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NUMBER SYSTEM 1

LESSON 1
NUMBER SYSTEM

1. INTRODUCTION
In our day to life we deal with different types of numbers which can be broady classified as follows.

(i) Natural number (N) : Set of all non-fractional numbers from 1 to , N = { 1, 2, 3, 4.....}

(ii) Whole number (W) : Set of all non-fractional numbers from zero to , W = { 0, 1, 2, 3, 4,.....}

(iii) Integers (I or Z) : Set of all non-fractional numbers from { -....to.... + }


I or Z = { -.... - 3, - 2, - 1, 0, + 1, + 2, + 3.... + }
Positive integers : {0, 1, 2, 3...}, Negative integers : {. . . . -4, -3, -2, -1}
(iv) Prime numbers : All natural numbers that have one & itself as their factor are prime numbers.
Ex: 2, 3, 5, 7
(v) Composite numbers : All natural numbers which are not prime numbers are composite numbers.
Ex: 4, 6, 8, 9
(1 is nither neither prime nor composite number)
NUMBER SYSTEM 2

A. RATIONAL NUMBERS:
p
Rational numbers : These are real numbers which can be expressed in the form of . Where p and
q
q are integers and q 0.
Note:
(i) Whole numbers and integers are rational numbers.
(ii) Types of rational : (a) Terminating decimal numbers and (b) Non-terminating repeating
(recurring) decimal numbers are rational numbers.
2 37 -17
Ex. , , , -3, 0, 10, 4.33,7123123123.......
3 15 19
A-l. FINDING RATIONAL NUMBERS BETWEEN TWO NUMBERS :
Ex-1 Find 4 rational numbers between 4 and 5.
Method (i) a = 4, b = 5, n = 4
a ( n + 1) 4 ( 4 + 1) 4 5 20
= = =
n +1 4 +1 5 5
b ( n + 1) 5 ( 4 + 1) 5 5 25
= = =
n +1 4 +1 5 5
20 21 22 23 24 25
, , , , ,
5 5 5 5 5 5
6 7
Ex-2 Find 3 rational number between ,
5 5
6 7
Method (ii) a = , b= , n =3
5 5
7 6 7 - 6
-
b - a 5 5 5 1
d= = = =
n + 1 3 + 1 4 20


6 1 24 + 1 25
a+d = + = =
5 20 20 20
6 1 24 + 2 26
a + 2d = + 2 = =
5 20 20 20
6 3 3 24 + 3 27
a + 3d = + = = =
5 20 20 20 20
NUMBER SYSTEM 3

24
25 26 27 28
, , , ,
20
20 20 20 20
A-2. RATIONAL NUMBER IN DECIMAL REPRESENTATION:
(i) Terminating decimal: In this a finits number of digit occours after decimal
1 1
Ex = 0.25, = 0.5
4 2

4 1.0000 0.25
8
20
20
0
(ii) Non terminating & Repeating (Recurring decimal):- The remainder never become zero.
2
Ex. = 0.181818 = 0.18
11

2
\ = 0.181818.... = 0.18
11
8
Ex. = 2.6666666 = 2.6
3

8
\ = 2.6666...... = 2.6
3
NUMBER SYSTEM 4

A-3. REPRESENTATION OF RATIONAL NUMBERS ON A NUMBER LINE:


3
(i) Positive fraction: Divide a unit into 6 equal parts
6

4
(ii) Negative fraction: - Divide a unit into 9 equal parts
9

(iii) Terminating decimals:

(iv) Non terminating & repeating decimals: Visualize 4.26 on the number line, up to 4 decimals places.
4.26 = 4.262626.....

a c e
A-4. PROPERTIES OF RATIONAL NUMBERS: - If and , are three rational numbers then.
b d f
a c c a
(i) + = + [Commutative law of addition)
b d d b
a c e a c e
(ii) + + = + + [Associative law of addition]
b d f b d f
NUMBER SYSTEM 5

a -a -a a a a
(iii) + = + = 0, - is called the additive inverse of
b b b b b b
a c c a
(iv) = [Commutative law of multiplication]
b d d b
a c e a c e
(v) = [Associative law of multiplication]
b d f b d f
a c e a c a e
(vi) + = + [Distributive law]
b d f b d b f
A-5 CONVERSION OF NON TERMINATING & REPEATING DECIMALS NUMBERS TO
THE FORM P
p
:
q
Non-terminating repeating decimals, are basically two types.
(i) Pure recurring decimals: A decimal in which all the digits after the decimal point are repeated,
these types of decimals are known as pure recurring decimals.
Ex. 0.6. 0.16, 0.123 are pure recurring decimals.
(ii) Mixed recurring decimals: A decimal in which at least one of the digits after the decimal point is
not repeated and then some digit or digits are repeated. These types of decimals are known as mixed
recurring decimals.
Ex 2.16. 0.35. 0.785 are mixed recurring decimals
p
(a) In order to convert a pure recurring decimal to the form we follow the following steps:
q
Step. (i) Obtain the repeating decimal and put it equal to x (say).
(ii) Write the number in decimal form by removing bar from the top of repeating digit and listing
repeating digits at least twice.
Ex. x = 0.8 Has x = 0.888
(iii) Determine the number of digits having bar on their heads.
(iv) If the repeating decimal has 1 place repetition, multiply by 10; a two place repetition, multiply
by 100; a three place repetition, multiply by 1000 and so on.
(v) Subtract the number in step (ii) from the number obtained in step (iv).
(vi) Divide both sides of the equation by the coefficient of x.
(vii) Write the rational number in its simplest form.
NUMBER SYSTEM 6

p
Ex.1 Express of the 0.3 in the form :
q
Sol. Let x = 0.3 Then,
x = 0.33333.... .. (i)
Here we have only one repeating digit part after decimal so we multiply both sides by 10.
10x = 3.3333.... (ii)
On subtracting (i) from (ii), we get
10x - x = ( 3.33333...) - ( 0.33333...)
9x = 3 9x
3
x =
9
3 3
0.3 = i.e., 0.33333.... =
9 9
p
Ex.2 Show that 1.272727 = 1.27 can be expressed in the form , where p and q are integers and q 0.
q
Sol. Let x = 1.27 Then,
x = 1.27272727... ..... (i)
Here we have only two repeating digit after decimal so we multiply both sides by 100.
100x = 127.272727... . (ii)
On subtracting (i) from (ii), we get
99x = ( 127.272727....) - ( 1.272727....)
99x = 126
126 14
x= =
99 11
14
Hence, 1.27 =
11
p
Ex.3 Convert the 23.43 number in the form
q
Sol. Let x = 23.43 Then,
x = 23.434343..... . (i)
Here we have only two repeating digit after decimal so we multiply both sides by 100.
NUMBER SYSTEM 7

Multiplying both sides of (i) by 100, we get


100x = 2343.4343... . (ii)
Subtracting (i) from (iii) we get
100x - x = ( 2343.4343...) - ( 23.4343....)
99x = 2320
2320
x=
99
Aliter method:
We have,
23.43 = 23 + 0.43
43 43
23.43 = 23 + [Using the above rule, we have 0.43 = ]
99 99
23 43
23.43 =
99
2277 + 43 2320
= =
99 99
1 2 3 4 5
Ex.4 = 0.142857, write the decimal expression of . . and without actually doing the long
7 7 7 7 7
division
Sol. Thus, we have
2 1
= 2 = 0.285714
7 7
3 1
= 3 = 0.428571
7 7
4 1
= 4 = 0.571428
7 7
5 1
= 5 = 0.714285
7 7
p
(b) In order to convert a mixed recurring decimal to the form , we follow the following steps:
q
(i) Obtain the mixed recurring decimal and write it equal to x (say),
(ii) Determine the number of digits after the decimal point which do not have bar on them. Let
there be n digits without bar just after the decimal point.
NUMBER SYSTEM 8

(iii) Multiply both sides of x by 10 n so that only the repeating decimal is on the right side of the
decimal point.
p
(vi) Use the method of converting pure recurring decimal to the form and obtain the value of x.
q
p
Ex. Show that 0.2353535... = 0.235 can be expressed in the form , where p and q are integers and
q
q 0.
Sol. Let x = 0.235. Then

10x = 0.235
10x = 2 + 0.35
35 35
10x = 2 + Q
0.35 =
99 99

2 99 + 35
10x =
99
198 + 35 233 233
10x = 10x = x =
99 99 990
A-6. DIRECT METHOD:

p ( Complete numbers ) - ( number formed by Non - repeating digit )


form =
q No. of 9 as no. of repeating digits after that write no. of 0 as no. of non repeating digits
35 - 0 35
Ex. (i) 0.35 = =
99 99
435 - 4 431
(ii) 0.435 = =
990 990
A-7. DETERMINING THE NATURE OF THE DECIMAL EXPANSIONS OF RATIONAL
NUMBERS:
(a) Let x be a rational number whose decimal expansion terminates. Then we can expressed x in
p
the form , where p and q are co-primes, and the prime factorisation of q is of the form
q
m n
2 5 , where m, n are non-negative integers.
p
(b) Let x = be a rational number, such that the prime factorisation of q is of the form 2 m x 5n,
q
where m, n are non-negative integers. Then, x has a decimal expansion which terminates.
NUMBER SYSTEM 9

p
(c) Let x = be a rational number, such that the prime factorisation of q is not of the form
q
2m 5n, where m. n are non-negative integers. Then, x has a decimal expansion which is
non-terminating repeating.

189 189 23 189 8 189 1512


Ex. (i) = = 3 5 = =
( 2 5) 10
3
125 53 2 5 3

17
(ii) = 2.83333.....
6
(we observe that the prime factorisation of the denominators of these rational numbers are not
of the form 2m 5n , where m, n are non-negative integers.)

17 17
(iii) = 3 0
8 2 5
17
(So, the denominator 8 or is of the form 2m 5n , where m, n are non-negative integers)
8
17
Hence has terminating decimal expansion.
8
64 64
(iv) =
455 5 7 13
64
(Clearly, 455 is not of the 2m 5n. so, the decimals expansion is non-terminating
455
repeating)
TEST OF DIVISIBILITY:
A positive integer N is divisible by
(i) 2 if and only if the last digit (unit's digit) is even.
(ii) 3 if and only if the sum of all the digits is divisibly by 3.
(iii) 4 if and only if the number formed by last two digits is divisibly by 4.
(iv) 5 if and only if the last digit is either 0 or 5.
(v) 8 if and only if the number formed by last three digits is divisibly by 8.
(vi) 9 if and only if the sum of all the digits is divisibly by 9.
(vii) 11 if and only if the difference between the sum of digits in the odd places (starting from
right) and sum of the digits in the even places (starting from right) is a multiple of 11.
(viii) 25 if and only if the number formed by the last two digits is divisibly by 25.
NUMBER SYSTEM 10

B. IRRATIONAL NUMBER:
p
Irrational number: A number is called irrational number, if it can not be written in the form , where p
q
& q are integers and q 0
Ex. 2, 3, 3 2, 2 + 3, 2 + 3....etc
(i) Non-terminating & Non-repeating decimal numbers are Irrational numbers.
Ex.1 Prove that 2 is not a rational number.
Sol. Let us find the square root of 2 by long division methods as shown below.

Clearly, the decimal representation of 2 neither terminating nor repeating.


(a) We shall prove this by the method of contradiction. If possible, let us assume that 2 rational
number. Then
a
2= , Where a, b are integers having no common factor other then 1.
b
2

( 2) a
2
= (Squaring both sides)
b
a2
2=
b2
a 2 = 2b 2
NUMBER SYSTEM 11

2 divides a 2
2 divides a
Therefore let a = 2c for some integer c.
a 2 = 4c 2
2b 2 = 4c 2
2 divides b 2
2 divides b
Thus, 2 is a common factor of a and b.
But, it contradicts out assumption that a and b have no common factor other than 1.
So, our assumption that 2 is a rational is wrong.
Hence, 2 is irrational.
Ex.2 Prove that 3
3 is irrational.
p
Sol. Let 3
3 be rational = , where p and q z and p. q have no common factor except 1 also q > 1.
q
p
\ =33
q
Cubing both side
p3
=3
q3
Multiply both sides by q 2
p3
= 3q 2 Hence L.H.S is rational since p, q have no common factor
q
\ p3 , q also have no common factor while R.H.S. is an integer
\ L.H.S R.H.S which contradicts our assumption that 3
3 is irrational.
Ex.3 Prove that 2 + 3 is irrational.
Sol. Let 2 + 3 be a rational number equals to r
\ 2+ 3 = r

3 = r -2
Here L.H.S is an irrational number while R.H.S. r - 2 rational. \ L.H.S R.H.S
Hence it contradicts our assumption that 2 + 3 is rational
\ 2 + 3 is irrational
NUMBER SYSTEM 12

B-l PROPERTIES OF IRRATIONAL NUMBERS:


(i) Negative of an irrational number is an irrational number. E.g.: 3-45
(ii) Sum and difference of a rational and an irrational number is an irrational number.
Ex. Two number's are 2 and 3
Sum = 2 + 3, is an irrational number.
Difference = 2 - 3 I san irrational number.
Also 3 - 2 is an irrational number
Ex. Two numbers are 4 and 3
3
Sum = 4 3 3, is an irrational number.
Difference = 4 - 3 3 , is an irrational number.
(iii) Sum and difference of two irrational numbers is not necessarily an irrational number.
Ex. Two irrational number are 3.2 3
Sum = 3 + 2 3 = 3 3. is irrational.
Difference = 2 3 - 3 = 3 . is an irrational.
Ex. Two irrational numbers are 3, 5
Sum = 3 + 5. is an irrational number
Difference 5 - 3. is an irrational number
Ex. Two irrational numbers are 3- 3

Sum ( )
3 + - 3 = 0 which is rational

Difference ( )
3 - - 3 = 2 3, which is irrational.

Ex. Two irrational numbers are 2 + 3 and 2 - 3

( ) ( )
Sum 2 + 3 + 2 - 3 = 4, , a rational number.

Two irrational numbers are 3 + 3, 3 - 3


Difference = 3 + 3 - 3 + 3 = 6, a rational number.

Ex. Two irrational numbers are 3 - 2, 3 + 2


Sum = 3 - 2 + 3 + 2 = 2 3, an irrational.
(iv) Product of a rational number with an irrational number is not always irrational
NUMBER SYSTEM 13

Ex. 2 is a rational number and 3 is an irrational


2 3 = 2 3, an irrational.
Ex. 0 a rational and 3 and irrational
0 3 = 0 a rational
(v) Product of a non-zero rational number with an irrational number is always irrational
4 4 4
Ex. 3= 3= is an irrational
3 3 3
(vi) Product of an irrational with an irrational is not always irrational.
(i) 3 3 = 3 3 = 9 = 3 a rational number
(ii) 2 3 3 2 = 2 3 3 2 = 6 6 a irrational number
(iii) 3
3 3 32 = 3 3 32 = 3 33 = 3 a rational number

( 2 + 3 ) ( 2 - 3 ) = ( 2) - ( 3 ) = 4 - 3 = 1 a rational number
2 2
(iv)

( 2 + 3 ) ( 2 + 3 ) = ( 2 + 3 ) = ( 2 ) + ( 3 ) + 2 ( 2 ) ( 3 ) = 4 + 3 + 4
2 2 2
(v) 3 = 7 + 4 3 an irrational
number
Important Note:
(a) -2 - 2, It is not irrational number

(b) (
-2, -5 -2 -5 = 10 )
-2, -5, 5 -2, are called imaginary numbers

-2 = i 2, where i ( iota ) = -1
B-2. REPRESENTATION OF IRRATIONAL NUMBERS ON A NUMBER LINE:
2, 3, 5 on a number line

OB = 2 = OF OC = 3 = OG

OD = 4 = OH OE = 5 = OI
NUMBER SYSTEM 14

Ex.1 Insert a rational and an irrational number between 2 and 3.


Sol. If a and b are two positive rational numbers such that ab is not a perfect square of a rational number,
then ab is an irrational number lying between a and b.
a+b
Also, if a, b are rational numbers, then is a rational number between them
2
2+3
\ A rational number between 2 and 3 is = 2.5
2
An irrational number between 2 and 3 is ab = 2 3 = 6
Ex2. Find two irrational numbers lying between 2 and 3
Sol. We known that, if a and b are two distinct positive irrational numbers, then ab is an irrational
number lying between a and b.
\ rational number between 2 and 3 is 2 3 = 6 = 61/ 4

Irrational number between 2 and 61/ 4 is 2 61/ 4 = 21/ 4 61/8


Hence, required irrational numbers are 61/ 4 and 21/ 4 61/ 8
Ex.3 Identify 45 rational number or irrational number.
Sol. We have
45 = 9 5 = 3 5
Since 3 is a rational number and 5 is an irrational number. Therefore, the product 3 5 = 45 is an
irrational number.
C. REAL NUMBER:
Real numbers: Rational numbers together with irrational numbers are known as real numbers.
Thus a real number is either rational or irrational but can not be simultaneously both. If a real
7
number is not rational, it has to be irrational and vice versa. 3, , -1.5, 2.3,5.76245 etc. are some of
5
the rational numbers, whereas 2, 3, 11, 11, p are some examples of irrational numbers.
5 5

(i) These are the numbers which can represent actual physical quantities in a meaningful way.
These can be represented on the number line. Number line is geometrically straight line with
arbitrarily defined zero (origin).
C-l. GEOMETRICAL REPRESENTATION OF REAL NUMBERS:
To represent only real numbers on numbers line we follow the following algorithm.
Algorithm
(i) Obtain the positive real number x (say)
NUMBER SYSTEM 15

(ii) Draw a line and mark a point A on it.


(iii) Mark point B on the line such that AB = X units.
(iv) From point B mark a distance of 1 unit and mark the new point as C.
(v) Find the mid-point of AC and mark the points as O.
(vi) Draw a circle with centre O and radius OC.
(vii) Draw a line perpendicular to AC passing through B and intersecting the semicircle at D.
Length BD is equal to x
Justification: We have
AB = x units and BC = 1 units

\ AC = ( x + 1) Units

x +1
OA = OC = units
2
x +1
OD = units
2
x + 1 x -1
Now, OB = AB - OA = x = [Q OA = OC = OD]
2 2
Using Pythagoras theorem in DOBD, we have
OD2 = OB2 + BD 2
BD 2 = OD 2 - OB2
2 2
x + 1 x - 1
BD =

2
-
2 2

BD = (x 2
) (
+ 2x + 1 - x 2 - 2x + 1 ) =
4x
= x
4 4
This shows that x exists for all real numbers x > 0.
C-2. EXPONENTS OF REAL NUMBER:
(i) Positive exponent:
For any real number a and a positive integer n we define an as
a n = a a a ..................... a (in times)
an is called the nth power of a. The real number a is called the base and n is called the exponent of
the nth power of a.
Ex. 33 = 3 3 3 = 27
NUMBER SYSTEM 16

For any non - zero real number a we define a0 = 1.


0
2
Thus 4 = 1, 6= 1, = 1 and so on
0

3
(ii) Negative exponent:
-n 1
For any non - zero real number a and a positive integer n we define a =
an
Thus we have defined a n for all integral values of n. positive, zero or negative, a n is called that nth
power of a.
1 1 1
5-3 = 3
= =
5 5 5 5 125
(iii) Rational power (Exponents):
p
( )
1/ q
For any positive real number a and a rational number , where q > 0, we define a p / q = a p i.e. a p / q is
q
the principal q th root of a p .
C-3 RATIONAL EXPONENTS OF A REAL NUMBER:
(i) nth root of a positive real number
If a is a positive real number and n is a positive integer, then the principal n th root of a is the
unique positive real number x such that x n = a.
The principal n th root of a positive real number a is denoted by a1/ n or n
a
(ii) Principal nth root of a negative Real Number
If a is a negative real number and n is an odd positive integer, then the principal n th root of a is
1/ n
defined as - a i.e. the principal n th root of is minus of the principal n th root if a .
Remark: If a is negative real number and n is an even positive integer, then the principal n th root if
a is not defined, because an even power of a real number is always positive. Therefore ( -9 ) is a
1/ 9

meaning less quantity, if we confine ourselves to the set of real number, only.
C-4 LAWS OF RATIONAL EXPONENTS:
The following laws hold the rational exponents.
(i) a m a n = a m + n
(ii) a m a n = a m - n

(iii) (a ) m n
= a mn

-n 1
(iv) a =
an
NUMBER SYSTEM 17

( ) ( ) ( a)
1/ n m m
(v) am/n = am = a1/ n = am/n = n am = n

( ab )
m
(vi) = a mbm
m m
a a
(vii) = m ( b 0 )
b b
(viii) a bn = a b + b + b....n times
(ix) a m a m = a 0 = 1
Where a, b are positive real numbers and m, n are rational numbers.
Ex.1 Simplify each of the following
-3
3
(i) 5 5 2 4
(b) 3 ( ) 2 3
. (iii)
4
Sol. (i) 52.54 = 52+ 4 = 15625 Q a m a n = a m + n

( )
(ii) 3 = 3 = 3 = 15625
3 23 6
Q ( a m ) = a mn
n

-3
3 1 1 1 64
= = 3 = = 1
3
(iii) 4 3 3 27 27 Q a -n =
43 64 an
4
Ex.2 Simplify each of the following
4 2 3
2 11 3
(i) (ii) 255 260 - 297 218
11 3 2

16 2 n +1 - 4 2 n
(iii)
16 2n + 2 - 2 2n + 2
4 2 3
2 11 3 24 112 33 24 112 33 2 3 6
Sol. (i) = 4 2 3 = 4 2 3 = 2 =
11 3 2 11 3 2 11 3 2 11 121
(ii) We have. 255 260 - 297 218 = 255+ 60 - 297 +18 - 2115 - 2115 = 0
24 2n +1 - 22 2n 22 + 5 - 2n + 2 2n +5 - 2n + 2 2n +5 - 2n + 5 1
(iii) 4 n + 2 = = = =
2 2 - 2 2 n +2 n +6
2 -2 n +3 n+2
2.2 - 2.2 n+2 n +5
2 2 -2 n+2
2 ( )
Ex.3 Assuming that x is a positive real number and a, b, c are rational numbers show that:
1/ ab 1/ bc 1/ ac
x a x b x c
b c a =1
x x x
NUMBER SYSTEM 18

Sol. = ( x a -b ) (x ) (x )
1/ ab b - c 1/ bc c - a 1/ ac
= x ( a -b ) / bc x ( b -c ) / bc x ( c -a ) / ac
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
- - - - - - -
= xb a xa c
= xb a c b b c
= x0 = 1

( )
-2
- ( 27 )
n
9n 32 3- n / 2 1 Prove that m - n = 1.
Ex.4 If = ,
3m 3
3 2 27
n

( ) ( )
- -2 n
Sol. 32 32 3 2
- 33 1
3m 3
=
3 2 27
32n 32 3n - 33n 1
3m 3
=
3 2 27
32n + 2+ n - 33n 1
3m 3
=
3 2 27
33n + 2 - 32n 1
3m 3
=
3 2 27


(
32n 32 - 1 )= 1
3m 3
3 2 27
33n 8 1
=
33m8 27
1
33n -3m =
33
33n -3m = 3-3 [On equating the exponent]
3n - 3m = 3 n - m = -1 m - n = 1
Ex. 5 Assuming that x is a positive real number and a, b, c are rational numbers, show that
a + b+c b -c -a c-a -b
x a x b x c
b c a =1
x x x

(x ) a -b a + b -c
( ) (x )
b+ c -a c -a c + a - b
Sol. , x b -c

= x ( a - b ) ( a + b ) - c ( a - b ) x ( b - c ) ( b + c ) -a ( b - c ) x ( c -a ) ( c + a ) - ( c -a )
2
- b 2 -ca + bc 2
- c2 - ab - ac 2
-a 2 -bc - ba
xa xb xc
2
- b2 - ca - bc - b2 - c2
= xa *****
= x = 1
NUMBER SYSTEM 19

Ex.6 If a x = b. b y = c and c z = a , prove that xyz = 1


Sol. We have
a xyz = ( b y )
z

a xyz = cz Qa x = b


a xyz = a Q cz = a


\ a xyz = a1 xyz = 1
2xz
Ex.7 If a x = b y = c z and b 2 = ac. prove that y =
x+z
Sol. Let a x = b y = c z = k. Then a = k1/ x .b = k1/ y and c = k1/ z
Now, b 2 = ac

( )
2
k1/ y = k1/ x k1/ z = k1/ x +1/ z
2 1 1 2 x+z 2xz
= + = y=
y x z y xz x+z
Ex.8 If 25x -1 = 52x -1 - 100. Find the value of x.
Sol. We have
25x -1 = 52x -1 - 100
52x - 2 - 52x -1 = -100
52x - 2 - 52x -1 = -100
52x - 2 - 52x -251 = -100
52x - 2 ( 1 - 5 ) = -100

52x - 2 ( -4 ) = -100

52x - 2 = 25 52x - 2 = 52
2x - 2 = 2 2x = 4
x=2
D. SURDS:
Surd: Any irrational number of the form n
a is given a special name surd.
Where a is called radikand, it should always be a rational number. Also the symbol n
is called
the radical sign and the index n is called order of the surd.
1
n
a read as nth root of a and can also be written as a n
NUMBER SYSTEM 20

D-l. LAWS OF A SURD:

( a)
n
(i) n
= n an = a

(ii) n
a n b = n ab [Here order should be same]
(iii) n a n b = n ab

(iv) n m
a = nm a = m n a
n -p
(v) n
a= ap [Important for changing order of surds]
n -p
or n
am = a m -p
Ex.1 (i) 3
62 make its order 6
Then 3
62 = 3 62 = 3.2 62.2 = 6 64
(ii) 3
6 Make its order 15
Then 3
6 = 3.5 61.5 = 15 65
(iii) 3
8 = 3 23 = 2
(iv) 4 81 = 4 34 = 3

(v) 3
2 3 6 = 3 2 6 = 3 12
But 3
3 4 6 3 6 (Because order is not same)
1st make their order same & then you can multiple.

(vi) 2 =82
D-2 IDENTITY OF A SURD:
(i) These are not a surd,
3
8 because 3
8 = 3 23 which is a rational number.

(ii) 7 - 4 3 is a surd as 7 - 4 3 is perfect square of -2 3 ( )


Ex. 7 + 4 3 , 9 - 4 5 , 9 + 4 5.......

(iii) 2 + 3 because 2 + 3 is not a perfect square.

(iv) 3
1 + 3 because radicand is an irrational number.
(v) 3
4 is a surd as radicand is a rational number
NUMBER SYSTEM 21

3
Ex. 5, 4 12, 5 7..........
1
12
3 1
(vi) 3
3 is a surd as 3
3 =
3 = 36 = 6 3

Ex. 2 3
5, 4 5
6 ,......
(vii) 2 + 3 is a surd (as surd + rational number will give a surd)
Ex. 3 - 2. 3 + 1, 3 3 + 1,.......
D-3. TYPES OF SURDS:
(a) Simplest form of surds:
Ex. (i) 3
135 its simplest form is 3 3 5
(ii) 4
1875 its simplest form is 5 4
3
(iii) 4 8 = 6 23 = 2 Simplest form
(b) Quadratic surds: Surd of order 2
Ex.: 2. 3....
(c) Biquadratic surds: Surd of order 4
Ex.: 4
8
(d) Cubic surds: Surd of order 3
Ex: 3
3. 3 15
(e) Like surds: Two or more surds are called like if they have or can be reduced to have the same
irrational or surd factor.
Ex. 2. 3 2
(f) Unlike surds: Two or more surds are called unlike, if they are not similar. (i.e. radicand as well
as index are different).
Ex. 5, 3, 6
(g) Pure surds: A Surd which has unity only as its rational factor, the other factor being irrational,
is called pure surd.
Ex. 3, 15, 4 1875, 6 8
(h) Mixed surds: A surd which has a rational factor other than unity, the other factor being
irrational, is called a mixed surd
Ex. 2 3, 5 4 3
(i) Simple surds: A surd consisting of a single term is called a simple surd.
NUMBER SYSTEM 22

73
Ex. 3, 4 5, 6
2
(j) Compounds surds: An algebraic sum of two or more surds is called a compounds surd, are
simple surd
Ex. 3 + 5 - 3 4, 3 - 3 5 etc are compound surds.
(k) Monomial surds: Single surds is called monomial surds.
4
Ex. 3 2, 2, 3 3......
2
(l) Binomial surds: An algebric sum of two simple surds or a rational number and a simple surds is
known as a binomial surd.
Ex. 2 + 3, 3 + 2, 2 + 3 3, 3 2 + 3 3,
(m) Trinomial surds: An algebric sum of three simple surds or the sum of a rational number and
two simple surds is known as trinomial surds
Ex. 1 + 2 + 3, 2 + 3 - 5, 3 9, - 3 3 + 3 4
(n) Equiradical surds: Surds of the different orders are known as non-equiradical surds
Ex. 2, a , 5
(o) Non-equiradical surds: Surds of the different orders are known as non-equiradical surds
Ex. 2, 3 4, 4 b
Ex1. Express following as a pure surds and mixed surds
33
(i) 128 (ii) 5
96
4
34 33 27
Sol. (i) 128, = 3 3 3 128 = 3 128 = 3 54
4 4 64
(ii) 5
96 = 5 32 3 = 5 25 3 5 25 = 5 3 = 2 5 3
D-4. OPERATION OF SURDS:-
(a) Addition and subtraction of surds: Addition & subtraction of surds are possible only when
order and radicand are same i.e. only for like surds.
Ex. (i) Simplify the 15 6 - 216 + 96

= 15 6 - 6 2 6 + 16 6
= 15 6 - 6 6 + 4 6
= ( 15 - 6 + 4 ) 6

13 6
NUMBER SYSTEM 23

(b) Multiplication and division of surds:


Ex. (i) 3
4 3 22 = 3 4 22 = 3 23 11 = 2 3 11
Ex. (ii) 3
2 by 4
3
3
2 4 3 = 12 2 4 12 33 = 12 2 4 33 = 12 16 27 = 12 432
(c) Comparison of surds: It is clear that if x > y > 0 and n > 1 is a positive integers then
n
x > n y. 3 16 > 3 12, 3 36 > 25 25 and so on.

Ex. Which is greater in each of the following:


1 1
(i) 3
6 and 5
8 (ii) and 3
2 3
Sol. (i) 3
6 and 5
8
L.C.M. of 3 and 5 is 15
3
6 = 3.5 65 = 15 7776
5
8 = 3.5 83 = 15 512
\ 15
7776 > 15 512
3
6>58
1 1
Sol. (ii) and 3
2 3
I.C.M. of 2 and 3 is 6
3 2
6
1 and 6
1

2 3
1 1 1 1
6 and 6 as 8 < 9 \ >
8 9 8 9
1 61 1 31
so 6 > >
8 9 2 3
Ex.2 Which is greater 7 - 3 or 5 - 1?

Sol. 7- 3=
( 7- 3 )( 7+ 3 )= 7 -3
=
4
( 7+ 3 ) 7+ 3 7+ 3

And 5 -1 =
( 5 -1 )( 5 +1 )= 5 -1
=
4
( 5 +1 ) 5 -1 5 +1
NUMBER SYSTEM 24

Now, we known that 7 > 5 and 3 >1


Add 7 + 3 > 5 +1
1 1
<
7+ 3 5 +1
4 4
< 7 - 3 < 5 -1
7+ 3 5 +1
So 5 -1 > 7 - 3
D-5. RATIONALIZATION OF SURDS:
(a) Rationalizing Factor: If the product of two surds is a rational number then each of them is called
the rationalizing factor (R.F.) of the other.
(b) Rationalization: - The process of converting a surd to a rational number by using an appropriate
multiplier is known as rationalization.
(i) Rationalizing factor of a is (
a Q a a =a )
(ii) Rationalizing factor of 3
a is
3
(
a 2 Q 3 a 3 a 2 = 3 a 2 = a )
(iii)Rationalizing factor of a + b is a - b & vice versa
Q a+ b
( )( )
a - b = a - b

(iv) Rationalizing factor of a + b is a - b & vice versa


Q
( a+ b )( a - b = a - b
)
(v) Rationalizing factor of a 3
a + 3 b is ( 3
a 2 - 3 ab + - 3 b 2 ) Q ( 3
a+3b )( 3
)
a 2 - 3 ab + - 3 b 2


( a) +( b) = a + b
3 3
Q 3 3
which is rational


(vi) Rationalizing factor of a + b + c is ( ) (


a + b - c and a + b - c - 2 ab )
Ex.1 Find the following rationalizing factors:
(i) 10 (ii) 162 (iii) 3 4 (iv) 3 16
Sol. (i) 10

Q 10 10 = 10 10 = 10
as 10 is rational number
(ii) 162
Simplest form 9 2
Rationalizing factor of 2 is 2
Rationalizing factor of 162 is 2
NUMBER SYSTEM 25

(iii) 3 4

= 3
4 3
42 3
43 4
Rationalizing Factor of 3
4 is 3
42
(iv) 3 16
Simplest form of 3 16 is 2 3 2
Now rationalizing factor of 3
2 is 3
22
\ Rationalizing factor of 3 16 is 3
22
Ex.2 Find rationalizing factor of 4 162
Simplest from of 4 162 is 3 4 2
Now rationalizing factor of 4
2 is 4
23
\ Rationalizing factor of 4 162 is 4
23
D-6. WHEN CONJUGATE SURDS AND RECIPROCALS ARE SAME:
(a) 2 + 3, its conjugate is 2 - 3 its reciprocal is 2 + 3 & vice versa
(b) 5 - 2 6, its conjugate is 5 + 2 6, its reciprocal is, 5 - 2 6 & vice versa.
Ex.1 Express the following surd with a rational denominator.
8
15 + 1 - 5 - 3
8
=
( 15 + 1 - ) ( 5+ 3 )
15 + 1 + 5 + 3
8
=
( ) ( ) (
15 + 1 - 5 + 3 15 + 1 + 5 + 3
) ( )
8 ( 15 + 1 + 5 + 3 )
=
( 15 + 1) - ( 5 + 3 )
2 2

8 ( 15 + 1 + 5 + 3 )
=
15 + 1 + 2 15 - ( 5 + 3 + 2 15 )

8 ( 15 + 1 + 5 + 3 )
=
8
= ( 15 + 1 + 5 + 3 )
NUMBER SYSTEM 26

3+ 2 2
Ex.2 If = a + b 2. where a and b are rationals
3- 2
Find the value of a and b

L.H.S. =
3+ 2 2
=
3+ 2 2 3+ 2
=
( )(
9 + 3 2 + 6 2 + 4 13 9
= + 2
)
3- 2 3- 2 3+ 2 ( 9-2 )( 7 7)
13 9
\ + 2 =a+b 2
7 7
equation the rational and irrational parts
13 9
We get a = .b =
7 7
1
Ex.3 If x = , Find the value of x 3 - 11x + 3
2+ 3
1
As x = = 2- 3
2+ 3
x-2= - 3
Squaring both sides, we get

( )
2
( x - 2)
2
= - 3 x 2 + 4 - 4x = 3 x 2 - 4x + 1 = 0

Now x 3 - x 2 - 11x + 3 = x 3 - 4x 2 + x + 3x 2 - 12x + 3

( ) (
x x 2 - 4x + 1 + 3 x 2 - 4x + 1 )
x 0 + 3 ( 0 )
0+0 =0
Ex.4. If x = 1 + 2 + 3, prove that x 4 - 4x 3 - 4x 2 + 16x - 8 = 0

Sol. x = 1 + 2 + 3
Squaring both sides

( )
2
( x - 1) =
2
2+ 3

x 2 + 1 - 2x = 2 + 3 + 2 6

x 2 - 2x - 4 = 2 6
Squaring both sides
NUMBER SYSTEM 27

( ) = ( 2 6)
2 2
x 2 - 2x - 4

x 4 + 4x 2 + 16 - 4x 3 + 16x - 8x 2 = 24
x 4 - 4x 3 - 4x 2 + 16x + 16 - 24 = 0
x 4 - 4x 3 - 4x 2 + 16x - 8 = 0
D-7 Square Roots of Binomial Quadratic Surds:

( ) ( )
2 2
(a) Since x+ y = ( x + y ) + 2 xy & x- y = x + y - 2 xy

(b) \ Square root of x + y + 2 xy = x + y ( )


(c) Square root of ( x + y ) - 2 xy = x - y ( )
(d) Square root of a + b + 2a b = a + b
2
( )
(e) and square root of a + b - 2a b = a - b
2
( )
( 3)
2
( 2)
2
Ex.1 7+4 3 = + + 2 2 3

( 2 + 3)
2
= 2+ 3

5+ 2 6 - 5-2 6
Ex.2 Simplify
5+ 2 6 + 5-2 6

Since 5+ 2 6 = 3 + 2 & 5- 2 6 = 3 - 2

5+2 6 - 5-2 6
=
( 3+ 2 -) ( 3- 2 ) =2 2
=
2 3 1
= 6
5+ 2 6 + 5-2 6 ( 3+ 2) +( 3- 2) 2 3 3 3 3

a + 2b + a - 2b
Ex.3 If x = Prove that b 2 x 2 - abx + b 2 = 0
a + 2b - a - 2b

As x =
a + 2b + a - 2b

a + 2b + a - 2b ( )
a + 2b - a - 2b a + 2b + a - 2b ( )
( )
2
a + 2b + a - 2b a + 2b + a - 2b + 2 ( a + 2b ) ( a - 2b )
x= =
( a + 2b ) - ( a - 2b ) 4b
NUMBER SYSTEM 28

2
a + a 2 - 4b 2 a + a 2 - 4b 2
x= =
4b 2b
2bx = a + a 2 - 4b 2

2bx - a = a 2 - 4b 2

Squaring both sides ( 2bx - a ) =


2
( a 2 - 4b 2 )
4b 2 x 2 + a 2 - 4abx = a 2 - 4b 2
4b 2 x 2 - 4abx + 4b 2 = 0
b 2 x 2 - abx + b 2 = 0
(1) REMAINDERS:
Remainder theorem: The method of finding the remainder without actually performing the process
of division is termed as remainder theorem.
Ex-1. What is the remainder if 838 is divided by 63.

( )
19
( 64 ) ( 63 + 1) so by using binomial expression, we can say that 18 terms are com
19 19
38 82
Sol. 8 = = =
63 63 63 3
( +1)
19

pletely divisible by 63 but the last term which is is not divisible, so, 119 = 1 is the remainder.
63
16
Ex-2 What is the remainder when 1415 is divided by 5 ?
Sol. 1415 = ( 15 - 1) = 15n + ( -1) , i.e. a (multiple of 5) 1. Thus when divided by 5 the reminder
16 odd odd

will be -1 i.e. 4.
Ex-3 What is the remainder if 725 is divided by 4?
Sol. 725 can be written (8 - l)25. There are 26 terms in all. All the first 25 terms are divisible by 8, hence
also by 4. The last term is (-1)25. Hence, (8 - l)25 can be written 8x - 1 or 4Y - 1 (where Y = 2X). So
4Y - 1 divided by 4 leaves the remainder 3.
(II) CYCLICITY:
We are having 10 digits in our number system and some of them shows special characteristics like
they, repeat their unit digit after a cycle, for example 1 repeat its unit digit after every consecutive
power. So, its cyclicity is 1 on the other hand digit 2 repeat its unit digit after every four power,
hence the cyclicity of 2 is four. The cyclicity of digits are as follows.
Digit Cyclicity
0, 1, 5 and 6 1
4 and 9 2
2, 3, 7 and 8 4
NUMBER SYSTEM 29

Ex-1 If we want to find the last digit of 357, divide 57 by 4. The remainder is 1 so the last digit of 357 would
be same as the last digit of 31 which is 3.
Ex-2 Find the last digit of 1359
Sol. The number of digits in the base will not make a difference to the last digit. It is last digit of the base
59
which decides the last digit of the number itself. For 13 59, we get which gives a remainder 3. So
4
the last digit of 1359 is same as the last digit of 33 - 27 i.e. 7.
E. L.C.M. & H.C.F.
(i) L.CM. (Least common multiple) L.C.M. of two or more numbers is the product of the greatest
power of each prime factor involved in the numbers.
Ex. Find the L.C.M. of 24x 2 yz and 27x 4 y 2 z 2 .

Sol. Let p ( x ) = 24x yz = 2 3 x y z


2 3 2

And q ( x ) = 27x y z = 3 x y z
4 2 2 3 4 2 2

Here we see that the common factors and 3, x, y, z and their highest power present in the
expressions are 33, x4, y2, z2. Also, the uncommon factor is 23.
Hence the required L.C.M. - 23 33 x4 y2 z2 = 216x4y2z2
(ii) H.C.F. (Highest common factor): The H.C. F of two or more positive integers is the largest
positive integer that divides each given positive number completely i.e. if positive integers d
divides two positive integers a and b then the H.C.F of a and b is d.
Ex. (i) 14 is the largest positive integers that divides 28 and 70 completely, therefore H.C.F. 28 and 70
is 14.
(ii) H.C.F. of 75, 125 and 200 is 25 as divider each of 75, 125 and 200 completely and so on.
Thus, dividend = divisor quotient + remainder
El. EUCLIDS DIVISION LEMMA OR EUCLID'S DIVISIONS ALGORITHAM
For any two positive integers a and b there exist unique integers q and r such that
a = bq + r, where 0 r < b.
Let us consider a = 2 1 7 , b = 5 and make the division of 217 by 5 as under:

Dividend = Divisor Quotient + Re mainder


i.e.
( a) = ( b) ( q) + ( r)
NUMBER SYSTEM 30

Ex.1 (i) Consider number 23 and 5, then


23 = 5 4 + 3
Comparing with a = bq + r
We get, a = 23, b = 5, q = 4, r = 3 and 0 r < b ( as 0 3 < 5 )
(ii) Consider positive integers 18 and 4
18 = 4 4 + 2
For 18 ( = a ) and 4 ( = b ) we have q = 4, r = 2 and 0 r < b
In the relation a = bq + r, where 0 S r < b is nothing but a statement of the long division of
number a by b in which q is the quotient obtained and r is the remainder.
Ex.2 Use Euclid's division lemma to show that the square of any positive integer is either of the form 3m
or 3m +1 for some interger m.
Sol. Let a and b are two positive integers such that a is greater than b, then
a = bq + r; where q and r are also positive integers and 0 r < b
Taking b = 3, we get:
a = 3q, + r; where 0 r < 3
The value of positive integer a will be
3q + 0, 3q + 1 or 3q + 2
i.e., 3q, 3q + 1 or 3q + 2
Now we have to show that the square of positive integers 3q, 3q + 1 and 3q + 2 can be expressed as
3m or 3m + 1 for some integer m
\ Square of 3q = (3q)2
9q2 = 3(3q)2 - 3m; where m is some integer and m = 3q2
Square of 3q + 1 = ( 3q + 1)
2

= 9q 2 + 12q + 4

= 9q 2 + 12q + 3 + 1

( )
= 3 3q 2 + 4q + 1 + 1 = 3m + 1 for some integer and m = 3q 2 + 4q + 1.
\ The square of any positive integer is either of the form 3m or 3m + 1 for some integer m.
Ex.3 Show that one and only one out of n; n + 2 or n + 4 is divisible by 3, where n is any positive integer.
Sol. Consider any twp positive integers a and b such that a is greater than b, then according to Euclid's
division algorithm.
a = bq + r; where q and r positive integers and 0 r < b
NUMBER SYSTEM 31

Let a = n and b = 3, then


a = bq + r n = 3q + r; where 0 r < 3.
r = 0 n = 3q + 0 = 3q
r = 1 n = 3q + 1
and r = 2 n = 3q + 2
If n = 3q ; n is divisible by 3
If n = 3q + 2; then n + 4 = 3q + 2 + 4
= 3q + 6; this is divisible by 3
n + 4 is divisible by 3
Hence, if n any positive integer, then one and only one out of n, n + 2 or n + 4 is divisible by 3.
APPLICATION OF EUCLID'S DIVISION LEMMA FOR FINDING H.C.F OF TWO POSITIVE
INTEGER
Consider positive integers 418 and 33
Stp. (a) Taking bigger number (418) as a and smaller number (33) as b.
Express the numbers as a = bq + r
418 = 33 xl2 + 22
(b) Now taking the divisor 33 and remainder 22 apply the Eulid's division method to get.
33 = 22 1 + 11 [Expressing as a = bq + r]
(c) A gain with new divisor 22 and new remainder 11, apply the Euclid's division algorithm to get
22-11 2 + 0
(d) Since, the remainder = 0 so we can not proceed further.
(e) The last divisor is 11 and we say H.C.F. of 418 and 33 = 11
E-3. VERIFICATION
(a) Using factor method:
\ Factors of 418 = 1, 2, 11, 19, 22, 38, 209 and 418 and,
factor of 33 - 1, 3, 11 and 33
Common factor - 1 and 11
Highest common factor =11 i.e., H.C.F. = 11
(b) Using prime factor method
Prime factors of 418 = 2, 11 and 19
Prime factor of 33 = 3 and 11
\ H.C.F. = Product of all common prime factors =11
NUMBER SYSTEM 32

(c) Using Euclid division method


For any two positive integers a and b which can be expressed as a = bq + r, where 0 r < b, the
H.C.F. of (a, b) = H.C.F. of (q, r) and so on. For number 418 and 33.
418 = 33 12 + 22
33 = 22 1 + 11
and 22 = 11 2 + 0
H.C.F. of (418, 33) = H.C.F of (33, 22) = H.C.F. of (22. 11) = 11
Ex.1 Use Euclid's algorithm to find the HCF of 4052 and 12576.
Sol. Using a = bq + r, where 0 r < b.
Clearly, 12576 > 4052 [ a = 12576, b = 4052 ]
12576 = 4052 3 + 420
4052 = 420 9 + 272
420 = 272 1 + 148
272 = 148 1 + 124
148 = 124 1 + 24
124 = 24 5 + 4
24 = 4 6 + 0
The remainder at this stage is 0. So, the divisor at this stage, i.e., 4 is the HCF of 12576 and 4052.
E-4. THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF ARITHMETIC
Statements: Every composite number can be factorised as a product of prime numbers in a unique
way, except for the order in which the prime numbers occur.
Ex. (i) 90 = 2 3 3 5 = 2 32 5
(ii) 432 = 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 = 24 33
or 432 = 33 24
(iii) 12600 - 2 2 2 3 3 5 5 7 - 23 32 52 7
In general, a composite number is expressed as the product of its prime factors written in ascending
order of their values.
USING THE FACTOR TREE
EX.1 Find the prime factor of 540
NUMBER SYSTEM 33

5 is a prime number and so cannot be further divided by any prime number.


\ 540 = 2 2 3 3 3 5
= 22 33 5
Ex.2 Using prime factorisation method, find the L.C.M of 24, 36, and 40
Sol. Using prime factorisation, we have

\ 24 = 2 2 2 3 = 23 3
36 = 2 2 3 3 = 22 32
40 = 2 2 2 5 = 23 5
\ LCM (24, 36, 40) = Product of the greatest power of each prime factor involved in the numbers
= 23 32 5 = 360
E-5 USING THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF ARITHEMETIC TO FIND H.C.F AND
L.C.M.
(a) L.C.M. (Least common multiple) = Product of each prime factor with highest powers
Pr oduct of the number or ( a b )
L.C.M. ( a, b ) =
H.C.F. ( a, b )
(b) H.C.F. (Highest common factor) = Product of common prime factor with lowest powers
Pr oduct of the numbers or ( a b )
H.C.F. ( a, b ) =
L.C.M. ( a, b )
Ex.1 Find the L.C.M and H.C.F. of 1296 and 2520 by applying the fundamental theorem of arithmetic
method i.e. using the prime factorisation method.
1296 = 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 = 24 34
2520 = 2 2 2 3 3 5 7 = 23 32 5 7
NUMBER SYSTEM 34

L.C.M. = 24 34 5 7 = 45360
H.C.F. = 23x32 = 72
Ex.2 Given that H.C.F. (306, 657) = 9. Find L.C.M. (306, 657)
Sol. H.C.F. (306, 657) = 9 means H.C.F. of 306 and 657 = 9
Required L.C.M. (306, 657) means required L.C.M. of 306 and 657.
For any two positive integers;
Product of the number
Their L.C.M. =
Their H.C.F.
306 657
i.e. L.C.M. ( 306, 657 ) = = 22,338
9
Ex.3 Given that L.C.M. ( 150, 100 ) = 300, find H.C.F. ( 150, 100 ) .
Sol. L.C.M. (150, 100) = 300
L.C.M. of 150 and 100 = 300
Since, the product of number 150 and 100 = 150 100
And, we know:
Pr oduct of 150 and 100 150 100
H.C.F. ( 150, 100 ) = = = 50
L.C.M ( 150, 100 ) 300
NUMBER SYSTEM 35

EXERCISE - I

OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS


1. 2 is
(a) an integer (b) A rational number (c) An irrational number (d) None of these
1
2. is
3
(a) A rational number (b) An irrational number
(c) A whole number (d) None of these
3. 7 3 is
(a) An irrational (b) A natural number (c) A rational number (d) None of these
4. 5 - 3 is
(a) An integer (b) An rational number (c) An irrational number (d) None of these
5. p is
(a) A rational number (b) A whole number
(c) A positive interger (d) None of these
6. HCF ( p, q ) LCM ( p, q ) =
p
(a) p + q (b) (c) p q (d) p q
q
7.

8. If 3
32 = 2x then x is equal to
3 5
(a) 5 (b) 3 (c) (d)
5 3
9. 0.737373=
73 73
(a) ( 0.73)
3
(b) (c) (d) None of these
100 99
10. If p is a positive prime integer, then p is
(a) A rational number (b) An irrational number
(c) A positive integer (d) None of these
11. There is a positive integer n for which n + 1 - n - 1 is
(a) Natural number (b) Whole number (c) Rational number (d) None of these
NUMBER SYSTEM 36

12. If a is a positive integer and p be a prime number and p divides a , then


(a) a divides p (b) p divides a (c) p2 divides a (d) None of these
-2
1
13. Evaluate 3

64
(a) 4 (b) 16 (c) 32 (d) 64
2+ 3 2- 3
14. If a = ,b= then the value of a + b is
2- 3 2+ 3
(a) 14 (b) 14 (c) 8 3 (d) - 3

15. If x = 0.16, then 3x is


(a) 0.48 (b) 0.49 (c) 0.5 (d) 0.5
2x - 3 x -3
3 5
16. Find the value of x then =
5 3
(a) x = 2 (b) x = -2 (c) x = 1 (d) x = -1
17. 1.3 is equal to
(a) (b) 2/3 (c) 4/3 (d) 2/5
18. The product of 4 6 and 3 24 is
(a) 124 (b) 134 (c) 144 (d) 154

19. ( )
If x = 7 + 4 3 , then the value of x +
2 1
x2
is

(a) 193 (b) 194 (c) 195 (d) 196


20. If 16 8n + 2 = 2m , then m is equal to
(a) n + 8 (b) 2n + 10 (c) 3n + 2 (d) 3n + 10

ANSWER KEY
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
C B A C D C * D C B
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
D B B A A A C C B D
NUMBER SYSTEM 37

EXERCISE - II

SUBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS


1. Show that any positive odd integer is of the form 4q + 1 or 4q + 3, where q is some integers.
2. Use Euclid's division lemma to show that the cube of any positive integer is either of the form 9m,
9m + 1 or 9m + 8 for some integer m
3. Prove that 3 is an irrational number
4. Use Euclid's division algorithm to find the HCF of 210 and 55
5. If d is the HCF of 56 and 72, find x, y satisfying d = 56 + x + 72y. Also show that x and y are not
unique.
6. Arrange 2, 3 3 and 4
5 in ascending order
7. Determine the prime factorisation of each of the following numbers
(i) 13915 (ii) 556920
8. Prove that every positive integer different from 1 can be expressed as a product of a non-negative
power of 2 and an odd number
9. Find the HCF and LCM of 90 and 144 by the prime factorisation method
10. Prove that 5 - 3 is an irrational number

11. Show that there is no positive integer n for which n - 1 + n + 1 is rational number
12. Find the HCF of 81 and 237 and express it as a linear combination of 81 and 237

13. If a' is rational and ( )


b is irrational then prove that a + b is irrational

14. Prove that n is not a rational number if n is not a perfect square


15. In the following determine rational numbers a and b
7+ 5 7- 5
- = a+7 5 b
7- 5 7+ 5
16. Let a, b, c, p be rational numbers such that p is not a perfect cube
17. Without actually performing the long division, state whether the following rational number will have
terminating decimal expansion or a non-terminating repeating decimal expansion.
13 23
(i) (ii)
3125 2352
18. Express the following decimal in the form
(i) 0.32 (ii) 0.123
NUMBER SYSTEM 38

p
19. Express the following mixed recurring decimals in the form
q
(i) 0.32 (ii) 15.712
20. Simplify by combining similar terms
2 3 40 + 3 3 265 - 4 3 320
21. Simplify and express the result in its simplest form
3
(i) 2, 3 3. 4 4 (ii) 2, 4 2, 12 32
17
22. Express - in decimal form by long division method
8
23. Find the simplest rationalising factor of 2 + 3 + 5
24. A sweetseller has 420 kaju barfis and 130 badam barfis. She wants to stack them in such a way that
each stack has the same number, and they take up the least area of the tray. What is the number of
burfis that can be placed in each stack for this purpose?
25. Let a, b, c, p be rational numbers such that p is not a perfect cube. If a + bp1/ 3 + cp 2 / 3 = 0 then prove
that a = b = c = 0

ANSWER KEY

4. 5 5. x = 4, y = -3 7. (i) 5 112 23 (ii) 23 32 5 7 13 17


9. HCF = 18, LCM = 720
12. HCF = 3, 3 = 237x + 81y where x = 13, y = -38
1
15. a = 0, b = 17. (i) Terminating decimal (ii) Terminating decimal
11
29 111
18. (i) (ii)
90 900
389 5185
19. (i) (ii)
90 330
20. 33 5 21. (i) 2 2 3 , (ii) 2
22. 2.125

23. ( 2+ )(
3 - 5 1- 2 3 )
24. HCF = 10