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MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STARCH-BASED FOAMS AS AFFECTED BY


INGREDIENT FORMULATIONS AND FOAM PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Q. Fang, M. A. Hanna

ABSTRACT. Mechanical properties of foams extruded with starch and biodegradable polymers were correlated with
ingredient formulations and physical characteristics of the extrudates. The type of polymer had a significant effect on
foam compressibility and Youngs modulus. The PLA-starch and EBC-starch foams were softer than the Mater-Bi-starch
foam. Both regular and waxy corn starch-based foams had similar mechanical properties. Spring indices were not
affected by the types of polymers and starches. A 25% polymer content resulted in the softest foams. Foams containing
10% polymers possessed the highest spring indices. Higher moisture contents increased the compressibilities and spring
indices. A moisture content of 22% resulted in the lowest Youngs modulus. The relationships between the
compressibilities, Youngs moduli and the physical characteristics were described by power law equations.
Compressibilities and Youngs moduli decreased as radial expansion increased, and increased as the unit densities
increased. Unit density had little effect on spring index. Increasing bulk density significantly increased compressibility
and Youngs modulus. The correlations between spring indices and physical characteristics were low.
Keywords. Starch foam, Ingredient formulation, Extrusion, Mechanical properties.

L
oose-fill packaging foams provide protection for methacrylate and blowing and cross-linking agents in a
merchandise by absorbing or isolating the impact single screw extruder. The physical, mechanical, and
energy during shipping and handling. Traditional thermal characteristics of the extrudates, as affected by the
loose-fill packaging materials, such as expanded ingredient formulations, were studied. Foams made with
polystyrene (EPS), are manufactured primarily from sodium bicarbonate were suitable for packaging
petroleum intermediates. The EPS foams possess excellent applications from the point of view of mechanical behavior
physical and mechanical properties, and are inexpensive. and water solubility, but had higher unit densities. Foams
However, due to increasing concern over their negative made with urea had lower thermal conductivities, and were
impact on our environment by their disposal, starch is being more suitable for insulation applications.
used to produce loose-fill packaging materials by a number Foam cell structures are affected by the raw material
of companies in the United States. Starch-based packaging formulations as well as the extrusion conditions. Most
foams have the advantages of being biodegradable, starch-based foams extruded with water as the blowing
inexpensive, and made of renewable agricultural raw agent have a close-celled structure. Warburton et al. (1990)
materials. Lin et al. (1995) studied the mechanical extruded starch foams and modeled the deformation of the
properties of extruded 70% amylose cornstarch foams, for brittle starch foams by correlating mechanical properties to
loose-fill packaging applications, as affected by water foam density and cell wall properties. They found excellent
activity levels. The starch sample was adjusted to 22% agreement with the theoretical predictions of the relative
(w.b.) moisture content and extruded using a co-rotating, fracture stress for closed cell foams. Warburton et al.
intermeshing, self-wiping twin screw extruder. Both energy (1992) further studied the structure and mechanical
index and compressive strength increased with increases in properties of brittle starch foams. Under various extrusion
water activity levels up to 0.53 and then decreased. conditions, the shapes of the cells changed from polyhedral
However, starch foams have some drawbacks in their to spherical. Low-density foams with spherical cells were
functional properties. In order for a foam to function as a produced at conditions of low moisture or high extrusion
loose-fill packaging material, it must have adequate temperature. Polyhedral shaped cells occurred in high-
mechanical properties, such as compressive strength and density foams. Youngs modulus and fracture stress were
resiliency. Bhatnagar and Hanna (1995) extruded regular better modeled with the simpler model given by Baer
cornstarch (25% amylose) with polystyrene, polymethyl (1964) as mentioned above.
The characteristics of the jagged stress-strain
relationships of expanded extrudates under various
Article was submitted for publication in January 2000; reviewed and
approved for publication by the Food & Process Engineering Institute of
humidity conditions were investigated by Barrett et al.
ASAE in September 2000. (1992) using Fast Fourier transform and fractal analysis
The authors are Qi Fang, ASAE Member, Research Assistant methods. Both methods provided a consistent measure of
Professor, and Milford A. Hanna, ASAE Fellow, Director, Industrial the jaggedness of the stress-strain curves. The power
Agricultural Products Center, and Kenneth E. Morrison Professor, Dept. spectrum that resulted from the Fourier transform could be
of Biological Systems Engineering, University of Nebraska, Lincoln.
Corresponding author: M. A. Hanna, University of Nebraska, 211 L. W. used to identify the length scale of the structure features
Chase Hall/East Campus, Lincoln, NE 68583-0730, phone: 402.472.1634, where the fracture took place. The overall ruggedness was
fax: 402.472.6338, e-mail: <mhanna@unlnotes.unl.edu>. assessed using the apparent fractal dimension.

Transactions of the ASAE


VOL. 43(6): 1715-1723 2000 American Society of Agricultural Engineers 0001-2351 / 00 / 4306-1715 1715
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Foam mechanical properties are closely correlated to and a specific gravity of 2.8. Distilled water was used to
physical characteristics. Gibson and Ashby (1988) pointed adjust the moisture content levels of the samples.
out that the dominant mechanical properties of a solid foam
were related to its relative density: the density of the foam EXTRUSION
divided by the density of the cell wall material. This A laboratory twin-screw extruder with co-rotating
relationship can be expressed as the following power law: mixing screws (Model CTSE-V, C. W. Brabender, Inc.,
S. Hackensack, N.J.) was used to conduct the extrusions.
E* *
n The conical screws had diameters decreasing from 43 mm
(1) to 28 mm along their length of 365 mm from the feed end
Es s
to the exit end. The rotating speeds for both screws were
set at 150 rpm. The temperature at the feeding section of
where the barrel was held at room temperature (~25 C) while the
E* = mechanical properties of the foam other two sections and the die were maintained at 150C. A
Es = mechanical properties of the cell wall material 3-mm-diameter die nozzle was used to produce cylindrical
* = density of the foam extrudates, which were then cut into collets of 20 mm
s = density of the cell wall length for testing purposes using a rotating cutter mounted
n = index on the extruder die face. The extruder was controlled by a
Plasti-Corder (Type FE 2000, C. W. Brabender, Inc., S.
Density is a dominant factor affecting the mechanical Hackensack, N.J.). Screw rotating speeds, barrel
properties of the extrudates. Baer (1964) suggested a temperature profiles, pressure profiles and torque readings
simple power law relationship between the mechanical were recorded by a computer for subsequent analyses.
properties and density for synthetic polymer foams:
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
n (2) In this study, operating conditions of the extruder were
pre-selected based on the results of preliminary studies. For
where all samples, 5% talc was added as a nucleating agent
= mechanical properties (Bhatnagar and Hanna, 1996). The formulations of the
= density polymer-starch samples were studied. The independent
n = index variables included type of starch, ratio of polymer to starch
and moisture content. Physical characteristics of radial
This equation is a special case of the equation given by expansion ratio, unit and bulk densities, and mechanical
Gibson and Ashby (1988). The values of n depended on the properties of spring index and compressibility were
cell structures and the mechanical properties to be determined on single-piece and bulk samples.
modeled, and ranged from 1.5 to 3. The above equation A randomized block experimental design with factorial
also indicates that the mechanical properties depend on treatment was used for this study. Included in the study
foam expansion characteristics. were three types of polymer resins (PLA, EBC, and MBI),
Foam materials made from pure starches usually do not two types of corn starch (regular and waxy), three levels of
have satisfactory functional properties. Therefore, the polymer content (10, 25, and 40%), and three levels of
objectives of this study were to improve the functional moisture content (19, 22, and 25% d.b.). There were
properties of the starch-based foams by incorporating 54 treatment combinations. To eliminate the day-to-day
biodegradable polymers into starch, and to correlate the variation, days were used as blocks, i.e., three replications
foam mechanical properties with the raw material were conducted on three different days. A total of
formulations and foam physical characteristics. 162 extrusions were conducted. All experimental data were
analyzed using SAS statistical software (SAS Institute,
1990). A significance level of p < 0.05 was used for all the
MATERIALS AND METHODS statistical analyses. The LSD (least significance difference)
MATERIALS procedure was employed to detect differences among
Polylactic acid (PLA) resin with a number-average treatments. Least square regressions were used to obtain
molecular weight of 85,000 was purchased from Cargill, the equations to describe relationships between mechanical
Inc. (Minneapolis, Minn.). Eastar Bio Copolyester 14766 properties and physical characteristics.
(EBC) was received gratis from Eastman Chemicals, Inc.
(Kingsport, Tenn.). Mater-Bi ZF03U (MBI) resin was PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
purchased from Novamont spa. (Novara, Italy). All three Physical characteristics of the extrudates measured were
resins were dried at 40C for 24 h before use. Regular radial expansion ratio, unit density, and bulk density.
(25% amylose) and waxy corn starches were purchased Radial expansion ratio was calculated by dividing the
from A. E. Staley, Co. (Decatur, Ill.). The starches were mean cross-section area of the extrudates by the die nozzle
agglomerated into spherical granules of 2 to 4 mm in cross-section area. Each mean value was the average of
diameter to facilitate feeding into the extruder. Talc ten measurements.
(magnesium silicate) was purchased from Barret Minerals, Unit density was determined using a glass bead
Inc. (Dillon, Mont.) and was used as a nucleating agent to displacement method (Bhatnagar and Hanna, 1996). Glass
ensure the uniformity of the cell void spaces. The talc had a beads of 0.1 mm in diameter were used as the displacement
median particle size of 1.2 (m, a bulk density of 120 kg/m 3 media to determine the volume of the extrudate. Unit

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density was obtained by dividing the mass by the volume RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
of the extrudate being measured. FOAM CELL STRUCTURES
Bulk density was measured using a cylindrical plexiglass Figure 1 shows the radial and axial cross sections of
container (ASTM, 1996). The container had a diameter of some of the extruded foam samples. All extrudates had
160 mm and a height of 160 mm. A funnel with an opening closed-cell structures. Also, the sizes of the cells were
160 mm at the top and an opening 64 mm at the bottom was relatively uniform, mainly due to the use of talc as a
mounted at a height of 160 mm above the container. nucleating agent. Higher talc content resulted in significant
Extrudate bulk density was calculated from the mass of the increases in both the cell size and overall expansion
sample divided by the volume of the container. (Bhatnagar and Hanna, 1996). The addition of
biodegradable plastic polymers also helped strengthen the
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES cell walls. The uniformity of cells ensured uniform
Before the mechanical property measurements were products and good mechanical properties.
conducted, all specimens were conditioned at 43.2 0.4%
relative humidity in a desiccator with the saturated K2CO3 FOAM STRESS-STRAIN RELATIONSHIPS
aqueous solution for 10 days at 25C. The weight changes Figure 2 shows typical stress-strain curves of the
of the samples were closely monitored. After seven days various starch-foams. The stress-strain relationships of the
the sample weight was basically constant, an indication of three foams made from the EBC and regular starch blends
equilibrium. are shown in figure 2a. The foam made from 25% EBC and
Spring index refers to the ability of a material to recover regular starch had the lowest mechanical strength
to its original shape after it has been deformed. It is a (Curve 2). The foam containing 40% EBC and regular
measure of the elastic characteristics and the resilience. An starch was the strongest (Curve 3). The similar trend is
Instron universal testing machine (Model 5566, Instron shown for the MBI and regular starch foams (fig. 2b).
Engineering Corporation, Canton, Mass.) with a 60-mm- Foams made from EBC or MBI and starch blends had
diameter cylindrical probe was used to compress the basically elastic deformation when the strain was below
samples to achieve a deformation of 80% of their original 0.35. In the elastic deformation range, stress was linearly
dimension at a loading rate of 30 mm/min (Altieri and proportional to the strain. Also, the deformation was fully
Lacourse, 1990). The cylindrical extrudate samples were recovered once the applied compressive force was released.
cut into pieces of 20 mm long using a razor blade. For each For strains between 0.35 and 0.60, the stress-strain curves
compression run, five pieces of each sample were used. were flatter, indicating a plastic deformation stage. Above
The force required to initially compress a sample and the 0.60 strain, the stress increased rapidly with increases in
force required to recompress the same sample 1 min after the strain. This was indicative of collapse of the foam cell
releasing the initial load were recorded. Spring indices structure and formation of a rigid solid. For the PLA-starch
were calculated by dividing the values of the blends (fig. 2c), foams became softer as the PLA content
recompression force by the values of the initial increased from 10 (Curve 1) to 25 (Curve 2) and then to
compression force. 40% (Curve 3). Also, PLA-starch foams had a longer
Compressibility of the samples, i.e., the maximum elastic deformation stage (below 0.65 strain) than did the
compressive stress required to achieve a deformation of EBC and MBI-starch foams. PLA-starch foams should
80% of the original dimensions, was determined using the perform better when higher deformations are encountered.
same Instron universal testing machine and the same
testing conditions as for the spring index measurements. EFFECT OF POLYMER TYPE
Compressibility values are indication of the rigidity of the Compressibilities, Youngs moduli and spring indices
foams. Because of the differences in radial expansion of of the starch foams were significantly affected by type of
the test specimens, the peak forces were normalized by polymers, as shown in table 1. Foams made of Mater-Bi
dividing them with the corresponding axial cross-section and starch blends had the highest mean compressibility,
area of the samples. Youngs modulus and spring index values. PLA-starch
Youngs modulus measures the stiffness or elasticity of blends and EBC-starch blends produced foams with
materials. It is defined as the ratio of the stress to strain. It similar compressibility and Youngs modulus values. Both
is a constant below the elastic limit of a material. The EBC and PLA foams had mean spring indices of 86%. For
Youngs moduli of foams were determined using the least- the bulk mechanical properties, foams made of MBI and
square regression method from the slopes of the strain- starch blends were the most rigid (234.1 kPa) and the
stress curves. The strain-stress curves were generated from PLA-starch foams were the softest (102.5 kPa). PLA-
the Instron testing data for the compressibility and spring starch foams had slightly higher average bulk spring
index determination. All calculations had r2 values of indices (96.2%) than did the EBC-starch and MBI and
greater than 0.95. starch foams (both were 95.2%).
Bulk spring index and compressibility of bulk samples
were measured using the same Instron universal testing EFFECT OF STARCH TYPE
machine. A cylindrical aluminum container having a The difference between regular and waxy starches is that
volume of 365 cm3 (6.93 cm in diameter and 9.68 cm in regular starch contains roughly 25% linear-chain amylose
depth) was used to contain the bulk samples. Otherwise, molecules and 75% branched amylopectin molecules, and
the compression and data reduction were the same as waxy starch contains almost 100% branched amylopectin
described previously for individual collets. molecules. However, this difference did not significantly
affect the mechanical properties of the foams as shown in
table 2. Although regular starch foams had slightly higher

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(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 1Images of selected foam cross-sections: (a) 40% PLA and regular starch (2x magnification); (b) 40% EBC and waxy starch
(2x magnification); (c) 25% MBI and waxy starch (2x magnification).

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Regular and waxy starch foams also had similar bulk


compressibilities and bulk spring indices.

EFFECT OF POLYMER CONTENT


Polymer contents had significant effects on the
mechanical properties of the foams. As shown in figure 3,
foam with 25% polymer content had the lowest mechanical
strength (compressibility and Youngs modulus) and spring
index. A polymer content of 40% resulted in the highest
compressibility and Youngs modulus values. At 10%
polymer content, the foams possessed the highest spring
index and intermediate compressibility and Youngs
modulus values. Considering practical applications, the
bulk mechanical properties were more meaningful. The
bulk mechanical properties also were influenced by the
(a) polymer contents. At 25% polymer content, the foams had
the lowest bulk compressibility of 137.8 kPa and the
intermediate bulk spring index of 95.7%; at 10% polymer
content, the highest bulk compressibility of 187.2 kPa and
lowest bulk spring index of 94.8%; at 40% polymer
content, the foams had an intermediate bulk
compressibility of 170.4 kPa and the highest spring index
of 96.1%.
Bulk spring indices improved as more polymer was
added. At all levels of polymer content, foams had
satisfactory bulk compressibilities and excellent bulk
spring indices compared to the spring index of expanded
polystyrene foam (97%). The addition of biodegradable
polymers significantly improved the foam mechanical
properties.

EFFECT OF MOISTURE CONTENT


The moisture in the raw materials helped the starch
gelatinize during extrusion. It also was the major driving
(b) force for the extrudates to expand since no other blowing
agent was used. Moisture content significantly affected the
mechanical properties, as shown in figure 4. The
compressibilities increased significantly as the moisture
content increased, indicating that the extrudates became
harder and harder. On the other hand, 22% moisture
content resulted in the lowest Youngs modulus of
426.8 kPa. Foams extruded with 19 and 25% moisture
contents had about the same Youngs modulus of 530 kPa.
Spring indices show similar trends as the compressibilities.
Spring indices increased significantly as the moisture
contents increased.

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN MECHANICAL PROPERTIES


AND RADIAL EXPANSION
Radial expansion is an important physical characteristic
of extruded materials. Radial expansion influences the
density of extrudates. The higher the radial expansion, the
(c) lower is the foam density. A power law relationship exists
between the radial expansion and the mechanical properties
Figure 2Typical stress-strain curves of starch foams containing as indicated by the equation proposed by Gibson (1988).
biodegradable polymers. (a) Eastar Bio Copolyester-regular starch: The effect of radial expansion on mechanical properties is
1. 10%, 2. 25%, and 3. 40% polymer contents; (b) Mater-Bi-regular
starch: 1. 10%, 2. 25%, and 3. 40% polymer contents; (c) PLA-waxy presented in figure 5. The relationship between the
starch: 1. 10%, 2. 25%, and 3. 40% polymer contents. compressibility and the radial expansion is shown in
figure 5a. The foam compressibility ( kPa) decreased as
the radial expansion () increased, which can be expressed
mean compressibility, Youngs modulus and spring index by a power law (R2 = 0.56):
values, the differences were not statistically significant.
= 7215.71.1786 (3)

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Table 1. Foam compressibilities, Youngs moduli, spring indices, bulk compressibilities,


and bulk spring indices as affected by the types of polymers*
Youngs Spring Bulk Bulk
Compressibility Modulus Index Compressibility Spring Index
Polmyer (kPa) (kPa) (%) (kPa) (%)
Eastar bio copolyester 336.1238.7a 342.6229.8a 86.06.8a 158.846.7a 95.21.3a
Mater-bi 713.1433.5b 896.1552.6b 88.07.0a 234.140.5b 95.21.5a
Polylactic acid 278.7218.4a 249.8207.7a 85.95.4a 102.544.3c 96.21.9a
* Means with the same letters are not statistically significant at p < 0.05.

Table 2. Foam compressibilities, Young moduli, spring indices, bulk The relationship between Youngs modulus (E, kPa) and
compressibilities and bulk spring indices as affected by the types of starches*
radial expansion () followed a similar power law trend
Compressibility
Young
Modulus
Spring
Index
Bulk Bulk
Compressibility Spring Index
(R2 = 0.55) as shown in figure 5b:
Starch (kPa) (kPa) (%) (kPa) (%)
Regular 449.719.8a 506.322.7a 87.56.9a 168.38.8a 95.51.2a E = 107161.3074 (4)
Waxy 435.618.3a 486.032.4a 85.75.8a 162.08.0a 95.51.9a
*Means with the same letters are not statistically significant at p < 0.05. Both equations 3 and 4 indicate that foams became less
rigid as radial expansion increased. However, radial
expansion had little effect on spring index (R2 = 0.48) as
shown in figure 5c. The spring indices decreased slightly as
the radial expansion increased. A power law relationship
(R2 = 0.49) existed between the bulk compressibility (b)
and the radial expansion () as indicated in figure 5d:

b = 827.60..6267 (5)

The bulk compressibility decreased as the radial


expansion increased. However, the effect of the radial
expansion on bulk spring index was not significant
(R2 = 0.14) as shown in figure 5e. The bulk spring index
increased slightly with increases in radial expansion.

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND


UNIT DENSITY
From the data obtained in this study, a power law
relationship between the compressibility (, kPa) and the
unit density (, kg/m 3) was obtained using the least-square
regression method (R2 = 0.49):

Figure 3Effects of polymer content on foam mechanical properties. = 5.3820.9536 (6)

As shown in figure 6a, the compressibility-unit density


relationship was relatively linear. although the data points
were spread out. The relationship between Youngs
modulus (E, kPa) and unit density (, kg/m 3) is presented
in figure 6b (R2 = 0.56):

E = 2.3851.1546 (7)

Similar to the radial expansion, unit density had no


correlation with the spring index (R2 0) (fig. 6c). The
data points were spread around a horizontal line at 86.2%.
The relationship between the unit density and bulk
compressibility is presented in figure 6d. The result of
least-square regression suggests the power law equation
(R2 = 0.57):

b = 9.2420.6538 (8)

Increasing the unit density resulted in increases in bulk


compressibility. When the extrudates became denser, they
required higher compressive stress to achieve the same
Figure 4Effects of moisture content on foam mechanical properties. amount of deformation. Similar to the spring index tested

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on the single-piece samples, the unit density did not figure 6e. All data points were spread around a horizontal
significantly affect the bulk density (R2 0) as shown in line of 95.3%. This indicated that all extrudates had
excellent bulk spring indices.

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN MECHANICAL


PROPERTIES AND BULK DENSITY
Bulk density was affected by unit density and also by
shape of the extrudates. It also was significantly affected
the mechanical properties of the extrudates. The
relationship between the compressibility (, kPa) and the
bulk density (b, kg/m 3) is presented in figure 7a, which
was described by the power law equation (R2 = 0.70):

= 1.002b1.561 (9)

The relationship between the Youngs modulus (E, kPa)


and the bulk density (b, kg/m 3) also followed a power law
equation (R2 = 0.68) as shown in figure 7b:

E = 0.5765b1.7304 (10)

(a)

(d)
(b)

(c) (e)

Figure 5Relationship between foam mechanical properties and radial expansion: (a) compressibility versus radial expansion; (b) Youngs
modulus versus radial expansion; (c) spring index versus radial expansion; (d) bulk compressibility versus radial expansion; (e) bulk spring
index versus radial expansion.

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The relationship between the spring index and the bulk spring indices increased slightly as the bulk density
density was not significantly correlated (R2 = 0.06). The increased (fig. 7c).

CONCLUSIONS
1. Types of polymers had significant effects on the foam
compressibilities and Youngs moduli. The MBI-starch
foams were more rigid than foams made from EBC-
starch and PLA-starch blends. Foams made from regular
and waxy corn starches had similar mechanical
properties. Spring indices were not affected by type of
polymer or starch.
2. Polymer and moisture contents had significant
influences on the mechanical properties. A 25% polymer
content resulted in the softest foams. Foams containing
10% polymers possessed the highest spring indices.
Increasing moisture contents resulted in increases in
compressibilities and spring indices. A 22% moisture
content resulted in the lowest Youngs modulus.
3. Power law relationships existed between the
compressibilities, Youngs moduli, and the radial
(a)

(d)
(b)

(c) (e)

Figure 6Relationship between foam mechanical properties and unit density: (a) compressibility versus unit density; (b) Youngs modulus
versus unit density; (c) spring index versus unit density; (d) bulk compressibility versus unit density; (e) bulk spring index versus unit density.

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expansions. Compressibilities and Youngs moduli


decreased as the radial expansions increased. Low
correlation was found between spring indices and radial
expansions.
4. Compressibilities and Youngs moduli increased as the
unit densities increased. Power law equations, with little
curvature, described the relationships. Unit densities had
little effect on spring indices.
5. Increasing bulk densities significantly increased the
compressibilities and Youngs moduli. Spring index
increased slightly with increases in bulk density.

REFERENCES
Altieri, P. A., and N. L. Lacourse. 1990. Starch-based protective
loose-fill material. Proc. Corn Utilization Conference, III, June
20-21, St. Louis, Mo: National Corn Growers Assoc.
(a)
ASTM. 1996. D1895-96. Standard test methods for apparent
density, bulk factor, and pourability of plastic materials. West
Conshohocken, Pa.: Am. Society for Testing & Materials.
Baer, E. 1964. Engineering Design for Plastics. New York:
Chapman & Hall.
Barrett, A. M., M. D. Normand, M. Peleg, and E. Ross. 1992.
Characterization of the jagged stress-strain relationships of
puffed extrudates using the fast Fourier transform and fractal
analysis. J. Food Sci. 57(1): 227-235.
Bhatnagar, S., and M. A. Hanna. 1995. Physical, mechanical, and
thermal properties of starch-based plastic foams. Transactions
of the ASAE 38(2): 567-571.
Bhatnagar, S., and M. A. Hanna. 1996. Effect of talc on properties
of cornstarch extrudates. Starch 48(3): 94-101.
Gibson, L. J., and M. F. Ashby. 1988. Cellular Solids: Structure
and Properties. Oxford, U.K.: Pregamon Press.
Lin, Y., H. E. Huff, M. H. Parsons, E. Iannotti, and F. Hsieh. 1995.
Mechanical properties of extruded high amylose starch for
loose-fill packaging material. Lebensm.-Wiss. u.-Technol. 28:
163-168.
(b) SAS Institute. 1990. SAS Users Guide. 6th Ed. Cary. NC.
Warburton, C., A. M. Donald, and A. C. Smith. 1990. The
deformation of brittle starch foams. J. Mat Sci 25: 4001-4007.
______. 1992. Structure and mechanical properties of brittle starch
foams. J. Mat. Sci. 27: 1469-1474.

(c)

Figure 7Relationship between foam mechanical properties and bulk


density: (a) compressibility versus bulk density; (b) Youngs modulus
versus bulk density; (c) spring index and bulk density.

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