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TABURAN KEBARANGKALIAN/CIKGU MANAF 2016

BINOMIAL DISTRIBUTION (TABURAN BINOMIAL)

- For a Binomial Distribution X ~ B (n, p), the probability of obtaining r numbers of successes
out of n experiments is given by :

n r nr
P(X = r) = Cr p q , r = 0,1,2,.......n.

where X = discrete random variable


p = probability of success in an experiment
q = probability of failure in an experiment
= 1p
n = the number of experiments carried out
r = the number of success obtained (0, 1, 2, 3,n)

Example 1 :
20% out of the eggs in the basket was bad. If 10 eggs was randomly chosen from a sample,
calculate the probability that
(a) 3 eggs was bad,
(b) all eggs are in good condition,
(c) not more than 2 eggs are bad.

Solution :
Given that the probability of getting bad egg = 20% = 02
Let X represents random binomial variable with n = 10, p = 02 and q = 1 02 = 08
(a) P (3 eggs are bad)
= P (X = 3)
10
= C 3 (02)3 (08)10 3
10
= C 3 (02)3 (08)7
= 02013

(b) P (all eggs are good)


= P (X = 0)
= 10
C0 (02)0 (08)10 0
10
= C0 (02)0 (08)10
= 01074

(c) P(not more than 2 eggs are bad)


[It means that P (0,1 or 2 eggs are bad)
= P (X = 0) + P (X = 1) + P (X = 2)
= 01074 + 10C1 (02)1 (08)9 + 10C2 (02)2 (08)8
= 01074 + 02684 + 03020
= 06778
TABURAN KEBARANGKALIAN/CIKGU MANAF 2016

Example 2 :
Based on the record from the driving school centre, 30% of the motorcar drivers failed the driving
test per day. In one day, there are 9 candidates who sat for the test. Find the probability that at
least 7 candidates succeed in their test.

Solution :
Let p = probability of succeeding in the test = 07
q = probability of failing the test = 03
X = the number of candidates who succeed in their test.

We are going to find the value of P(X 7).

P(X 7) = P (X = 7) + P (X = 8) + P (X = 9)
9
= C7 (07)7 (03)2 + 9C8 (07)8 (03)1 + 9C9 (07)9 (03)0
= 02668 + 01556 + 00404
= 04628

Mean, variance and standard deviation of Binomial Distribution

For a Binomial Distribution X, X ~ B(n,p)

mean, = np
variance, 2 = npq
standard deviation, = npq
Example 1 :
1
of the slaughtered chickens are not suitable for marketing. For the 150 chickens
20
slaughtered a day, find the mean and the standard deviation of the number of chicken that is not
suitable for marketing.
Solution :
Let the number of chicken that is not suitable for marketing = X (i.e. binomial random
variable)
1
Given n = 150, p =
20
Mean, = np
1
= 150
20
= 75

Variance, 2 = npq = np(1 p)


1 1
= 150 1
20 20
= 7125
Standard deviation, = npq = 7125
= 2669
TABURAN KEBARANGKALIAN/CIKGU MANAF 2016

1. SPM 2003 P1 Q 25
In an examination, 70% of the students passed. If a sample of 8 students is randomly
selected, find the probability that 6 students from the sample passed the examination.
[3 marks]
[0.2965]

2. SPM 2004 P2 Q11

(a) A club organizes a practice sessions for trainees on scoring goals from penalty kicks. Each
trainee takes 8 penalty kicks. The probability that a trainee scores a goal from a penalty
kick is p. After the session, it is found that the mean number of goals for a trainee is 4.8.
(i) find the value of p
(ii) If the trainee is chosen at random, find the probability that he scores at least
one goal. [5 marks]
[ 0.6 , 0.9993]

3. SPM 2005 P2 Q11


The result of a study shows that 20% of the pupils in a city cycle to school. If 8 pupils
from the city are chosen at random, calculate the probability that
(i) exactly 2 of them cycle to school
(ii) less than 3 of them cycle to school

[4marks] [0.2936, 0.79691]

4. SPM 2003 P2 Q10


(a) Senior citizens make up 20% of the population of a settlement.
(i) If 7 people are randomly selected from the settlement, find the probability
that at least two of them are senior citizens.
(ii) If the variance of the senior citizens is 128, what is the population of the
settlement ? [5 marks]
[0.4233,800]

5. SPM 2007 P1 Q24


The probability that each shot fired by Ramli hits a target is 1/3
(a) If Ramli fires 10 shots, find the probability that exactly 2 shots hit the target.
(b) If Ramli fires n shots, the probability that all the n shots hit the target is 1/243. Find the
value of n. [4 marks]
[0.1951, 5]

6. SPM 2007 P2Q11


In a survey carried out in a school, it is found that 2 out of 5 students have handphones. If 8
students from that school are chosen at random, calculate the probability that
(i) exactly 2 students have handphones
(ii) more than 2 students have handphones [5marks]
[0.2090,0.6846]

7. SPM 2009 P1Q23


TABURAN KEBARANGKALIAN/CIKGU MANAF 2016

The probability that a student is a librarian is 0.2. Three students are choosen at random.
Find the probability that
(a) All three are librarians
(b) Only one of them is a librarian
[0.008, 0.384]

8. SPM 2009 P2Q11


A test paper consists of 40 questions. Each question is followed by four choices of answer,
where only one of these is correct.

(a) Salma answers all the questions by randomly choosing an answer for each question.
(i) Estimate the number of questions she answered correctly.
(ii) Find the standard deviation of the number of questions she answered correctly.

(b) Basri answers 30 questions correctly and randomly chooses and answer for each of the
remaining 10 question.
Find the probability that he answers
(i) 36 questions correctly,
(ii) At least 32 questions correctly.
[10,2.739,0.01622,0.7560]

9. SPM 2010 P2Q10


A random variable, X, has a binomial distribution with 10 trials where the probability of success
in each is p . The mean number of success is 4.
Calculate
(i) The value of p,
(ii) P (X 2)
[0.4 , 0.1673]

10. SPM 2011 P1Q25


Diagram shows the graph of a binomial distribution of X.

12/27

m
6/27

1/27
0 1 2 3
Find
(a) P(X 1)
(b) The value of m.

[19/27 , 8/27]

11. SPM 2016 P2 Q ? (RAMALAN SPM 2016)


TABURAN KEBARANGKALIAN/CIKGU MANAF 2016

One factory is produce one type of calculator. The probability that factory to produce a
damage calculator is 10%.
(a) Find the minimum number of calculator need to be check if the probability that at least
one of damage calculator are more than 0.8.
(a) If the factory produces 600 calculators, find the mean and the standard deviation of the
damage calculator.
(b) If 5 calculator were randomly selected as a sample, find the probability that at least one
calculator was damage.
[16,60, 73485,04095]

12 SPM 2016 P2 Q ? (RAMALAN SPM 2016)


Seorang peniaga mendapati bahawa 5% daripada bekalan Durian yang diterimanya adalah
busuk. Tentukan bilangan minimum Durian yang perlu dipilih supaya kebarangkalian
mendapat sekurang-kurangnya sebiji Durian yang busuk adalah lebih besar daripada 0.9.
[45]

NORMAL DISTRIBUTION (TABURAN NORMAL)


TABURAN KEBARANGKALIAN/CIKGU MANAF 2016

Normal Distribution
A random variable is continuous if it is infinite in a certain range of values. A continuous random
variable, X has a normal distribution if the probability function graph is a bell-shape (as shown
below)
Probability function, f (X)

0 (mean) X
X ~ N (, 2 ) represents normal distribution with mean, and variance, 2 .
f (z)
Standard normal distribution,Z~ N(0, 1)

Area of the shaded region = 1

z
0
Z ~ N (0, 1) represents standard normal distribution with
mean, = 0 and standard deviation variance, = 1.

Belajar asas dulu.

To find the probability of z-values

Example :
1. P(Z 02) 2. P(Z 132) 3. P(Z 10)
4. P(Z 08) 5. P(Z 14) 6. P(05 Z 05)

Solution :

1. P(Z 02) 2. P(Z 132) 3. P(Z 10)

f (z) f (z) f (z)

z z z
0 02 0 132 10 0
P(Z 02) = 042074 P(Z 132) = 009342 P(Z 10) = 084134
f (z) f (z)

4. P(Z 08) 5. P(Z 14) 6. P(05 Z 05)

z z
0 08 05 0 05
TABURAN KEBARANGKALIAN/CIKGU MANAF 2016

f (z)

z
14 0

P(Z 08) = 078814 P(Z 14) = 008076 P(05 Z 05)


= 069146 030854

= 038292
Try this !!!!

1 Given that Z is the standard normal distribution variable, find the values for the
following:
(a) P(Z>0.2) (b) P(Z>1.2)

[ 0.4207 ] [ 0.1151 ]
(c) P( Z < -0.6 ) (d) P ( Z < -1.5)

[ 0.2743] [ 0.0668]
(e) P( Z > -1.511) (f) P( Z > -0.203)

[0.9346] [0.5805]
(g) P( Z < 1.327) (h) P( Z < 0.549 )

[0.9077] [0.7085]
(i) P ( 0.2 < Z < 1.2) (j) P( 0.548< Z < 1.327 )

[0.3056] [0.1996]
(k) P( -1.5 < Z < -0.6) (l) P ( -1.013 < Z < -0.203 )

[ 0.2075] [0.2640]
(m) P ( 0 Z 1.511 ) (n) P ( 0.203 Z 1.327 )
TABURAN KEBARANGKALIAN/CIKGU MANAF 2016

[ 0.4346] [ 0.4882]
(o) P ( Z 1.334 ) (p) P ( Z 0.625 )

[0.1824] [ 0.5320]
(q) P ( Z 1.112 ) (r) P ( Z 0.336 )

[ 0.7338] [ 0.2630]
2 Find the z-score for each of the following:

(a) P( Z > z ) =0.4207 (b) P(Z > z) =0.1151

[0.2] [1.2]
(c) P( Z < z ) =0.2743 (d) P( Z < z ) =0.0668

[-0.6] [-1.5]
(e) P( Z > z ) = 0.5805 (f) P( Z > z ) = 0.9346

[-0.203 ] [-1.511]
(g) P( Z < z ) = 0.9332 (h) P( Z< z ) = 0.8757

[1.5] [1.154]
Standard Normal Distribution (z-score)
TABURAN KEBARANGKALIAN/CIKGU MANAF 2016

A normal distribution with mean and standard deviation can be transformed into the standard
normal distribution by using the formula
X
Z =

where Z is the standard score or z-score.

Method to transform normal distribution to standard normal distribution :

X
P(X > k) = P Z >


Example :
1.Convert the following random variable of normal distribution X, to standard normal distribution
or z-score.
(a) The mean and standard deviation of a normal distribution are 8 and 5 respectively. Find
the z-score if X = 7.
(b) The mean and standard deviation of a normal distribution are 700 and 250 respectively.
Find the z-score if X = 1200.

Solution :
7 8
(a) Z =
5
= 02
1200 700
(b) Z =
250
= 2
2.The mass of a sample of adult population have a normal distribution with mean 660 kg and
standard deviation 76 kg. If an adult is randomly selected from the sample, find the probability
that its mass
(a) is less than 600 kg,
(b) is between 622 kg and 755 kg.
Solution :
60 0 66
0
(a) P (X < 600) = P Z <
7 6
= P(Z < 07895)
= 021491

f (z)
2 66
62 0 5 66
75 0
(b) P (622 < X < 755) = P <Z <
7 6 76
= P(05 < Z < 125)
= 058581
z
Try this!!!! 05 0 125
(1).X is random variable of a normal distribution (2) X is random variable of a normal distribution
TABURAN KEBARANGKALIAN/CIKGU MANAF 2016

with mean and standard deviation 6. Find with mean 4.8 and standard deviation 1.2 .
(i) the value of , if the z-value is 1.5 Find
when X= 42 (i) the value of X if the z score =1.5
(ii) P( X<47) (ii) P (X 3.2)

[33, 0.9902]
[6.6, 0.9977]
(3)X is random variable of a normal distribution (4) X is random variable of a normal distribution
with mean 6.7 and standard deviation 1.5. Find with mean and variance 2.25. Find
(i) the z-score given X=4.6 (i) the value of if the z score =2
(ii) P ( X 4.6) when X = 8.5
(ii) P (X < 7)

[5.5, 0.8413]
[-1.4, 0.9192]
(5)X is random variable of a normal distribution (6) X is random variable of a normal distribution
with mean 108 and standard deviation 10. Find with mean 24 and standard deviation 2.5. Find
(i) the Z score if X=100 (i) P( X >26 )
(ii) P ( 100 X 108) (ii) value of k if P( X < k) = 0.1151

[-0.8, 0.2881] [ 0.2119, 27]


(7) X is random variable of a normal distribution (8) X is a continuous random variable such that
with = 10 and standard deviation 3. . Find the X~N( ,25) . Given that
value of k if P (X < 9)= 0.7257. Find the value of .
P( X < k) = 0.975

[15.88] [6]
9. SPM 2007 P1Q25 (10) X is random variable of a normal distribution
X is a continuous random variable of a normal with mean 38.5 and variance 10.24 . Find the
TABURAN KEBARANGKALIAN/CIKGU MANAF 2016

distribution with a mean of 52 and a standard value of a given P (X > a) = 0.268


deviation of 10.
Find
(a) the z-score when X= 67.2
(b) the value of k when P(z<k) = 0.8849
[4 marks]

[40.84]
[1.52, k = 1.2]
(11) SPM 2003 P1 Q 24 (12) The diameters of the marbles produced by a
Diagram below shows a standard normal factory are normally distributed with a mean of
distribution graph. 9mm and a standard deviation of 0.1 mm.
F(z) Diagram below shows the normal distribution
graph for the diameter of the marbles, X mm

=9 h
0 k X mm
It is given that the area of the shaded region is
o.4522. Find the value of h
If P(0< z < k)=0.3128, find P(z > k)

[0.1872] [9.012]
13. Diagram below shows a standardized normal (14) SPM 2006P1 Q25
distribution graph.
f (z)

0.3643

z
O k
The probability represented by the area of the
shaded region is 0.3643 Diagram shows a standard normal distribution
(i) Find the value of k. graph.
(ii) X is a continuous random variable which is The probability represented by the area of the
normally distributed with a mean of and a shaded region is 0.3485.
standard deviation of 8. (i)Find the value of k
Find the value of if X = 70 when the z-score (ii) X is a continuous random variable which is
TABURAN KEBARANGKALIAN/CIKGU MANAF 2016

is k. normally distributed with a mean of 79 and a


standard deviation of 3. Find the value of X
when the z-score is k

[ 1.1, 61.2] [ 1.03, 82.09]

15. SPM 2004 P1 Q25


X is a random variable of a normal distribution with a mean of 5.2 and a variance of 1.44.
Find
(a) the Z score if X =6.7,
(b) P(5.2 X 6.7) [4 marks]
[ 1.25, 0.3944]

16. SPM 2004 P2 Q11


(b) A survey on the body mass is done on a group of students. The mass of a
student has a normal distribution with a mean of 50 kg and a standard
deviation of 15 kg.
(i) If a student is chosen at random, calculate the probability that his mass is less
than 41 kg.
(ii) Given that 12% of the students have a mass of more than m kg, find the value
of m. [5 marks]
[0.2743,67.625]

17. SPM 2005 P1 Q 25


The mass of students in a school has a normal distribution with a mean of 54kg and a
standard deviation of 12 kg. find
(a) the mass of the students which gives a standard score of 0.5
(b) the percentage of student a with mass greater than 48 kg [4marks]
[ 60, 0.69146]

18.SPM 2005 P2 Q11


TABURAN KEBARANGKALIAN/CIKGU MANAF 2016

The mass of water melons produced from an orchard follows a normal distribution with a
mean of 3.2kg and a standard deviation of 0.5 kg. find
(i) the probability that a water-melon chosen randomly from the orchard have a mass of not
more than 4.0 kg
(ii) the value of m if 60% of the water melons from the orchard have a mass more than m kg
[6marks]
[ 0.9452,3.0735,]

19. SPM 2003 P2 Q10


The mass of the workers in a factory is normally distributed with a mean of 67.86 kg and a
variance of 42.25kg2. 200 of the workers in the factory weigh between 50 kg and 70 kg. Find
the total number of worker in the factory. [319]
[ 5 marks]

20. SPM 2007 P2Q11


A group of workers are given medical check up. The blood pressure of a worker has a normal
distribution with a mean of 130 mmHg and a standard deviation of 16mmHg. Blood pressure
that is more than 150 mmHg is classify as high blood pressure
(i) a worker is chosen at random from the group. Find the probability that the worker has a
blood pressure between 114mm Hg and 150mmHg
(ii) It is found that 132 workers have high blood pressure. Find the total number of workers
in the group. [5marks]
[0.7357, 1250]

21.SPM 2006 P2 Q 11
An orchard produces lemons. Only lemons with diameter, x greater than k cm are graded and
marketed. Table below show the grades of the lemons based on their diameters.
Grade A B C
Diameter, x(cm) X>7 7>x>5 5>x>k
It is given that the diameter of the lemons has a normal distribution with amean of 5.8 cm and a
standard deviation of 1.5 cm
(a) If one lemon is picked at random, calculate the probability that it is of grade A
[2marks]
(b) In a basket of 500 lemons, estimate the number of grade B lemons. [4marks]
(c) If 85.7% of the lemons is marketed, find the value of k. [4marks]
[ 0.2119, 0.4912, 4.1965]