LESSON 1
NUMBER SYSTEM
1. INTRODUCTION
In our day to life we deal with different types of numbers which can be broady classified as follows.
(i) Natural number (N) : Set of all nonfractional numbers from 1 to , N = { 1, 2, 3, 4.....}
(ii) Whole number (W) : Set of all nonfractional numbers from zero to , W = { 0, 1, 2, 3, 4,.....}
A. RATIONAL NUMBERS:
p
Rational numbers : These are real numbers which can be expressed in the form of . Where p and
q
q are integers and q 0.
Note:
(i) Whole numbers and integers are rational numbers.
(ii) Types of rational : (a) Terminating decimal numbers and (b) Nonterminating repeating
(recurring) decimal numbers are rational numbers.
2 37 17
Ex. , , , 3, 0, 10, 4.33,7123123123.......
3 15 19
Al. FINDING RATIONAL NUMBERS BETWEEN TWO NUMBERS :
Ex1 Find 4 rational numbers between 4 and 5.
Method (i) a = 4, b = 5, n = 4
a ( n + 1) 4 ( 4 + 1) 4 5 20
= = =
n +1 4 +1 5 5
b ( n + 1) 5 ( 4 + 1) 5 5 25
= = =
n +1 4 +1 5 5
20 21 22 23 24 25
, , , , ,
5 5 5 5 5 5
6 7
Ex2 Find 3 rational number between ,
5 5
6 7
Method (ii) a = , b= , n =3
5 5
7 6 7  6

b  a 5 5 5 1
d= = = =
n + 1 3 + 1 4 20
6 1 24 + 1 25
a+d = + = =
5 20 20 20
6 1 24 + 2 26
a + 2d = + 2 = =
5 20 20 20
6 3 3 24 + 3 27
a + 3d = + = = =
5 20 20 20 20
NUMBER SYSTEM 3
24
25 26 27 28
, , , ,
20
20 20 20 20
A2. RATIONAL NUMBER IN DECIMAL REPRESENTATION:
(i) Terminating decimal: In this a finits number of digit occours after decimal
1 1
Ex = 0.25, = 0.5
4 2
4 1.0000 0.25
8
20
20
0
(ii) Non terminating & Repeating (Recurring decimal): The remainder never become zero.
2
Ex. = 0.181818 = 0.18
11
2
\ = 0.181818.... = 0.18
11
8
Ex. = 2.6666666 = 2.6
3
8
\ = 2.6666...... = 2.6
3
NUMBER SYSTEM 4
4
(ii) Negative fraction:  Divide a unit into 9 equal parts
9
(iv) Non terminating & repeating decimals: Visualize 4.26 on the number line, up to 4 decimals places.
4.26 = 4.262626.....
a c e
A4. PROPERTIES OF RATIONAL NUMBERS:  If and , are three rational numbers then.
b d f
a c c a
(i) + = + [Commutative law of addition)
b d d b
a c e a c e
(ii) + + = + + [Associative law of addition]
b d f b d f
NUMBER SYSTEM 5
a a a a a a
(iii) + = + = 0,  is called the additive inverse of
b b b b b b
a c c a
(iv) = [Commutative law of multiplication]
b d d b
a c e a c e
(v) = [Associative law of multiplication]
b d f b d f
a c e a c a e
(vi) + = + [Distributive law]
b d f b d b f
A5 CONVERSION OF NON TERMINATING & REPEATING DECIMALS NUMBERS TO
THE FORM P
p
:
q
Nonterminating repeating decimals, are basically two types.
(i) Pure recurring decimals: A decimal in which all the digits after the decimal point are repeated,
these types of decimals are known as pure recurring decimals.
Ex. 0.6. 0.16, 0.123 are pure recurring decimals.
(ii) Mixed recurring decimals: A decimal in which at least one of the digits after the decimal point is
not repeated and then some digit or digits are repeated. These types of decimals are known as mixed
recurring decimals.
Ex 2.16. 0.35. 0.785 are mixed recurring decimals
p
(a) In order to convert a pure recurring decimal to the form we follow the following steps:
q
Step. (i) Obtain the repeating decimal and put it equal to x (say).
(ii) Write the number in decimal form by removing bar from the top of repeating digit and listing
repeating digits at least twice.
Ex. x = 0.8 Has x = 0.888
(iii) Determine the number of digits having bar on their heads.
(iv) If the repeating decimal has 1 place repetition, multiply by 10; a two place repetition, multiply
by 100; a three place repetition, multiply by 1000 and so on.
(v) Subtract the number in step (ii) from the number obtained in step (iv).
(vi) Divide both sides of the equation by the coefficient of x.
(vii) Write the rational number in its simplest form.
NUMBER SYSTEM 6
p
Ex.1 Express of the 0.3 in the form :
q
Sol. Let x = 0.3 Then,
x = 0.33333.... .. (i)
Here we have only one repeating digit part after decimal so we multiply both sides by 10.
10x = 3.3333.... (ii)
On subtracting (i) from (ii), we get
10x  x = ( 3.33333...)  ( 0.33333...)
9x = 3 9x
3
x =
9
3 3
0.3 = i.e., 0.33333.... =
9 9
p
Ex.2 Show that 1.272727 = 1.27 can be expressed in the form , where p and q are integers and q 0.
q
Sol. Let x = 1.27 Then,
x = 1.27272727... ..... (i)
Here we have only two repeating digit after decimal so we multiply both sides by 100.
100x = 127.272727... . (ii)
On subtracting (i) from (ii), we get
99x = ( 127.272727....)  ( 1.272727....)
99x = 126
126 14
x= =
99 11
14
Hence, 1.27 =
11
p
Ex.3 Convert the 23.43 number in the form
q
Sol. Let x = 23.43 Then,
x = 23.434343..... . (i)
Here we have only two repeating digit after decimal so we multiply both sides by 100.
NUMBER SYSTEM 7
(iii) Multiply both sides of x by 10 n so that only the repeating decimal is on the right side of the
decimal point.
p
(vi) Use the method of converting pure recurring decimal to the form and obtain the value of x.
q
p
Ex. Show that 0.2353535... = 0.235 can be expressed in the form , where p and q are integers and
q
q 0.
Sol. Let x = 0.235. Then
10x = 0.235
10x = 2 + 0.35
35 35
10x = 2 + Q
0.35 =
99 99
2 99 + 35
10x =
99
198 + 35 233 233
10x = 10x = x =
99 99 990
A6. DIRECT METHOD:
p
(c) Let x = be a rational number, such that the prime factorisation of q is not of the form
q
2m 5n, where m. n are nonnegative integers. Then, x has a decimal expansion which is
nonterminating repeating.
17
(ii) = 2.83333.....
6
(we observe that the prime factorisation of the denominators of these rational numbers are not
of the form 2m 5n , where m, n are nonnegative integers.)
17 17
(iii) = 3 0
8 2 5
17
(So, the denominator 8 or is of the form 2m 5n , where m, n are nonnegative integers)
8
17
Hence has terminating decimal expansion.
8
64 64
(iv) =
455 5 7 13
64
(Clearly, 455 is not of the 2m 5n. so, the decimals expansion is nonterminating
455
repeating)
TEST OF DIVISIBILITY:
A positive integer N is divisible by
(i) 2 if and only if the last digit (unit's digit) is even.
(ii) 3 if and only if the sum of all the digits is divisibly by 3.
(iii) 4 if and only if the number formed by last two digits is divisibly by 4.
(iv) 5 if and only if the last digit is either 0 or 5.
(v) 8 if and only if the number formed by last three digits is divisibly by 8.
(vi) 9 if and only if the sum of all the digits is divisibly by 9.
(vii) 11 if and only if the difference between the sum of digits in the odd places (starting from
right) and sum of the digits in the even places (starting from right) is a multiple of 11.
(viii) 25 if and only if the number formed by the last two digits is divisibly by 25.
NUMBER SYSTEM 10
B. IRRATIONAL NUMBER:
p
Irrational number: A number is called irrational number, if it can not be written in the form , where p
q
& q are integers and q 0
Ex. 2, 3, 3 2, 2 + 3, 2 + 3....etc
(i) Nonterminating & Nonrepeating decimal numbers are Irrational numbers.
Ex.1 Prove that 2 is not a rational number.
Sol. Let us find the square root of 2 by long division methods as shown below.
( 2) a
2
= (Squaring both sides)
b
a2
2=
b2
a 2 = 2b 2
NUMBER SYSTEM 11
2 divides a 2
2 divides a
Therefore let a = 2c for some integer c.
a 2 = 4c 2
2b 2 = 4c 2
2 divides b 2
2 divides b
Thus, 2 is a common factor of a and b.
But, it contradicts out assumption that a and b have no common factor other than 1.
So, our assumption that 2 is a rational is wrong.
Hence, 2 is irrational.
Ex.2 Prove that 3
3 is irrational.
p
Sol. Let 3
3 be rational = , where p and q z and p. q have no common factor except 1 also q > 1.
q
p
\ =33
q
Cubing both side
p3
=3
q3
Multiply both sides by q 2
p3
= 3q 2 Hence L.H.S is rational since p, q have no common factor
q
\ p3 , q also have no common factor while R.H.S. is an integer
\ L.H.S R.H.S which contradicts our assumption that 3
3 is irrational.
Ex.3 Prove that 2 + 3 is irrational.
Sol. Let 2 + 3 be a rational number equals to r
\ 2+ 3 = r
3 = r 2
Here L.H.S is an irrational number while R.H.S. r  2 rational. \ L.H.S R.H.S
Hence it contradicts our assumption that 2 + 3 is rational
\ 2 + 3 is irrational
NUMBER SYSTEM 12
Sum ( )
3 +  3 = 0 which is rational
Difference ( )
3   3 = 2 3, which is irrational.
( ) ( )
Sum 2 + 3 + 2  3 = 4, , a rational number.
( 2 + 3 ) ( 2  3 ) = ( 2)  ( 3 ) = 4  3 = 1 a rational number
2 2
(iv)
( 2 + 3 ) ( 2 + 3 ) = ( 2 + 3 ) = ( 2 ) + ( 3 ) + 2 ( 2 ) ( 3 ) = 4 + 3 + 4
2 2 2
(v) 3 = 7 + 4 3 an irrational
number
Important Note:
(a) 2  2, It is not irrational number
(b) (
2, 5 2 5 = 10 )
2, 5, 5 2, are called imaginary numbers
2 = i 2, where i ( iota ) = 1
B2. REPRESENTATION OF IRRATIONAL NUMBERS ON A NUMBER LINE:
2, 3, 5 on a number line
OB = 2 = OF OC = 3 = OG
OD = 4 = OH OE = 5 = OI
NUMBER SYSTEM 14
(i) These are the numbers which can represent actual physical quantities in a meaningful way.
These can be represented on the number line. Number line is geometrically straight line with
arbitrarily defined zero (origin).
Cl. GEOMETRICAL REPRESENTATION OF REAL NUMBERS:
To represent only real numbers on numbers line we follow the following algorithm.
Algorithm
(i) Obtain the positive real number x (say)
NUMBER SYSTEM 15
\ AC = ( x + 1) Units
x +1
OA = OC = units
2
x +1
OD = units
2
x + 1 x 1
Now, OB = AB  OA = x = [Q OA = OC = OD]
2 2
Using Pythagoras theorem in DOBD, we have
OD2 = OB2 + BD 2
BD 2 = OD 2  OB2
2 2
x + 1 x  1
BD =
2

2 2
BD = (x 2
) (
+ 2x + 1  x 2  2x + 1 ) =
4x
= x
4 4
This shows that x exists for all real numbers x > 0.
C2. EXPONENTS OF REAL NUMBER:
(i) Positive exponent:
For any real number a and a positive integer n we define an as
a n = a a a ..................... a (in times)
an is called the nth power of a. The real number a is called the base and n is called the exponent of
the nth power of a.
Ex. 33 = 3 3 3 = 27
NUMBER SYSTEM 16
3
(ii) Negative exponent:
n 1
For any non  zero real number a and a positive integer n we define a =
an
Thus we have defined a n for all integral values of n. positive, zero or negative, a n is called that nth
power of a.
1 1 1
53 = 3
= =
5 5 5 5 125
(iii) Rational power (Exponents):
p
( )
1/ q
For any positive real number a and a rational number , where q > 0, we define a p / q = a p i.e. a p / q is
q
the principal q th root of a p .
C3 RATIONAL EXPONENTS OF A REAL NUMBER:
(i) nth root of a positive real number
If a is a positive real number and n is a positive integer, then the principal n th root of a is the
unique positive real number x such that x n = a.
The principal n th root of a positive real number a is denoted by a1/ n or n
a
(ii) Principal nth root of a negative Real Number
If a is a negative real number and n is an odd positive integer, then the principal n th root of a is
1/ n
defined as  a i.e. the principal n th root of is minus of the principal n th root if a .
Remark: If a is negative real number and n is an even positive integer, then the principal n th root if
a is not defined, because an even power of a real number is always positive. Therefore ( 9 ) is a
1/ 9
meaning less quantity, if we confine ourselves to the set of real number, only.
C4 LAWS OF RATIONAL EXPONENTS:
The following laws hold the rational exponents.
(i) a m a n = a m + n
(ii) a m a n = a m  n
(iii) (a ) m n
= a mn
n 1
(iv) a =
an
NUMBER SYSTEM 17
( ) ( ) ( a)
1/ n m m
(v) am/n = am = a1/ n = am/n = n am = n
( ab )
m
(vi) = a mbm
m m
a a
(vii) = m ( b 0 )
b b
(viii) a bn = a b + b + b....n times
(ix) a m a m = a 0 = 1
Where a, b are positive real numbers and m, n are rational numbers.
Ex.1 Simplify each of the following
3
3
(i) 5 5 2 4
(b) 3 ( ) 2 3
. (iii)
4
Sol. (i) 52.54 = 52+ 4 = 15625 Q a m a n = a m + n
( )
(ii) 3 = 3 = 3 = 15625
3 23 6
Q ( a m ) = a mn
n
3
3 1 1 1 64
= = 3 = = 1
3
(iii) 4 3 3 27 27 Q a n =
43 64 an
4
Ex.2 Simplify each of the following
4 2 3
2 11 3
(i) (ii) 255 260  297 218
11 3 2
16 2 n +1  4 2 n
(iii)
16 2n + 2  2 2n + 2
4 2 3
2 11 3 24 112 33 24 112 33 2 3 6
Sol. (i) = 4 2 3 = 4 2 3 = 2 =
11 3 2 11 3 2 11 3 2 11 121
(ii) We have. 255 260  297 218 = 255+ 60  297 +18  2115  2115 = 0
24 2n +1  22 2n 22 + 5  2n + 2 2n +5  2n + 2 2n +5  2n + 5 1
(iii) 4 n + 2 = = = =
2 2  2 2 n +2 n +6
2 2 n +3 n+2
2.2  2.2 n+2 n +5
2 2 2 n+2
2 ( )
Ex.3 Assuming that x is a positive real number and a, b, c are rational numbers show that:
1/ ab 1/ bc 1/ ac
x a x b x c
b c a =1
x x x
NUMBER SYSTEM 18
Sol. = ( x a b ) (x ) (x )
1/ ab b  c 1/ bc c  a 1/ ac
= x ( a b ) / bc x ( b c ) / bc x ( c a ) / ac
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
      
= xb a xa c
= xb a c b b c
= x0 = 1
( )
2
 ( 27 )
n
9n 32 3 n / 2 1 Prove that m  n = 1.
Ex.4 If = ,
3m 3
3 2 27
n
( ) ( )
 2 n
Sol. 32 32 3 2
 33 1
3m 3
=
3 2 27
32n 32 3n  33n 1
3m 3
=
3 2 27
32n + 2+ n  33n 1
3m 3
=
3 2 27
33n + 2  32n 1
3m 3
=
3 2 27
(
32n 32  1 )= 1
3m 3
3 2 27
33n 8 1
=
33m8 27
1
33n 3m =
33
33n 3m = 33 [On equating the exponent]
3n  3m = 3 n  m = 1 m  n = 1
Ex. 5 Assuming that x is a positive real number and a, b, c are rational numbers, show that
a + b+c b c a ca b
x a x b x c
b c a =1
x x x
(x ) a b a + b c
( ) (x )
b+ c a c a c + a  b
Sol. , x b c
= x ( a  b ) ( a + b )  c ( a  b ) x ( b  c ) ( b + c ) a ( b  c ) x ( c a ) ( c + a )  ( c a )
2
 b 2 ca + bc 2
 c2  ab  ac 2
a 2 bc  ba
xa xb xc
2
 b2  ca  bc  b2  c2
= xa *****
= x = 1
NUMBER SYSTEM 19
a xyz = cz Qa x = b
a xyz = a Q cz = a
\ a xyz = a1 xyz = 1
2xz
Ex.7 If a x = b y = c z and b 2 = ac. prove that y =
x+z
Sol. Let a x = b y = c z = k. Then a = k1/ x .b = k1/ y and c = k1/ z
Now, b 2 = ac
( )
2
k1/ y = k1/ x k1/ z = k1/ x +1/ z
2 1 1 2 x+z 2xz
= + = y=
y x z y xz x+z
Ex.8 If 25x 1 = 52x 1  100. Find the value of x.
Sol. We have
25x 1 = 52x 1  100
52x  2  52x 1 = 100
52x  2  52x 1 = 100
52x  2  52x 251 = 100
52x  2 ( 1  5 ) = 100
52x  2 ( 4 ) = 100
52x  2 = 25 52x  2 = 52
2x  2 = 2 2x = 4
x=2
D. SURDS:
Surd: Any irrational number of the form n
a is given a special name surd.
Where a is called radikand, it should always be a rational number. Also the symbol n
is called
the radical sign and the index n is called order of the surd.
1
n
a read as nth root of a and can also be written as a n
NUMBER SYSTEM 20
( a)
n
(i) n
= n an = a
(ii) n
a n b = n ab [Here order should be same]
(iii) n a n b = n ab
(iv) n m
a = nm a = m n a
n p
(v) n
a= ap [Important for changing order of surds]
n p
or n
am = a m p
Ex.1 (i) 3
62 make its order 6
Then 3
62 = 3 62 = 3.2 62.2 = 6 64
(ii) 3
6 Make its order 15
Then 3
6 = 3.5 61.5 = 15 65
(iii) 3
8 = 3 23 = 2
(iv) 4 81 = 4 34 = 3
(v) 3
2 3 6 = 3 2 6 = 3 12
But 3
3 4 6 3 6 (Because order is not same)
1st make their order same & then you can multiple.
(vi) 2 =82
D2 IDENTITY OF A SURD:
(i) These are not a surd,
3
8 because 3
8 = 3 23 which is a rational number.
(iv) 3
1 + 3 because radicand is an irrational number.
(v) 3
4 is a surd as radicand is a rational number
NUMBER SYSTEM 21
3
Ex. 5, 4 12, 5 7..........
1
12
3 1
(vi) 3
3 is a surd as 3
3 =
3 = 36 = 6 3
Ex. 2 3
5, 4 5
6 ,......
(vii) 2 + 3 is a surd (as surd + rational number will give a surd)
Ex. 3  2. 3 + 1, 3 3 + 1,.......
D3. TYPES OF SURDS:
(a) Simplest form of surds:
Ex. (i) 3
135 its simplest form is 3 3 5
(ii) 4
1875 its simplest form is 5 4
3
(iii) 4 8 = 6 23 = 2 Simplest form
(b) Quadratic surds: Surd of order 2
Ex.: 2. 3....
(c) Biquadratic surds: Surd of order 4
Ex.: 4
8
(d) Cubic surds: Surd of order 3
Ex: 3
3. 3 15
(e) Like surds: Two or more surds are called like if they have or can be reduced to have the same
irrational or surd factor.
Ex. 2. 3 2
(f) Unlike surds: Two or more surds are called unlike, if they are not similar. (i.e. radicand as well
as index are different).
Ex. 5, 3, 6
(g) Pure surds: A Surd which has unity only as its rational factor, the other factor being irrational,
is called pure surd.
Ex. 3, 15, 4 1875, 6 8
(h) Mixed surds: A surd which has a rational factor other than unity, the other factor being
irrational, is called a mixed surd
Ex. 2 3, 5 4 3
(i) Simple surds: A surd consisting of a single term is called a simple surd.
NUMBER SYSTEM 22
73
Ex. 3, 4 5, 6
2
(j) Compounds surds: An algebraic sum of two or more surds is called a compounds surd, are
simple surd
Ex. 3 + 5  3 4, 3  3 5 etc are compound surds.
(k) Monomial surds: Single surds is called monomial surds.
4
Ex. 3 2, 2, 3 3......
2
(l) Binomial surds: An algebric sum of two simple surds or a rational number and a simple surds is
known as a binomial surd.
Ex. 2 + 3, 3 + 2, 2 + 3 3, 3 2 + 3 3,
(m) Trinomial surds: An algebric sum of three simple surds or the sum of a rational number and
two simple surds is known as trinomial surds
Ex. 1 + 2 + 3, 2 + 3  5, 3 9,  3 3 + 3 4
(n) Equiradical surds: Surds of the different orders are known as nonequiradical surds
Ex. 2, a , 5
(o) Nonequiradical surds: Surds of the different orders are known as nonequiradical surds
Ex. 2, 3 4, 4 b
Ex1. Express following as a pure surds and mixed surds
33
(i) 128 (ii) 5
96
4
34 33 27
Sol. (i) 128, = 3 3 3 128 = 3 128 = 3 54
4 4 64
(ii) 5
96 = 5 32 3 = 5 25 3 5 25 = 5 3 = 2 5 3
D4. OPERATION OF SURDS:
(a) Addition and subtraction of surds: Addition & subtraction of surds are possible only when
order and radicand are same i.e. only for like surds.
Ex. (i) Simplify the 15 6  216 + 96
= 15 6  6 2 6 + 16 6
= 15 6  6 6 + 4 6
= ( 15  6 + 4 ) 6
13 6
NUMBER SYSTEM 23
Sol. 7 3=
( 7 3 )( 7+ 3 )= 7 3
=
4
( 7+ 3 ) 7+ 3 7+ 3
And 5 1 =
( 5 1 )( 5 +1 )= 5 1
=
4
( 5 +1 ) 5 1 5 +1
NUMBER SYSTEM 24
(iii) 3 4
= 3
4 3
42 3
43 4
Rationalizing Factor of 3
4 is 3
42
(iv) 3 16
Simplest form of 3 16 is 2 3 2
Now rationalizing factor of 3
2 is 3
22
\ Rationalizing factor of 3 16 is 3
22
Ex.2 Find rationalizing factor of 4 162
Simplest from of 4 162 is 3 4 2
Now rationalizing factor of 4
2 is 4
23
\ Rationalizing factor of 4 162 is 4
23
D6. WHEN CONJUGATE SURDS AND RECIPROCALS ARE SAME:
(a) 2 + 3, its conjugate is 2  3 its reciprocal is 2 + 3 & vice versa
(b) 5  2 6, its conjugate is 5 + 2 6, its reciprocal is, 5  2 6 & vice versa.
Ex.1 Express the following surd with a rational denominator.
8
15 + 1  5  3
8
=
( 15 + 1  ) ( 5+ 3 )
15 + 1 + 5 + 3
8
=
( ) ( ) (
15 + 1  5 + 3 15 + 1 + 5 + 3
) ( )
8 ( 15 + 1 + 5 + 3 )
=
( 15 + 1)  ( 5 + 3 )
2 2
8 ( 15 + 1 + 5 + 3 )
=
15 + 1 + 2 15  ( 5 + 3 + 2 15 )
8 ( 15 + 1 + 5 + 3 )
=
8
= ( 15 + 1 + 5 + 3 )
NUMBER SYSTEM 26
3+ 2 2
Ex.2 If = a + b 2. where a and b are rationals
3 2
Find the value of a and b
L.H.S. =
3+ 2 2
=
3+ 2 2 3+ 2
=
( )(
9 + 3 2 + 6 2 + 4 13 9
= + 2
)
3 2 3 2 3+ 2 ( 92 )( 7 7)
13 9
\ + 2 =a+b 2
7 7
equation the rational and irrational parts
13 9
We get a = .b =
7 7
1
Ex.3 If x = , Find the value of x 3  11x + 3
2+ 3
1
As x = = 2 3
2+ 3
x2=  3
Squaring both sides, we get
( )
2
( x  2)
2
=  3 x 2 + 4  4x = 3 x 2  4x + 1 = 0
( ) (
x x 2  4x + 1 + 3 x 2  4x + 1 )
x 0 + 3 ( 0 )
0+0 =0
Ex.4. If x = 1 + 2 + 3, prove that x 4  4x 3  4x 2 + 16x  8 = 0
Sol. x = 1 + 2 + 3
Squaring both sides
( )
2
( x  1) =
2
2+ 3
x 2 + 1  2x = 2 + 3 + 2 6
x 2  2x  4 = 2 6
Squaring both sides
NUMBER SYSTEM 27
( ) = ( 2 6)
2 2
x 2  2x  4
x 4 + 4x 2 + 16  4x 3 + 16x  8x 2 = 24
x 4  4x 3  4x 2 + 16x + 16  24 = 0
x 4  4x 3  4x 2 + 16x  8 = 0
D7 Square Roots of Binomial Quadratic Surds:
( ) ( )
2 2
(a) Since x+ y = ( x + y ) + 2 xy & x y = x + y  2 xy
( 2 + 3)
2
= 2+ 3
5+ 2 6  52 6
Ex.2 Simplify
5+ 2 6 + 52 6
Since 5+ 2 6 = 3 + 2 & 5 2 6 = 3  2
5+2 6  52 6
=
( 3+ 2 ) ( 3 2 ) =2 2
=
2 3 1
= 6
5+ 2 6 + 52 6 ( 3+ 2) +( 3 2) 2 3 3 3 3
a + 2b + a  2b
Ex.3 If x = Prove that b 2 x 2  abx + b 2 = 0
a + 2b  a  2b
As x =
a + 2b + a  2b
a + 2b + a  2b ( )
a + 2b  a  2b a + 2b + a  2b ( )
( )
2
a + 2b + a  2b a + 2b + a  2b + 2 ( a + 2b ) ( a  2b )
x= =
( a + 2b )  ( a  2b ) 4b
NUMBER SYSTEM 28
2
a + a 2  4b 2 a + a 2  4b 2
x= =
4b 2b
2bx = a + a 2  4b 2
2bx  a = a 2  4b 2
( )
19
( 64 ) ( 63 + 1) so by using binomial expression, we can say that 18 terms are com
19 19
38 82
Sol. 8 = = =
63 63 63 3
( +1)
19
pletely divisible by 63 but the last term which is is not divisible, so, 119 = 1 is the remainder.
63
16
Ex2 What is the remainder when 1415 is divided by 5 ?
Sol. 1415 = ( 15  1) = 15n + ( 1) , i.e. a (multiple of 5) 1. Thus when divided by 5 the reminder
16 odd odd
will be 1 i.e. 4.
Ex3 What is the remainder if 725 is divided by 4?
Sol. 725 can be written (8  l)25. There are 26 terms in all. All the first 25 terms are divisible by 8, hence
also by 4. The last term is (1)25. Hence, (8  l)25 can be written 8x  1 or 4Y  1 (where Y = 2X). So
4Y  1 divided by 4 leaves the remainder 3.
(II) CYCLICITY:
We are having 10 digits in our number system and some of them shows special characteristics like
they, repeat their unit digit after a cycle, for example 1 repeat its unit digit after every consecutive
power. So, its cyclicity is 1 on the other hand digit 2 repeat its unit digit after every four power,
hence the cyclicity of 2 is four. The cyclicity of digits are as follows.
Digit Cyclicity
0, 1, 5 and 6 1
4 and 9 2
2, 3, 7 and 8 4
NUMBER SYSTEM 29
Ex1 If we want to find the last digit of 357, divide 57 by 4. The remainder is 1 so the last digit of 357 would
be same as the last digit of 31 which is 3.
Ex2 Find the last digit of 1359
Sol. The number of digits in the base will not make a difference to the last digit. It is last digit of the base
59
which decides the last digit of the number itself. For 13 59, we get which gives a remainder 3. So
4
the last digit of 1359 is same as the last digit of 33  27 i.e. 7.
E. L.C.M. & H.C.F.
(i) L.CM. (Least common multiple) L.C.M. of two or more numbers is the product of the greatest
power of each prime factor involved in the numbers.
Ex. Find the L.C.M. of 24x 2 yz and 27x 4 y 2 z 2 .
And q ( x ) = 27x y z = 3 x y z
4 2 2 3 4 2 2
Here we see that the common factors and 3, x, y, z and their highest power present in the
expressions are 33, x4, y2, z2. Also, the uncommon factor is 23.
Hence the required L.C.M.  23 33 x4 y2 z2 = 216x4y2z2
(ii) H.C.F. (Highest common factor): The H.C. F of two or more positive integers is the largest
positive integer that divides each given positive number completely i.e. if positive integers d
divides two positive integers a and b then the H.C.F of a and b is d.
Ex. (i) 14 is the largest positive integers that divides 28 and 70 completely, therefore H.C.F. 28 and 70
is 14.
(ii) H.C.F. of 75, 125 and 200 is 25 as divider each of 75, 125 and 200 completely and so on.
Thus, dividend = divisor quotient + remainder
El. EUCLIDS DIVISION LEMMA OR EUCLID'S DIVISIONS ALGORITHAM
For any two positive integers a and b there exist unique integers q and r such that
a = bq + r, where 0 r < b.
Let us consider a = 2 1 7 , b = 5 and make the division of 217 by 5 as under:
= 9q 2 + 12q + 4
= 9q 2 + 12q + 3 + 1
( )
= 3 3q 2 + 4q + 1 + 1 = 3m + 1 for some integer and m = 3q 2 + 4q + 1.
\ The square of any positive integer is either of the form 3m or 3m + 1 for some integer m.
Ex.3 Show that one and only one out of n; n + 2 or n + 4 is divisible by 3, where n is any positive integer.
Sol. Consider any twp positive integers a and b such that a is greater than b, then according to Euclid's
division algorithm.
a = bq + r; where q and r positive integers and 0 r < b
NUMBER SYSTEM 31
\ 24 = 2 2 2 3 = 23 3
36 = 2 2 3 3 = 22 32
40 = 2 2 2 5 = 23 5
\ LCM (24, 36, 40) = Product of the greatest power of each prime factor involved in the numbers
= 23 32 5 = 360
E5 USING THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF ARITHEMETIC TO FIND H.C.F AND
L.C.M.
(a) L.C.M. (Least common multiple) = Product of each prime factor with highest powers
Pr oduct of the number or ( a b )
L.C.M. ( a, b ) =
H.C.F. ( a, b )
(b) H.C.F. (Highest common factor) = Product of common prime factor with lowest powers
Pr oduct of the numbers or ( a b )
H.C.F. ( a, b ) =
L.C.M. ( a, b )
Ex.1 Find the L.C.M and H.C.F. of 1296 and 2520 by applying the fundamental theorem of arithmetic
method i.e. using the prime factorisation method.
1296 = 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 = 24 34
2520 = 2 2 2 3 3 5 7 = 23 32 5 7
NUMBER SYSTEM 34
L.C.M. = 24 34 5 7 = 45360
H.C.F. = 23x32 = 72
Ex.2 Given that H.C.F. (306, 657) = 9. Find L.C.M. (306, 657)
Sol. H.C.F. (306, 657) = 9 means H.C.F. of 306 and 657 = 9
Required L.C.M. (306, 657) means required L.C.M. of 306 and 657.
For any two positive integers;
Product of the number
Their L.C.M. =
Their H.C.F.
306 657
i.e. L.C.M. ( 306, 657 ) = = 22,338
9
Ex.3 Given that L.C.M. ( 150, 100 ) = 300, find H.C.F. ( 150, 100 ) .
Sol. L.C.M. (150, 100) = 300
L.C.M. of 150 and 100 = 300
Since, the product of number 150 and 100 = 150 100
And, we know:
Pr oduct of 150 and 100 150 100
H.C.F. ( 150, 100 ) = = = 50
L.C.M ( 150, 100 ) 300
NUMBER SYSTEM 35
EXERCISE  I
8. If 3
32 = 2x then x is equal to
3 5
(a) 5 (b) 3 (c) (d)
5 3
9. 0.737373=
73 73
(a) ( 0.73)
3
(b) (c) (d) None of these
100 99
10. If p is a positive prime integer, then p is
(a) A rational number (b) An irrational number
(c) A positive integer (d) None of these
11. There is a positive integer n for which n + 1  n  1 is
(a) Natural number (b) Whole number (c) Rational number (d) None of these
NUMBER SYSTEM 36
19. ( )
If x = 7 + 4 3 , then the value of x +
2 1
x2
is
ANSWER KEY
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
C B A C D C * D C B
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
D B B A A A C C B D
NUMBER SYSTEM 37
EXERCISE  II
11. Show that there is no positive integer n for which n  1 + n + 1 is rational number
12. Find the HCF of 81 and 237 and express it as a linear combination of 81 and 237
p
19. Express the following mixed recurring decimals in the form
q
(i) 0.32 (ii) 15.712
20. Simplify by combining similar terms
2 3 40 + 3 3 265  4 3 320
21. Simplify and express the result in its simplest form
3
(i) 2, 3 3. 4 4 (ii) 2, 4 2, 12 32
17
22. Express  in decimal form by long division method
8
23. Find the simplest rationalising factor of 2 + 3 + 5
24. A sweetseller has 420 kaju barfis and 130 badam barfis. She wants to stack them in such a way that
each stack has the same number, and they take up the least area of the tray. What is the number of
burfis that can be placed in each stack for this purpose?
25. Let a, b, c, p be rational numbers such that p is not a perfect cube. If a + bp1/ 3 + cp 2 / 3 = 0 then prove
that a = b = c = 0
ANSWER KEY
23. ( 2+ )(
3  5 1 2 3 )
24. HCF = 10