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# MATH 3005 Homework Solution Han-Bom Moon

Homework 4 Solution
Chapter 4 - Subgroups.
due: Oct. 3.

## Note that |U (13)| = 12 because 13 is a prime number.

22 = 4, 23 = 8, 24 = 16 = 3, 25 = 6, 26 = 12, 27 = 24 = 11,

## 28 = 22 = 9, 29 = 18 = 5, 210 = 10, 211 = 20 = 7, 212 = 14 = 1.

Therefore the smallest positive integer n with 2n = 1 is 12 = |U (13)|. Thus
U (13) = h2i.
(b) Find all positive integers that can be an order of a U (13). For each integer,
find an element of U (13) with that order.

## The order of a must be a positive divisor of |U (13)| = 12. Therefore 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12

can be the order of an element of U (13). Indeed, since |2| = 12,

## |3| = |24 | = 12/4 = 3, |12| = |26 | = 12/2 = 6.

(c) Find all generators of U (13). (If you know a generator b, then you can find
all other generators by using b.)

For a cyclic group hai of order n, all generators are given by ak with gcd(n, k) =
1. So for U (13) = h2i, its generators are

21 = 2, 25 = 6, 27 = 11, 211 = 7.
(" # )
1 n
2. Prove that H = n Z is a cyclic subgroup of GL(2, R).

0 1
" #
1 1
We claim that H = hAi where A = . Indeed, because A H, hAi H.
0 1
" #
1 k
Furthermore, for any positive integer k, Ak = . We prove it by induction.
0 1
" #
n 1 n
k = 1 case is obvious. If A = , then
0 1
" # " # " #
1 n 1 1 1 n+1
An+1 = An A = = .
0 1 0 1 0 1

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MATH 3005 Homework Solution Han-Bom Moon

## Therefore we obtain the result.

" #
1 k
On the other hand, it is straightforward to check that Ak = (Ak )1 = ,
0 1
because " # " # " #
1 k 1 k 1 0
= .
0 1 0 1 0 1
Therefore any elements in H is An for some n Z and H hAi. Therefore
H = hAi.

## (a) Find two elements of order 2 in G.

As a set, U (2n ) is the set of all positive odd integers less than 2n . So 2n1 +
1, 2n 1 U (2n ). If n 3, 2n 1 > 2n1 + 1 so they are different. Now
(2n1 + 1)2 = (2n1 )2 + 2 2n1 + 1 = 22n2 + 2n + 1 = 2n (2n2 + 1) + 1 = 1
and (2n 1)2 = (2n )2 2 2n + 1 = 22n 2n+1 + 1 = 2n (2n 2) + 1 = 1.
Therefore |2n1 + 1| = |2n 1| = 2.
(b) Deduce that G is not cyclic.

## If G is cyclic, then the number of elements of order 2 in G is |(2)| = 1.

However, we have two order two elements in G. Therefore G is not cyclic.

This is a special case of Gausss theorem on the existence of primitive root modulo n.
He showed that for n 2, U (n) is cyclic if and only if n is one of 2, 22 , pk , 2pk for
some odd prime p and k 1.

## Consider h ab i for ab Q. Every element in h ab i is of the form m ab = ma b for

ma
some m Z. So if we write b as a fraction of two relatively prime numbers, the
denominator must be a divisor of b. But in Q, there are many fractions which are
1
not of the form. For instance, b+1 . Therefore h ab i is a proper subset of Q. Thus Q is
not cyclic.
Indeed, the additive group Q is not generated by finitely many elements. Think
the reason.

## 5. Let G be an infinite cyclic group generated by a. From a theorem weve discussed

in the class, we know that every subgroup of G is a cyclic group. Find a generator
of ham i han i and prove that it is indeed a generator.

Let H = ham i han i. Then H = hak i for some k. We claim that k = lcm(m, n).
First of all, from m|k, k = um for some u Z and ak = aum = (am )u ham i.
So hak i ham i. By the same reason, hak i han i. Thus hak i ham i han i = H.
Conversely, if at H, then at ham i and m|t. Similarly, n|t. Thus t is a common
multiple of m and n. Therefore t is a multiple of k = lcm(m, n). So we have t = vk
for some v Z and at = avk = (ak )v hak i. Therefore H hak i.

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MATH 3005 Homework Solution Han-Bom Moon

6. Let G be an Abelian group. For two elements a, b G with |a| = m and |b| =
n, suppose that hai hbi = {e}. Show that in G, there is an element of order
lcm(m, n).

## We claim that ab is an element with order lcm(m, n).

If |ab| = d, then (ab)d = ad bd = e and ad = bd hbi. So ad hai hbi = {e}
and ad = e. Therefore bd = e as well. Then m|d and n|d and so lcm(m, n)|d. In
particular, d lcm(m, n).
On the other hand, if k = lcm(m, n), then k = mk1 = nk2 for two positive integers
k1 , k2 .
(ab)k = ak bk = amk1 bnk2 = (am )k1 (bn )k2 = ek1 ek2 = e
So d = |ab| k = lcm(m, n). Therefore d = lcm(m, n).

## 7. The Euler phi function : N N is defined by (1) = 1 and for n 2, (n) =

|U (n)|, that is, the number of positive integers less than n and relatively prime to
n.

(a) (Do not solve this. We will prove it in Chapter 8.) For two relatively prime
numbers m and n, show that (mn) = (m)(n).
(b) For a prime number p and a positive integer n, show that (pn ) = pn pn1 .

## Let k be a positive integer less than pn . If k is a multiple of p, then gcd(k, pn )

p so k / U (pn ). Also if k
/ U (pn ), then gcd(k, pn ) 6= 1. But the only prime
factor of pn is p, so k must have a divisor p. In summary, a positive integer
k < pn is in U (pn ) if and only if k is not a multiple of p. The number of mul-
tiples of p between 1 and pn is precisely pn /p = pn1 . So |U (pn )| = pn pn1 .
(c) By using (a) and (b), compute |U (108)|. (Actually we can compute |U (n)| for
arbitrary n from (a) and (b).)

(a) (b)
|U (108)| = (108) = (22 33 ) = (22 )(33 ) = (22 2)(33 32 ) = 36.

## (d) Show Eulers identity X

n= (d)
d|n

where the sum is taken over all positive divisors of n. (Hint: Apply Theorem
4.4 in the textbook to the cyclic group Zn .)

## Because Zn is a cyclic group of order n, the order of an element of Zn is a

positive divisor of n. Moreover, the number of elements of order d in Zn is
precisely (d). Now
X X
n = |Zn | = number of order d elements = (d).
d|n d|n

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MATH 3005 Homework Solution Han-Bom Moon

8. Draw the subgroup lattice for Zp2 q2 where p and q are distinct primes.

## There are 9 positive divisors of p2 q 2 , namely, 1, p, p2 , q, pq, p2 q, q 2 , pq 2 , and p2 q 2 .

For each positive divisor d, there is a cyclic subgroup of Zp2 q = h1i of order d,
namely, {0}, hpq 2 i, hq 2 i, hp2 qi, hpqi, hqi, hp2 i, hpi, and h1i = Zp2 q2 , respectively.
The following diagram is the subgroup lattice for Zp2 q2 .

Zp2 q2

hpi hqi

hp2 i hpqi hq 2 i

hp2 qi hpq 2 i

{0}