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HUMANIORA

VOLUME 27 No. 3 Oktober 2015 Halaman 340-349

CHALLENGES IN CROSS CULTURAL ADVERTISING

Yuni Retnowati*

ABSTRAK
Pada awalnya, para akademisi dan praktisi pemasaran menggunakan pendekatan yang
terstandardisasi dalam strategi pemasaran dan periklanannya dalam era globalisasi. Namun,
sejumlah penelitian menunjukkan bahwa standardisasi iklan lintas budaya tidak dapat dilakukan.
Oleh karena itu, iklan lintas budaya kemudian menggunakan pendekatan budaya lokal dalam
menyampaikan pesannya. Pemahaman lintas budaya sangat penting untuk menentukan keberhasilan
iklan lokal, yaitu iklan yang mencerminkan nilai-nilai budaya dan norma khalayak sasaran. Adapun
tantangan iklan lintas budaya terletak pada caranya dalam berkomunikasi dengan orang dari latar
belakang budaya yang berbeda. Sementara itu, solusi iklan lintas budaya terletak pada penggunaan
bahasa, gaya komunikasi, nilai budaya, dan pencitraannya. Secara sederhana, iklan lintas budaya
adalah tentang penggunaan common sense dan analisis unsur-unsur kampanye periklanan yang
dipengaruhi oleh budaya yang kemudian memodifikasinya agar bisa berkomunikasi dengan cara
yang tepat kepada khalayak sasaran. Di samping itu, tantangan lainnya adalah menentukan antara
standardisasi dan adaptasi kandungan nilai-nilai budaya dari iklan ketika menghadapi orang dari
budaya yang berbeda. Di sisi akademis, tantangannya adalah mempersiapkan mahasiswa untuk
merancang iklan yang mampu berkomunikasi secara efektif kepada khalayak sasaran dalam budaya
yang beragam

Kata Kunci: globalisasi, nilai budaya, lintas budaya, periklanan, tantangan

ABSTRACT
At first, marketing practitioners and academics consider standardized approaches to
marketing and advertising strategies in globalization, and then some studies proved that the
standardization of advertising across culture is not valid. Therefore, cross cultural advertising takes
local culture into account when conveying messages in advertisements. Cross cultural understanding
is very important in order to produce successful localized advertising that would reflect the cultural
values and norms of intended audience. Challenge in cross cultural advertising is the problem of
communicating to people of diverse cultural background. Cross cultural solutions are applied in
areas such as language, communication style, images and cultural values. Cross cultural advertising
is simply about using common sense and analyzing how the different elements of an advertising
campaign are impacted by culture and modifying them to best speak to the target audience. Other
challenges are determining between standardization and adaptation of cultural values content of
advertising when facing different people from diverse cultures. In academic side, the challenge is
preparing students to design advertisements that communicate effectively to diverse cultures.

Keywords: advertising, challenge, cross cultural, cultural value, globalization

* Indonesian Communication Academy, Yogyakarta

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Yuni Retnowati - Challenges in Cross Cultural Advertising

INTRODUCTION Cross cultural understanding is very important


Globalization has increased dramatically in in order to be able to devise successful localized
the early 21st century. It is an era of global business advertising that would reflect the cultural values and
and economic integration, the extent to which norms of its targeted audience. By understanding
economic activity crosses national boundaries. cross cultural differences or similarities in
Commercial products and services of giant advertising strategy, expressions and manifest
multinationals have been marketed to people from values and norms, we understand which aspects of
different culture environments. In an increasingly advertising can be shared across several countries
global economic environment, international trade and conversely which aspect need to be adapted to
has achieved phenomenal growth resulting in local cultures.
increased international advertising across diverse In most cases, consumer s attitudes,
cultures. awareness and behavior are largely driven by
In 1983 Levitt affirmed that advertising and the framework of their own culture, which is not
marketing can be standardized across cultures, only communicated to people but also forms and
and since then there has been a heated debate as modifies the communication among the people of
to whether or not advertising can be standardized a society. As Mooij (2010 : 46) points out, global
across cultures. In Levitts view, globalization marketing strategies is not culture free. Conversely,
is transforming the world into a homo cultural such strategies should be culture relevant because
marketplace where all customers can be persuaded influences of culture on consumer behavior and
by the same advertising appeals and values, perception of global marketing communications
irrespective of the culture they belong to. However, are powerful and profound. One of the greatest
there is an increasing body of research which casts challenges in cross cultural advertising is the
serious doubts over the claims made by Levitt problem of communicating to people of diverse
and which suggests that advertising is strongly cultural background.
influenced by local culture (Dahl, 2004).
The essence of advertising is convincing GLOBALIZATION AND ADVERTISING
people that a product is meant for them. By Globalization is not a single process, but
purchasing it, they will receive some benefits, a set of processes that operate simultaneously
whether it be lifestyle, status, convenience or and unevenly on several levels and in various
financial. However, when an advertising campaign dimensions. Among aforesaid dimensions
is taken abroad, different values and perceptions as one could find economic, political, cultural,
to what enhances status or gives convenience exist. ideological and ecological ways of manifestation
These differences make the original advertising of globalization and what is more important - the
campaign defunct. Therefore cross cultural huge net of interdependencies between all these
advertising campaign need an understanding of a spheres (Steger, 2009: 36-37). Paul Hopper claims
particular culture and the creative execution must that globalization should be viewed as a multi-
still take account of cultural differences. centered phenomenon contributed to by a range of
An effective advertising must derive from and sources, powers and influences (Hopper, 2007:5).
be part of a culture, sharing the language and values Pieterse conceives globalization as human
of the target audience. It is not simply a matter integration and hybridization, arguing that it is
of choosing between a sparkling international possible to detect forms of such cultural mixing
creative strategy and execution which neglects across the world dating back many centuries
local needs, motives, and buying habit, or a local (Hopper, 2007: 31).
campaign which strongly relates to local buying Eriksen names three similar dimensions of
motives but inferior in terms of professionalism. contemporary globalization: increased trade and
The best aspect of the two approaches must be transnational economic activity, faster and denser
combined in order to produce an effective cross communication networks, increased tensions
cultural advertising which can be easily adapted to between cultural groups due to intensified mutual
local circumstances. exposure. And he also stresses the idea that all

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these developments are not recent, but have roots Topics under this heading include discussion
in previous historical processes. Eriksen states that about the development of a global culture, or
there is only one really new tendency in this period: lack thereof, the role of the media in shaping
globalization becomes the form of consciousness, our identities and desires, and the globalization
and a global discourse and awareness about the of languages.
world as a whole emerge ( Eriksen, 2007: 4-5). (4) Ecological Globalization
The same idea we can find in Roland Topics of ecological globalization include
R o b e r t s o n s d e fi n i t i o n o f g l o b a l i z a t i o n : population growth, access to food, worldwide
globalization as a concept refers to the reduction in biodiversity, the gap between rich
intensification of consciousness of the world as and poor as well as between the global North
a whole (Robertson, 2009: 13). But also there and global South, human-induced climate
are scholars, who favor the idea of contemporary change, and global environmental degradation
period as unprecedented qualitative leap, and Globalization in business significantly affects
globalization as something cardinally new and a companys advertising strategy and the way
never before experienced. For example, Manuel it delivers messages to customers. Developing
Castells analyzes globalization through the idea and implementing an advertising strategy is a
of the rise of Network Society, emphasizing massive undertaking for global companies. A
the unparalleled nature of new Information and major strategic dilemma is whether to use a global,
Communication Technology and the impact of universal messaging approach or to customize
integration the world into global communication advertising to each individual market. More
networks (Hemer, Tufte 2005: 14). companies use a multi-domestic or international
Manfred (2009 :10) argues that globalization approach since few products have truly universal
has four main dimensions: economic, political, use and message context.
cultural, ecological, with ideological aspects of One reason for increased strategic
each category. requirements with globalization is the impact of
(1) Economic Globalization language and culture. Cultural familiarity is also
Economic globalization is the intensification an issue. To persuade people with advertising,
and stretching of economic interrelations advertiser must understand the culture and values.
around the globe. It encompasses such things According to Neuliep (2003 : 18) culture is an
as the emergence of a new global economic accumulated pattern of values, beliefs and
order, the internationalization of trade and behaviors shared by an identifiable group of
finance, the changing power of transnational people with a common history and a verbal and
corporations, and the enhanced role of non verbal symbol system. We can not understand
international economic institutions. advertising unless we consider its cultural context.
(2) Political Globalization Culture is the lens through which consumers make
Political globalization is the intensification and sense of marketing communication. Each culture
expansion of political interrelations around the reflects, in its language and communication, what
globe (Manfred, 2009 :11) Aspects of political is of value to people.
globalization include the modern-nation state Advertising attempts to sell goods by
system and its changing place in todays world, appealing to consumers through gender identity,
the role of global governance, and the direction celebrity endorsement, romantic imagery, notions
of our global political systems. of achieving happiness or contentment and other
(3) Cultural Globalization cultural dimension not tangibly related to the
Cultural globalization is the intensification and advertised product or service ( Jhally in Malefyt
expansion of cultural flows across the globe. & Moeran, 2003: 75).
Culture is a very broad concept and has many The cultural dimension of advertising came
facets, but in the discussion on globalization, age in 1920s. Agencies and publicists no longer
means it to refer to the symbolic construction, sought merely to convey objective facts about
articulation, and dissemination of meaning. the products they sought to link products with

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a particular lifestyle, imbue them with glamour (1) Individualism collectivism


and prestige to persuade potential consumers The individualism-collectivism dimension
that purchasing an item could be described as a relates to a societal, not an individuals,
personally fulfilling and enriching experience characteristic and identifies the extent to which
(Brinkley, 2002). The images of ads sought to both people in a society are integrated into groups. In
resonate with and help define the lifestyles of those an individualist society, there is an expectation
who bought the products. that individuals look after themselves and
Advertising is part of the glue that holds connections between individuals are loose;
our culture together which allows us to share a while in a collectivist society, individuals are
common experience in a landscape populated by integrated into strong, cohesive groups, which
brands, images, logos and even jingles. It reflects may often involve extended family. Vertical
and influences our cultural value and therefore individualism is a cultural orientation in
it cannot be ignored when building effective which an autonomous self is also valued, but
advertising. Results show that culture impact the self is seen as different from and perhaps
execution more than creative strategy (Wei & unequal to other. Status and competition are
Jiang, 2005) and, therefore, execution is seen as important aspect of this orientation. Horizontal
an important element of cross cultural advertising collectivism is a cultural orientation in which
The standardized approach of advertising the the individual sees the self as part of an in group
product as one sight one sound one sell offers whose members are similar to each other. The
efficiencies in creation and production. In practice, self is interdependent and the same as the self
the standardization perspective has not worked of others. Equality is expected and practiced
out too well. One reason for the failure of global within this orientation.
marketing is that consumers in different countries (2) High Context and Low Context
have varying conventions and customs, so they High context cultures would generally be
simply do not use products the same way. So it associated with collectivism, whereas, in
means that we all have different perceptions of the contrast, low context cultures would typically be
world and that we will not react the same way to correlated with individualism. In collectivistic
the same things mentioned. countries, messages flow more easily because
Some large corporations, such as Coca Cola of the interpersonal relationships within a
have been pretty successful at crafting a single, group, while there is more need for explicit
international image still ever the soft drink and direct communication in individualistic
giant must make minor modifications to the societies.
way it presents itself in each culture. Although (3) Power distance
Coke commercials are largely standardized, the Power distance refers to the extent to which
company permits local agencies to edit them so less powerful members of organizations and
they highlight close ups of local faces (Hill and institutions (including the family) accept and
Winski, 1987) expect unequal power distributions. This
dimension is measured not only from the
CULTURAL DIMENSIONS perspective of the leaders, who hold power,
According to Hofstede (2011) Culture is the but from the followers. In regard to power
collective programming of the human mind that distribution, Hofstede notes, all societies
distinguishes the members of one human group are unequal, but some are more unequal than
from those of another. Culture in this sense is a others.
system of collectively held values. (4) Masculinity femininity
Hofstede (2011) identifies cultural dimensions Masculinity-femininity cultural dimension is
that are globally applicable and are reflected in all addressed as a societal, not an individuals,
aspects of life, including family life, child-rearing characteristic and refers to the distribution
practices, education, employment, and health care of values between the genders. A society is
practices. These cultural dimensions include: called feminine when there is not a strong

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differentiation between the genders for status, held in the highest esteem. On this cultural
emotional and social rolesboth men and level the emphasis is on the works cultic value
women should be modest and caring and both (Benjamin, 2008:. 12). The term high culture is
boys and girls may cry, but neither should fight. used to describe a subculture shared by the elite
In masculine societies, both men and women in a society. Products of high culture are mostly
are assertive and competitive; however women viewed as belonging to the long-established forms
are less so than men. of art, such as painting and sculpting. Examples of
(5) The uncertainty avoidance these products include paintings by Michelangelo
The uncertainty avoidance dimension indicates and symphonies by Mozart.
the level of comfort with unstructured situations, On the other hand, there is what is commonly
in which unstructured situations are novel, referred to as Low culture or in a less derogatory
unknown, surprising, and different from usual. term, Popular culture. On this level the emphasis is
The uncertainty avoidance encompasses a instead on the works display value (Benjamin,
cultures tolerance for ambiguity. Cultures high 2008 : 12). It is considered the lowest form of art,
in uncertainty avoidance avoid unstructured often completely lacking in creativity. The most
situations with strict behavior codes, laws and obvious examples of popular culture include pop
rules, disapproval of deviant opinions, and a music and reality television shows. This level of
belief in an absolute truth. culture can also be associated with mass culture or
(6) Long- and Short-Term Orientation the Culture Industry (Adorno, 2001: 98) as it is
The long- versus short-term orientation refers created not by the masses but for the masses.
to whether a society exhibits a pragmatic Lang and Lang (2009) stated that mass culture
future-oriented perspective or a conventional has come into wide use as a term deprecating
historic point of view. A long-term orientation the value of commercially marketed arts and
fosters virtues directed toward the future, in entertainment packaged to appeal to people in
particular, perseverance and thrift and ordering particular demographic categories. While (Pease,
relationships by status. A short-term orientation 2000 : 72) considered mass culture as mass
fosters virtues related to the past and present, produced form of cultural entertainment such as
in particular, respect for tradition, preservation fiction, radio and films were destructive to the
of face, and personal steadiness and stability quality of individual lives and hence the fabric of
(7) Indulgence Versus Restraint society as a whole.
This dimension identifies the extent to which The concepts of high and low can be seen
a society allows relatively free gratification from a strictly elitist perspective High culture
of basic and natural human desires related to containing the most intelligent, meaningful and
enjoying life and having fun as represented usually long-established works of art, and Low
by the indulgence point on the continuum, culture encompassing all aspects of mass media
relative to a society that controls gratification and popular culture, grouped under Culture
of needs and regulates by means of strict Industry label This pictures the audience of Low
social norms. Indulgence as a cultural value culture as naive victims of capitalism, with no
also tends towards a perception of personal conscious autonomy. High and Low culture can
life control, while restraint as a cultural value be regarded as unclear and subjective cultural
tends towards a perception of helplessness and statuses that vary and merge over the course of
that what happens in ones life is beyond his/ history. Technological reproduction is seen as a
her own control. positive evolution in bringing the two cultural
levels together (Flybring, 2012).
HIGH CULTURE AND MASS CULTURE Art and meaningful symbols often used in
The differentiation between levels of advertising to attempt to influence people in order
culture is generally seen as an elitist perception of to buy the products or services. A lot of high
culture. High culture is considered to encompass a art has been created for aesthetic reasons alone,
set of products, especially in the arts, of a higher while some low art has been produced with cultic

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or spiritual ideas in mind. Advertising applies art whereas Chinese commercials relied more on soft
besides science. It can be seen from the execution sell appeals, displayed collectivistic values, and
of advertising strategy through music, film or exhibited high context culture values.
design (including color and illustrations). A work One of the main issues in international
of art may use elements from both high and low marketing and advertising is whether consumers
culture, but its status cannot be confirmed until it from different countries will become more and
receives a social response. Since advertisements more alike orwhether the differences will remain
distribute by mass media to reach target audience stable or even will grow more. The question is
so that its grouped under culture industry for reflected at a decisional level by the dilemma of
classified as mass culture. the standardization (globalization) of marketing
and advertising strategies or, at contrary, of their
CROSS CULTURAL ADVERTISING cultural adaptation to the paradigms and patterns
Cross-cultural advertising means that revealed by every single country/region. The last
marketing products or services to several diverse two decades saw a proliferation of cross cultural
cultures simultaneously (Parry, 2010). It similar studies, research and analysis of advertising,
to the term of international advertising as pointed consumer behavior, organizationalbehavior which
by Mooij (2010 : 385) as advertising, created at, attempting to support one approach or the other
coordinated or directed from one central point, for (Sauciuc, 2002).
execution, with or without local adaptations, in a Global campaigns would be successful
number of countries. The most common usage of only in a context of cultural and behavioral
the term international advertising is in the context convergence between the countries where they
of advertising for brands being marketed in several are delivered; opposite conditions would lead
countries. Such advertising is also referred to as to failure. Dahl (2004) conducted a research
global, multinational, multi country, or cross- about the cross-cultural advertising in order to
national advertising. determine what we know about the links between
A review of cross-cultural advertising research culture and advertisements. He concluded that the
by Okazaki, Mueller and Taylor (2010) shows standardization of advertising across culture is not
that most cross-cultural advertising research valid today.
topics were cultural values and the most used According to Sotomayor (2005) , all product
research methods were content analysis and survey. s in the world can be divided in two categories:
Content analysis has been criticized for providing tradition-free (global) products and culture bond
description without prescription (Samiee & Jeong (local) products.
1994). However, the use of content analysis is (1) Tradition - free products
for measuring the degree of standardization of Tradition free products can be identified with
advertising. Observation of actual practice by technological, scientific or financial products,
content analysis demonstrates what companies whose main selling points are based on
do in reality and may as well uncover important performance. They require much less cross
advertising appeals and styles for other cultures -cultural adaptation, since their perception
than the home culture. and values are based on facts, performance
Koga and Pearson (1992) found that Japanese and achievement; they are measurable and
advertisers use more social strategies which not very emotional. Communication from
correlate with collectivistic, vertical and high technological, financial or scientific companies
context culture, while the American advertisers is usually quite easily adapted from one culture
use more individual strategies which correlate with to another, at least when it comes to core values.
individualistic, horizontal and low context culture( There might be local variations in the perceived
Other research was done by Lin, Koroglu and Olson purpose of technology within the local context,
(2012) showed that the United States commercials but no fundamental resistance. This means that
used hard sell appeals, displayed individualistic the global strategy can be very consistent, and
values, and exhibited low context culture values, that much of the creative work and content can

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be shared across the media and across nations complement the values, traditions, and perceptions
(2) Culture -bound products of the target market, whether locally orabroad.
Culture-bound products are those deeply Those are applied in areas such as language,
rooted in national, local or sub - cultural communication style, images and cultural values
traditions. For example, food, entertainment, (Payne, 2004).
lifestyle, some sports, and travel. They take
longer to adapt, and in order to enter the global Language
era they often have to change their image It may seem somewhat obvious to state that
substantially and create a new set of values language is the key to effective cross cultural
suited for the international market which often advertising. However, the fact that companies
coexist alongside the home market ones. They persistently fail to check linguistic implications
require a much more glocal (global but local) of company or product names and slogans
approach. So the positioning of the same brand demonstrates that such issues are notbeing
can vary enormously between countries. The properly addressed. It is imperative therefore
first obvious difference in perception is the that language be examined carefully in any cross
local vs. foreign. Being qualified as foreign cultural advertising campaign.
can be fine if the perception is positive.
Past studies have shown that advertisement of Communication Style
one culture do not necessary work in other cultures Understanding the way in which other
(Hung & Belk : 2007, Jones, 2000). Kansal (2012) cultures communicate allows the advertising
noticed that some content of advertisements can campaign to speak to the potential customer in a
be standardized giving a universal appeal to way they understand and appreciate. Generally
communication strategy. The appeals used in communication should be straight forward and to
advertising related only across few dimension the point. But when attempting to relate to different
of culture. Nevertheless, cultural-values play cultural markets each respond to a different style
a significant role in advertising strategies. An and understanding the style that is appropriate is
advertisers must, therefore , tailor its strategy to vital in creating an effective marketing campaign
the sensibilities of each specific culture for any business. Know whether each culture prefers
Advertising reflects and influences our direct or indirect communication, aggressive
cultural value and, therefore, it cannot be ignored or passive calls to action, emotional or rational
when building effective advertising. Cultural value appeals, and a fast or slow pace of speech can help
is an important element that widely influences to establish connections with consumers, since we
behavior. Cultural value dictates the behavior of will be speaking to them in familiar ways.
human beings, and is a continuous force that drives
motivation. Value is also considered to be a main Image
part of someones personality; nonetheless it is Images are also culturally sensitive. Whereas
learnt through experiences which are subsequently it is common to see pictures of women in bikinis
shared personally and socially. In this view, this on advertising posters on the streets of London,
was proven to be a concept which connects culture, such images would cause outrage in the Middle
social structure and personality, and plays a role East. The bottom line is that to create ads that
as the standard for choice, belief, attitude and the appeal to different cultures, remember to be aware
behavior of mankind. (Mooij, 1997) ofthe principles and traditions observed in each
Cross cultural awareness aims to help minimize culture. The best way to accomplish this is identify
the negative impact of cross cultural differences your target markets needs, wants and desires.
through building common frameworks for people Analyzing all of the images in an ad for cultural
from different cultures to interact within. acceptance and understanding that different colors
There are some areas of cross-cultural differences and settings evoke different emotions in different
in advertising that should be considered in order cultures.
to successfully incorporate characteristics to

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Cultural Values with it. Semiotic is the field of study that looks at
the relationship between signs, symbols and their
When advertising abroad, the cultural values
role in assignment of meaning. Advertisers turn to
underpinning the society must be analyzed
semiotics to help understand what meanings people
carefully. Is there a religion that is practiced
assign to specific symbols. These may vary across
by the majority of the people? Is the society
taste cultures and geographies.
collectivist or individualist? Is it family oriented?
Most of the problems caused by cross-
Is it hierarchical? Is there a dominant political
cultural clashes are usually the result of the failure
or economic ideology? All of these will impact
by some or all parties involved to recognize
an advertising campaign if left unexamined. For
and account for differences in culturally-based
example, advertising that focuses on individual
communication styles. They assume that all people
success, independence and stressing the word
communicate using the same set of modes and
I would be received negatively in countries
rules (many of which, like body language styles,
where teamwork is considered a positive quality.
are unconsciously held).
Rebelliousness or lack of respect for authority
Advertising has evolved over the years with
should always be avoided in family oriented or
more sensitivity to culture, and more awareness
hierarchical societies.
to cultural diversity. How communication works
By way of conclusion, we can see that the
and how advertising works is culture-bound. In
principles of advertising run through to cross
one culture, advertising is persuasive by nature;
cultural advertising too. That is : know your
in another, it is meant to build trust between
market, what is attractive to them and what their
companies and consumers. Thus, models of one
aspirations are. Cross cultural advertising is simply
culture cannot be projected to other cultures. The
about using common sense and analyzing how the
basic difference is between communication styles.
different elements of an advertising campaign are
Different verbal and nonverbal communication
impacted by culture and modifying them to best
styles can be recognized in both interpersonal and
speak to the target audience.
mass communication, and culture clusters can be
Facing Challenges defined where one or other style prevails. This
is related to the way people process information.
One of the biggest problem areas in advertising For some, pictures contain more information than
communication lies with the independent, self words; for others, the only way to convey meaning
directed consumers at whom the message is aimed. is verbal. People look at how advertising works
The problem is that advertisers have no control from the perspective of their own culture, which
over consumers attention. The problem with may indeed be very different from the perspective
the viewer (listener, reader) audience is that you of their counterparts in other.
seldom know what is going on in their minds. You The other challenges for cross cultural
dont know if they are attending to your message, advertising include making decisions to standardize
if they understand it or if they care about it. They or adapt advertising based on the different points of
may hear different meanings in your words and view of the target audience or customer. Those who
see different things in your pictures. They may favor standardization are mainly concerned with
misinterpret everything you say and may not cost reduction of advertising and a consistent brand
believe you (Moriarty, 1997: 78) image worldwide while proponents of adaptation
Advertising is purposeful communication point differential advantage through local
which intends to accomplish something, to have adaptation. The aim of adapting the advertisement
some specific effect on its intended audience. is to gain maximum effectiveness in terms of
It can also be said that advertising is about response and sales. It allows responsiveness
communicating meaning but how do we know what and adaptation to culture, infrastructure and
that something means? Very often we make sense competition. The visual and verbal parts of
of a word, phrase, or image because weve learned advertising are mostly sensitive to adaptation
to associate extremely subtle cultural distinctions and use of local language, models and scenery

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increases the probability for the advertisement cultural values content in advertisements had been
to be effective. Therefore, adaptation of creative adapted to local cultures of the target audience.
presentations and decentralized implementations The challenges in delivering messages which
of campaigns are expected to offer greater benefits contain cultural values have been handled by
than less culturally-tied functions. (Mooij, 2010 using language, communication style and image
:159) in accordance with the cultural environment of the
In an educational setting, department and target audience.
school of communication that teach advertising
face the challenge of preparing students to REFERENCES
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