two stage aerobic system with media to help increase the nitrification capacity
of the existing treatment system.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The authors gratefully acknowledge the dedication of the City & County of Broomfields
operational staff at the wastewater treatment plant. Without their efforts the information
presented would not be available. They also wish to thank the personnel at the Broomfield
WWTP for all their help in gathering all the data for this report.

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WEFTEC.06

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