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Acid A chemical substance that has a pH less than 7. Acidity is caused by hydrogen ions (H+)
Activation The minimum amount of energy needed for a successful particle collision to occur in a
energy reaction.
A chemical substance that has a pH greater than 7. Alkalinity is caused by hydroxide ions
Alkane A hydrocarbon containing single covalent bonds.
Alkene A hydrocarbon containing double covalent bonds.
Alloy Mixture of a metal with another metal or non-metal.
Anode A positive electrode.
Atom Particle made up of protons, electrons and neutrons.
Atomic number Number of protons and electrons in an atom
Biodegradable This means the material will break down/decompose over time
Biofuel A fuel made from the fermentation of plants
A process where copper is extracted from low grade ores by growing bacteria that
produce leachates containing copper compounds.
A chemical used to distinguish between an alkane and alkene. Alkenes turn it from orange
Bromine water
to colourless (decolourises it).
Carbon A poisonous gas produced from the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbon fuels
A substance that speeds up a chemical reaction by lowering the activation energy,
without being used up.
Cathode A negative electrode.
Chemical Where a chemical reaction takes place producing a new substance.
Chemical A way of showing the number of atoms and elements in a molecule or compound e.g H2O
Chemical symbol A shorthand way of writing the name of a chemical element.
Chromatography A separation technique that can be used to separate mixtures of dyes/inks
Compound A material made up of two or more different types of atom chemically bonded together.
Covalent bond Chemical bond formed from the sharing of electrons between non-metal atoms.
A process used to turn long hydrocarbon molecules into smaller, more useful ones e.g.
petrol using high temperature, high pressure and a catalyst
A process used to remove sulfur from hydrocarbon fuels to reduce sulfur dioxide
Displacement A reaction where a more reactive metal displaces a less reactive metal in a compound.
A liquid is separated from its solution by heating it so that the liquid evaporates and then
Distillation cooling the vapour so that it condenses. It works because mixtures of liquids have
different boiling points.
Electrolysis Breaking a substance down into simpler substances using electricity.
Electron Subatomic particle that has a negative charge and negligible mass.
Element A material made up of only one type of atom.
Emulsifier A chemical used to help oil and water mix together
Endothermic A reaction that takes heat energy in from the surroundings.
Energy levels Where electrons are found outside the nucleus of an atom. Also called shells.
Exothermic A reaction that releases heat energy out to the surroundings.
Fuel A substance that produces useful energy when it is burnt (combustion).
Group Column in the Periodic Table. Tells you the number of electrons in the outer shell
Hydration A reaction with steam at high temperature using a catalyst
Hydrocarbon Compound made up of hydrogen and carbon atoms only.
Hydrogenation A reaction where hydrogen is added to harden a saturated plant oil at 60oC with a nickel
reaction catalyst to increase its melting point so that it is easier to spread
Insoluble A substance that will not dissolve
Ion Charged atom. Can be positive (cation) or negative (anion).
Chemical bond formed from the electrostatic attraction between metal and non-metal
Ionic bond
Mass number Number of protons + neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
A solid material that is usually hard, shiny, malleable, ductile, with good electrical and
thermal conductivity.
Metal ore A rock containing a metal compound that is economically worthwhile extracting.
Chemical bond formed by a delocalised sea of electrons surrounding positive metal
Metallic bond
Mixture Two or more elements/compounds mixed together that are not chemically bonded.
Molecule Two or more atoms chemically bonded together.
Neutralisation Reaction between an acid and an alkali that produces neutral (pH 7) salt and water.
Neutron Subatomic particle that has a neutral charge and mass of 1.
These are produced in car engines when nitrogen in the air reacts with oxygen at high
Nitrogen oxides
temperatures. They cause acid rain.
Non-metal A material that does not have the same properties as a metal.
Nucleus Centre of an atom containing protons and neutrons.
OILRIG Oxidation Is Loss of electrons, Reduction Is Gain of electrons
Oxidation A reaction where atoms in an element lose electrons.
Particle model A scientific theory that explains the properties of solid, liquids and gases using particles.
Periodic Table A list of all the known elements.
Row in the Periodic Table. Tells you the number of energy levels/shells in an atom of an
pH scale A scale from 1-14 that shows the acidity or alkalinity of a substance.
A process where copper is extracted from low grade ores by burning plants that contain
copper compounds that have been absorbed through their roots
Physical change A change from one state (solid, liquid or gas) to another.
Polymer Very long chain molecules found in plastics
The process of making very long chain molecules (polymers) by reacting together small
reactive molecules with double bonds (monomers) using high pressure and a catalyst.
Precipitate An insoluble solid.
Product A substance that is made in a chemical reaction.
Proton Subatomic particle found in the nucleus that has a positive charge and mass of 1.
Reactant A substance that reacts in a chemical reaction.
Reactivity Series List of metals in order of reactivity.
Reduction A reaction where atoms in an element gain electrons.
Relative The total mass of an element or compound that can be worked out by adding together
Formula Mass the relative atomic masses of each element
Saturated A compound that contains single bonds.
Smelting The process of extracting a metal from its ore by heating and melting
Soluble A substance that will dissolve.
Solute A solid that will dissolve in a liquid solvent.
Solution A mixture of a solute and solvent.
Solvent A liquid that will dissolve another substance.
State symbol (s)=solid, (l)=liquid, (g)=gas, (aq)=aqueous=dissolves in water
This gas is produced when sulfur impurities in hydrocarbon fuels reacts with oxygen. It
Sulfur dioxide
causes acid rain.
Symbol equation A way of describing a chemical reaction using chemical symbols.
Thermal Breaking a substance down into simpler substances using heat.
Unsaturated A compound that contains double bonds.
Viscosity How runny a material is. Thick materials have high viscosities.
Volatility How easily a liquid evaporates into a gas.
Word equation A way of describing a chemical reaction using chemical names.
Yield The amount of a chemical produced