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Missouri University of Science and Technology

Scholars' Mine
International Conference on Case Histories in (1993) - Third International Conference on Case
Geotechnical Engineering Histories in Geotechnical Engineering

Jun 1st, 12:00 AM

Case Histories of Retaining Structures and Deep

John T. Christian

Cetin Soydemir

Alan J. Juteneggar

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Recommended Citation
John T. Christian, Cetin Soydemir, and Alan J. Juteneggar, "Case Histories of Retaining Structures and Deep Excavations" ( June 1,
1993). International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering. Paper 8.

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II -
Proceedings: Third International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering, St. Louis, Missouri,
June 14, 1993, General Report Session No. V

Case Histories of Retaining Structures and Deep Excavations

John T. Christian, Cetin Soydemir and
Alan J. Lutenegger

INTRODUCTION The principal reporting was done by c. Soydemir.

This session contains twenty-nine papers Analytical or Model studies
submitted from thirteen countries. The largest
contingent - thirteen papers - is from the United These two papers describe analytical or
states of America. The papers deal with a broad model studies of issues arising in retaining wall
range of subjects within the over-all topic of design. The principal reporting was done by J.
full-scale case histories of retaining structures T. Christian.
and deep excavations.
Flow through Porous Media
In order to provide some structure for the
General Report and to apportion the related tasks Two papers deal with groundwater flow
of preparing a report and discussion on the through porous media and its effect on the
papers, the General Reporter and Co-Reporters behavior of excavations. 'The principal reporting
divided the papers into six categories. It must was done by A. J. Lutenegger.
be understood that the categories are neither
rigid nor exclusive; many, perhaps most, papers
could easily fall into more than one category. FAILURES
However, the categorization does give a framework
for reporting and discussion. The categories Five of the papers submitted to the
into which the papers are divided for purposes of conference in this category are brief case
this report are: studies of failures or unacceptable performance
of earth retaining structures. Four of these
Failures deal with temporary excavation support systems,
and one reports on a permanent retaining wall
Each of the six papers in this category project. The sixth paper presents a statistical
describes and evaluates either the failure of a evaluation of fatal accidents caused by the
retaining wall or deep excavation or the failure failure of trench excavations in Japan.
of a number of related structures. The principal
reporting was done by C. Soydemir. Tgmporary EXCavation Support Systems
Project Descriptions Rodgers and Majchrzak (paper 5.15) describe
the unacceptable performance of a steel sheet
The nine papers in this category describe pile wall supported internally by a berm and
the design or construction of a retaining wall or raker system. During the course of a 8.5 m {28
deep excavation. The major emphasis is on ft) deep excavation in downtown san Francisco,
describing what was done rather than on analysis, California, the lateral support system moved more
prediction, or comparison of field measurements than 450 mm {18 in) horizontally, resulting in
with theory. The principal reporting was done by the loss of usable basement space and serious
J. T. Christian. distress to adjacent streets and utilities.
Comparison of Field Performance and The case is an example of poor communication
Prediction between the geotechnical engineer and the
contractor, who also happened to be the owner.
The seven papers in this category are It is especially relevant to note that the loss
concerned with comparing field observations with of ground due to the removal of existing wood
analytical studies, whether made before, during, piles from the area of excavation was a major
or after the fact. The principal reporting was contributor to the ground movements. Contrary to
done by A. J. Lutenegger. the engineer's recommendation, 300 piles were
removed within the zone of influence of the
Analytically Controlled and Instrumented support system, and the resulting voids were not
Construction backfilled sand or grout.
The three papers in this category describe Rahimi et al. (paper 5.23) report on the
projects in which analytical studies and unacceptable performance of two sewerage mains
instrumental observations were used to control, constructed across two creeks using a temporary
revise, and modify the construction in progress. embankment and a sheet-piled trench excavation.

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Following the construction of two effluent mains retaining system, consisting of two reinforced
in very soft deposits in central New South Wales, concrete cantilever walls, the lower 5. 2 m ( 17
Australia, joint openings up to 120 mm (4.75 in) ft) high and the upper 3. 4 m ( 11 ft) high,
wide developed. The pipes were 600 mm (2 ft) and collapsed shortly after completion of backfilling.
750 rom (2.5 ft) in diameter. at a site in central Texas. The system was
designed by a registered professional engineer in
This case is an example of the importance of accordance with a standard handbook. However, he
construction induced displacements during did not consider the surcharge effect of the
surcharging, excavation, backfilling, and removal upper wall on the lower wall and the over-all
of surcharge in very soft deposits, which should sliding stability of the composite system.
be estimated within a reasonably confined range
to determine the technical feasibility of a The case is an example of a grossly
particular construction scheme proposed by a deficient design analysis undertaken by an
contractor. The paper describes analytical unqualified designer, who reportedly was a
efforts to simulate the construction process in "generalist having performed design work in most
order to understand the mechanisms that led to areas of civil engineering but not trained in
the unsatisfactory performance. geotechnical engineering."
Olson and Heuer (paper 5. 32) describe the Statistical Evaluation of Fatal Accidents Related
failure of a 36 m (117 ft) diameter circular to Trench Excavations
excavation support system consisting of steel
ring beams and vertical timber lagging. The Toyosawa et al. (paper 5.22), of the
braced excavation for a new sewage treatment Institute of Industrial Safety, Japan, made a
plant in central Texas failed as the excavation comprehensive survey of the fatal accidents,
reached a depth of about 13 m (42 ft) . The total between 50 and 100 deaths each year, related to
design depth of the excavation was 27 m (88 ft). excavation of trenches to install utility pipes
The support system was designed by a well-known at relatively shallow depths in urban areas of
international engineering firm based on Japan. The statistical evaluation reveals that
subsurface information obtained from a single nearly 80 per cent of the accidents occurred in
test boring made at the center of the excavation trench excavations less than 3 m (10 ft) in depth
during the dry summer season for the region. and were due to the sliding of urban fill
materials. At the times of the failures, about
An unanticipated water-bearing sand and one half of the excavations did not yet have the
gravel layer was encountered within one segment support system installed, and about 30 per cent
of the excavation, which the single test boring of the failures occurred during the installation
did not find. As the excavation proceeded during or dismantling of the support system.
the rainy season, there was progressive loss of
material into the excavation. This could not be The authors and those interested in safety
controlled and led to the buckling of the ring of trenches my find relevant information in the
beams and total collapse of the support system. regulations of the U. S. Department of Labor,
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
The case is a well-documented example of (1989).
deficiencies and errors contributed by the
contractor and the designer, as well as the General Comments
The cases reported come form the United
et al. (paper 5. 39) report on the
Horii States of America, Japan, and Australia. Thus,
catastrophic failure of a soldier pile and timber they reveal some differences in the way the
lagging support system stabilized by soil relationships between the owner, designer, and
anchors. As the excavation at a site in Japan contractor work for excavation support projects
reached a depth of 11.4 m (37 ft) , several in different countries. However, the elements
soldier piles (steel H-sections) braced by a that contributed most significantly to failure or
single level of wales and soil anchors became unacceptable performance are quite similar.
unstable due to the loss of toe support. Five
workers were killed under the sliding earth mass. In the four reported failures of temporary
excavation support systems, lack of adequate
Apparently, the failure was caused largely information on subsurface conditions and the
by the gross error of the field engineer, who complete separation of the designer from the
changed the original design for the excavation construction phase activities stand out as the
support system to obtain "cost savings." Also, primary causes leading to unsuccessful projects
the soldier piles were installed short of their and unfortunate results.
required tip elevations because of a mistake in
the base datum for the project. In addition, the Temporary excavation support systems are
design was based on subsurface information almost always designed by the contractor because
obtained from a single test boring and did not of liability concerns. However, the project
consider any hydrostatic pressure build up, geotechnical engineer is the person most informed
whereas after the failure it was established that on the subsurface conditions underlying the
heavy rainfall did cause hydrostatic pressures on project site, and he or she is therefore in the
the support system. best position to assess the anticipated lateral
earth pressures and ground movements associated
Permanent Retaining Support Systems with a particular excavation support system. In
essence, the design and construction of an
Olson (paper 5.31) describes the failure of excavation support system is a soil-structure
an earth retaining system consisting of two interaction problem, which requires a direct and
adjacent retaining walls. A composite earth

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continuous contact between the project centers. Next came a 24. m (80 ft) relieving
geotechnical engineer and the contractor. platform consisting of vertical and battered
concrete-filled steel pipe piles supporting a
Finally, it is interesting to observe that, reinforced concrete deck. The last section was
in each of the five cases of failure reported, nearly perpendicular to another nearby pier, and
during the ensuing post-failure period eminent the designers chose for this section a double
consultants were retained, and substantial sums wall of 21 m (70 ft) long sheet piles connected
of money were expended for extensive subsurface with anchor rods and backfilled with crushed
explorations, thorough laboratory testing stone.
programs, and sophisticated analyses.
Ironically, if some of these efforts had been Inclinometers were placed on all sections
undertaken even at a modest level during the and monitored throughout the several phases of
design phase, the subsequent catastrophes and construction and into the later life of the
costly litigation might have been avoided. structure. Movements were acceptably small. In
the first two sections total maximum horizontal
movements were approximately 50 mm (2 in) to 75
PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS rnm, (3 in) . Movement of the last section,
consisting of the double sheet pile wall)
Nine of the papers presented to the session exceeded 140 rnm ( 5. 5 in) , but the rate of
are essentially descriptions of projects. Four movement decreased with time. The performance of
of the papers deal with the performance of the new pier has been satisfactory.
various types of retaining structures. Two other
papers describe projects that used reinforced Teparaska (paper 5. 21) describes the
soil techniques, and two report on the behavior of the braced retaining system for an
underpinning of existing structures. One paper 11.3 m (33 ft) deep excavation for the basement
presents the case of a pressure relief tunnel. of and 89 story building in Bangkok, Thailand.
The site is underlain by very soft, thick
Retaining Structures deposits of marine clay with undrained shear
strengths from 6 to 20 kPa (0.8 to 2.8 psi) to a
Hohmeyer (paper 5.08) describes the design depth of about 27m (90ft). The building is in
and construction of two retaining walls for an two sections, one 19 stories high with an
addition to a hospital in Michigan. One wall was excavation depth of 9.5 m (31.4 ft) and the other
a temporary structure, and the other was 89 stories high with an excavation depth of 11.3
permanent. Both were constructed as augercast m (37. 3 ft).
piles; that is, the hole for the pile was drilled
with an auger and then filled with Portland The bracing for the sheeted excavation
cement grout pumped out the bottom of the auger. consisted of three levels of struts at the
The scheme was chosen because the lower portion shallow section and four rows at the deep
of the soil profile consists of very stiff clay section. Struts were preloaded to 70 per cent
in which adequate embedment might be difficult to of the apparent pressure from the standard
obtain. Also, the augercast technique reduced Terzaghi and Peck pressure diagram. Before each
the noise and vibration during construction. level of struts was installed the wall was
partially supported by berms. Four inclinometers
The permanent wall was designed on the were installed, and their readings are reported
assumption that each pile acted independently. for the various stages of construction.
The computed factor of safety was 2. 0. The
temporary wall was designed as a set of piles The observed motions of the walls involved
forming semi -circular horizontal arches. The rotation about the bottom and bulging in the
computed factor of safety was 1.5. middle, primarily below the level of excavation.
This is what would be expected for this type of
Both permanent and temporary walls performed construction. Traffic beside the wall had a
well. However, during construction it was significant effect on the lateral motions and
observed that the piles in the temporary wall settlements; indeed, the restriction of truck
were not in contact, as had been assumed in traffic seems to have reduced the horizontal
design, but were separated by about 50 rnm (2 in) movements during the initial stage of excavation
of clay in a "smear zone" that developed when the as measured by inclinometers at two locations
cuttings from the auger were forced into the from about 80 rnm (3 in) to about 24 mm (1 in).
sides of the hole. The shear strength of the Berms were effective in reducing movements only
clay was measured with a hand penetrometer to be in the first three stages of excavation. The
at least 21 mPa (3000 psf), which provided ratio of maximum horizontal wall movement to
sufficient interlock to maintain the arch. excavation depth as a function of factor of
safety against basal heave was generally less
Woo et al. (paper 5.18) present a very clear than that reported by Mana and Clough (1981) for
and complete description of the construction of a several sites around the world. A simplified
pier in Quincy, Massachusetts, un,der very method, proposed by Wong and Brems (1989) for
difficult conditions. The project was to replace predicting horizontal wall movement, gave results
an existing pier in an area of miscellaneous that agreed well with the field observations.
fill, organic deposits, glacio-marine deposits,
and till. Because of the presence of existing The paper presents much detail on the design
buildings, tanks, and other structures, three and performance of the .excavation and warrants
different construction schemes were employed further study. It is particularly relevant for
along different sections of the pier. The excavations in deep deposits of very soft clay.
longest portion was an anchored bulkhead made up
of 18 m (60 ft) long steel sheet piles anchored Matsui and Nakajima (paper 7.28) describe
to a concrete deadman by tie rods on 2m (6.5 ft) the field measurements on a small diaphragm wall

Third International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering
Missouri University of Science and Technology
constructed as part of the foundation works for attention to compaction details is expected t
an elevated highway near Kobe, Japan. The soil improve the performance of future structures.
consisted of about 20 m (66 ft) of fill overlying
alternatively bedded sands and clays. The wall Underpinning
was built inside a box created by other concrete
walls, so that dissipation of excess pore Lim and Majchrzak (paper 5.16) report on th
pressures was reduced .. Measurements were made of underpinning of a four-story building in Redwoo
the pore pressures and accelerations in the soil. City, California. Geotechnical considerations a
The data showed that pulses of acceleration were well as operational constraints due to th
generated when the excavating bucket struck the current use of the building as a jail led to th
soil during excavation. This generated excess examination and rejection of most conventiona
pore pressures, which decayed much more rapidly alternatives for underpinning the structure. Th
outside the box created by the other walls than site is blanketed by about 1.4 m (5 ft) of highl
inside the box. The authors conclude that the expansive black clay'with a plasticity index o
excess pore pressures could reduce the stability 44, underlain by variable mixtures of mediUJ
of the wall and that a deep well provides an stiff to stiff silty clay and sandy clays an
effective means of dissipating the excess pore medium dense to dense clayey sands. These soil
pressures. are characteristic of the fluvial depositiona
his tory at the site. Underpinning was require
Reinforced Soil to keep the existing structure in place durin
construction of a ten-story addition.
Schick et al. (paper 5. 13) report on the
behavior of a Reinforced Earth wall built to The designers selected a system of drille
contain the sliding of earth near an office underpinning piers to support the existin
building in Houston, Texas. The foundation soils building during construction. The piers wer
appear to be composed primarily of random, designed to carry not only the vertical load.
uncontrolled and unconsolidated fill. The along the perimeter of the building but als1
instrumentation consisted of four inclinometers horizontal loads due to lateral earth pressur'
and seven sets of horizontal displacement and the lateral pressures from existing interio
markers, supplemented later by eight sets of footings. The resulting design consisted of 61
horizontal displacement markers located in the mm (24 in) diameter piers spaced 0. 6 m (2 ft) OJ
area of greatest movement. Inconsistencies in centers where the interior spread footings ha1
the data led to the conclusion that the greatest influence and 2. 4 m (8 ft) elsewhere
inclinometers had not penetrated to a point of The piers extended a minimum of 1. 5 m (5 ft
fixity, and the inclinometer readings were below the elevation of the bottom of th1
discontinued. foundation for the new building. To provid1
lateral reinforcement and support, the pier:
The maximum horizontal movement of the wall included W12X5 3 H beams. The system wa:
has been about 610 mm (24 in) , and the maximum restrained by tiebacks.
settlement, which occurred at the same section of
the wall, has been. 660 mm (26 in). The The designers specified specifi<
monitoring data indicate continued creep movement construction steps to minimize movement an<
in an area of a former slide. The progress of disturbance during installation of thE
the movements has coincided with the times of underpinning system. Seventeen monitoring point:
heavier rainfall. Although the movements are were installed to monitor movement of thE
large, the wall seems to have accommodated them, building. Maximum vertical motion was 9 mm (0.3~
and the structure does not appear to be in in), which was within the acceptable range.
danger. Several explanations of the ongoing
movements are offered. Continued monitoring and The authors observe that the system employee
further study is recommended. was cost effective, but the small movementl
encountered suggest that further cost reductiO!
Jamnongpipatkul et al. (paper 5.30) describe might have been possible. They state that thesE
the design, construction, and performance of a measures would have been facilitated by selectioi
reinforced soil wall along the alignment of a of the shoring engineer on the basis OJ
highway in northern Thailand. The profile competence and experience rather than competitivE
consisted for the most part of residual soils bidding. Further, they recommend that thE
produced by in situ weathering of diorite, shoring engineer should be made a member of thE
underlain by weathered rock and intact rock. design team from the beginning of the project.
Design was based on empirical correlations
between standard penetration test results and Marangos (paper 5.36) describes underpinnin~
soil properties. The residual soil was replaced a four-story building near Kastoria Lake i1
with structural backfill above the weathered Greece. The building had til ted, experiencin~
rock. 167 mm (6.6 in) of differential settlement. ThE
main cause of the differential settlement seeml
As pore water pressures were considered a to be the presence of old artificial fills alon~
major problem, an extensive system of underdrains one side of the building and organic soils on thE
was installed. Settlement plates, Casagrande other. Underpinning involved installing 21 borec
piezometers, and inclinometers were installed to piles to support the mat at the softer side oJ
permit monitoring the performance of a test the site and a six-pile bearing wall placed neal
section. This showed that inadequate compaction the edge of the mat.
and heavy truck traffic could lead to local
failure of the wall. No excess pore pressures Pressure Relief Tunnel
were observed. However, horizontal movements in
excess of 300 rom (12 in) are reported, as well as Graham et al. (paper 5. 26) describe the
substantial differential settlements. Better design and construction of a 590 m (1945 ft) lon~

Third International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering

Missouri University of Science and Technology
tunnel behind a four-tier, anchored, tied-back Edstam and Jendeby (paper 5 .14) present
retaining wall. The project was part of the results of a study to evaluate the earth pressure
stabilization of the slope for a highway distribution and displacement of a braced sheet
interchange in Steubenville, Ohio. pile wall for a 6 m (20 ft) deep excavation in
soft clay in Sweden. Instrumented sheet pile
Analysis of the stability of the retaining sections showed that the clay was normally
wall revealed that pore pressures in the bedded consolidated with Ko = 0. 7 prior to excavation.
shales, sandstones, and coal seams behind the These measurements are especially interesting in
wall would lead to instability by block sliding that they evaluate existing stress conditions.
unless measures were taken to relieve the fluid The prediction of earth pressures and wall
pressures. The solution was a pressure relief movements was made using the finite element code
tunnel. The contractor selected an inverted u- FLAC. From the earth pressure measurements it
shaped tunnel, 2.4 m (8 ft) wide by 2.7 m (9 ft) was clear that FLAC did riot simulate well the
high. Because the tunnel is located at a earth pressure distribution caused by the
relatively shallow depth, its stability is excavation and gave predictions higher than the
controlled by the structure of the rock rather measured data. The results also show that earth
than overstressing of the rock. Unstressed rock pressures can be very different from those
bolts and shotcrete provided adequate support for predicted by Peck's diagram and emphasize that
the rock in the tunnel. Piezometers were engineers should be aware that the diagram is
installed from the tunnel along its length to intended as an envelope for purposes of
monitor the drawdown of the water level. conservative design and not as a tool for
predicting field observations. The authors also
The paper describes details of the found that the method of the beam on elastic
construction process. Piezometer readings since foundation worked well when the parameters were
1991 indicate that the tunnel has effectively varied to obtain the best fit. The field
drawn down the pore pressures and stabilized the stresses were found to be relatively insensitive
retaining wall. The reduction in required tie- to soil properties, but the predicted
backs for the retaining wall has provided a net displacements were very sensitive to the
saving of seven million dollars. properties used.
General Comments Abedi et al. (paper 5.35) describe the
modeling and behavior of a braced sheet pile wall
These papers describe a wide variety of for an excavation 7.2 m (24ft) deep in soft clay
projects. A consistent theme in those cases that in Detroit, Michigan. Three rows of sheet piles
could be considered engineering successes is the were used for adjacent excavation support.
early involvement of geotechnical englneers and Analyses of the wall movements were made using
other professionals in the design decisions. The the finite element program SOILSTRUCT. The
papers also demonstrate the great utility of observed horizontal movements, which were
intelligently designed field instrumentation to obtained primarily with inclinometers, did not
monitor the behavior of a retaining structure, correspond to predicted movements in all cases,
especially in difficult soil conditions. and the authors attribute the discrepancies to
several possible factors. These include: the
three-dimensional nature of the actual project
COMPARISON OF FIELD PERFORMANCE AND PREDICTION compared to the two-dimensional analytical model,
errors in assumed soil properties, and deviations
Seven papers presented to this session deal between the assumed t:onstruction sequence and
with the observed behavior of geotechnical that used in the modeling. The authors consider
structures and its comparison to predictions. the last to,be probably the most important and
Five of these describe the behavior of retaining suggest that more refined predictions could be
systems for excavations. They include achieved by more detailed modeling of the
performance of slurry walls, braced sheet pile construction sequence.
walls, and reinforced concrete diaphragm walls.
The two remaining papers report on the Lin and Deng (paper 5.40) report on the
performance of underground structures, namely a behavior of a reinforced concrete diaphragm wall
long-span arch culvert and a soft-ground tunnel. used to support a deep excavation in Taipei,
Taiwan. The paper is of interest in part because
Walls the excavation was very deep - on the order of 22
m (73 ft) - and was part of the construction of a
Tamaro et al. (paper 5.06) present the 27 story building. The soils are a layered
summary of the performance of a structural slurry sequence of deposits consisting primarily of
wall for the Washington, D. C., Metro. They silty clays and silty sands. The authors used
examine the use and accuracy of four methods of the results of instrumentation readings along
analysis for the wall: the use of the Terzaghi with the finite element code SOILSTRUCT to update
and Peck loading diagram, the net pressure method design and provide construction control. For
with support settlements, the beam on elastic different stages of the excavation, the authors
foundation method, and the finite element found good agreement between the predicted and
program SOILSTRUCT. They describe the methods measured displacement of the wall, but this may
and the factors that influence the predictions of be the result of updating the soil properties and
each. They conclude that, for the wall analyzed, using monitoring feedback in the analysis. In
the beam on elastic foundation method was most particular, the soil in the model was
appropriate. They find that the results of strengthened significantly following the
finite element calculations depend strongly on observations on the first three stages on
the choice of values for soil properties and construction.
that, in this case, the technique greatly over-
predicted the deformations and movements.

Third International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering

Missouri University of Science and Technology
Moh and Hwang (paper 5. 44) describe the users fully understand the details of the finit
observations on a similar project, in this case a element analyses.
17 m (56 ft) deep excavation in Taipei, Taiwan.
They report on the earth pressure measurements ANALYTICALLY CONTROLLED AND INSTRUMENTE
and wall movements for a diaphragm wall. The CONSTRUCTION
authors state that the simple use of overburden
pressures is not correct for assessing stability Three papers submitted to the conferenc
and suggest further that wall friction amounting describe case studies of analytically controlle
to o' = Ill' should be used at "soft to medium and instrumented construction of excavatio
stiff" sites for design of braced retaining support systems.
structures using beam models. Passive pressure
coefficients as high as 9 were recorded. As the Summary of the Papers
authors rightly point out, earth pressures are
functions of wall movement and limiting values Bray et al. (paper 5. 25) present a cas
will be developed only if sufficient wall study of an 18.3 m (60 ft) deep, 15.3 m (50 ft
movement takes place. wide, and 190 m (625 ft) long braced excavatio
for the removal and reconstruction of t~
Underground Structures parallel, 4. 3 m ( 14 ft) diameter intake/discharg
pipelines on the southern shore of Lake Michigan
Byrne et al. (paper 5.45) describe the The sudden collapse of the old corrugated stee
construction and performance of a long-span arch pipes created a 26 m (100 ft) wide and 6 m (2
metal culvert installed in British Columbia as a ft) deep sinkhole, partially undermining tb
replacement for a collapsed structure of foundation support for several critica
identical design. Ultimate cover over the crown structures at the site. Excavation fc
of the new culvert consisted of 9.6 m (31.7 ft) reconstruction of the pipes required tha
of soil. The displacements at the crown and horizontal and vertical ground movements t
spring line and the vertical and horizontal earth limited to about 25 mm (1 in) to protect tl:i
pressure over the crown were compared with values integrity of the existing structures, which we!
calculated by the finite element code NLSSIP. already distressed.
The comparison showed that positive arching was
occurring in the soil, reducing the soil stress Extensive finite element analyses we!
above the crown and the axial stress in the arch. undertaken to determine the most technically an
Finite element analyses suggest that low measured economically feasible excavation support systen
values of thrust were the result of slippage at PZ 40 steel sheet piling with tiebacks ar.
bolted joints., which has been confirmed by recent supplementary internal bracing was selected. Tt
laboratory tests. results of two-dimensional plane-strain finit
element analyses were adjusted for the beneficia
Parreira and Azevedo (paper 5. 55) present effect of three-dimensional behavior.
the results of predictions and measurements of
displacements around a tunnel in soft ground in The performance of the excavation durir.
S~o Paulo, Brazil. The tunnel was constructed in construction was monitored by a comprehensive se
a layered profile of soft and stiff clays with a of instruments, including piezometers
soil cover of about 7.6 m (25 ft) above the inclinometers, surface monuments, tilt meters
tunnel's crown. Measurements of soil movements electro-levels on the existing adjacer.
were made from surface settlement points and a structures, strain gauges on the struts, and loa
slope indicator. Numerical simulation employed cells on the tiebacks. Performance dat
the finite element code ANLOG, which uses an collected during the initial, less critical phas
elasto-plastic model for soil behavior and seems of the excavation were employed to modify tt
to be based on the SOILSTRUCT program. The finite element program in making predictions fc
material properties were verified by comparison more critical, advanced stages of the excavatior.
with the results of consolidated drained triaxial
compression tests on samples of the clay. The Lien et al. (paper 5. 48) present a cas
authors report good agreement between calculation study of a 6.4 m (21ft) wide, 8.5 m (28ft) dee
and observation for surface movements at trench excavation in the soft clays of Detroit
increasing distance form the centerline of the Michigan, supported by semi-rigid tangent walJ
tunnel and horizontal movements adjacent to the that were cross-braced at five (5) levels 1::
tunnel. steel strut members. The tangent walls consiste
of 105 mm (42 in) diameter drilled concrete piei
General Comments with W36-230 steel core members. Because of t!
strict requirements on the permissible later<
These seven papers describe comparisons movements, a comprehensive finite elemer
between calculated and observed behavior for a analysis was undertaken in the design, and c
variety of soils and construction conditions. In extensive instrumentation program was implemente
many cases it is clear that significant iteration during construction.
is needed to get good agreement,and usually this
iteration involves the soil properties. The Performance of the walls monitored throu~
selection of soil properties for full, before- the full excavation agreed well with t!
the-fact (Class A) prediction remains a difficult analytically estimated magnitudes. The maxim1
and chancy operation. This is one reason that lateral movements of the walls were under 50 E
simpler, more empirical methods, such as the beam ( 2 in) .
on elastic foundation, which require a smaller
number of soil parameters and may be less Due to the time constraints for tl
sensitive to errors in the selection of poorly preparation of the paper, the authors could nc
defined parameters are often found to be more include performance data obtained during tl
useful in design. It is also not clear that the construction of the chamber structure within tl

Third International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering 1600

Missouri University of Science and Technology
buried excavation. Also, a relevant item is the Use of construction monitoring in
interference of the five-level wales and struts, conjunction with analytical procedures, and
spaced at 1.5 m (5 ft) intervals, with the especially with finite element procedures, offers
construction of the chamber box, and how this wide capabilities in the design and construction
problem was handled while meeting the strict of complex excavation support systems, which
performance requirements. could not have been undertaken earlier. such an
approach also enables the engineer to determine
Pottler (paper 5. 53) describes the design quite intricate and hard-to-obtain soil and rock
and construction of a 200 m (655 ft) long segment properties and soil-structure-interaction
of a tunnel along the Hanover-Wurzburg rail line parameters by back-calculations, which can then
in Germany. This tunnel was planned to be be used in further analyses.
constructed in an approximately 30 m (100 ft)
deep open excavation with sides sloping 60
degrees from the horizontal in relatively poor ANALYTICAL AND MODEL STUDIES
rock and soil overburden, which would then be
backfilled. In other words, the designers Two papers presented in this session deal
contemplated a cut-and-cover operation. with analytical and model studies, one in each
category. The studies are both motivated by
Deformations of the tunnel section upon design problems arising in practice.
backfilling were estimated using the "beam
element model," which takes into account the Saran and Khan (paper 5.03) describe tests
structural characteristics of the tunnel section, conducted on a 4 m ( 13.2 ft) high model of a
and the soil-structure interaction is represented reinforced soil wall. The soil was a uniform
by linear elastic springs. Different values of sand, and three reinforcing materials were used:
modulus of subgrade reaction were assigned for bamboo strips, aluminum strips, and nylon.
each of the tunnel's characteristic support Points were identified in each strip where the
zones. Early in the construction phase the maximum tension was measured, and lines
tunnel geometry was modified slightly without connecting these points were assumed to be the
additional analysis. potential failure plane. No justification other
than intuition is given for this assumption, and
Roof and invert settlements, as well as the tests were not carried to failure. The
horizontal divergences of the tunnel section, authors also conclude that the Rankine theory is
were monitored during backfilling of the first 9 adequate to describe the observed distribution of
m (30 ft) section above the roof of the tunnel. horizontal pressure.
At this juncture the measured deformations
reached levels that were twice the estimated Roth et al. (paper 5.33) describe studies
magnitudes, and cracking in the roof and invert motivated by the observed behavior of the
of the tunnel was observed. The backfilling was excavations for the Los Angeles Metro in
halted and an extensive finite element analysis California. Very large loads were observed in
of the modified design section was undertaken to the struts while tie-back anchors were not
confirm the safety of the structure. The affected. Some gusset plates connecting the
analysis established that the deformations of the struts with the walers crimped, but wall
tunnel were governed almost exclusively by the deflections were not affected by the strut
moduli of subgrade reaction. Back-calculation problem, and there were no measurable ground
also established that the modulus of subgrade surface settlements, sidewalk cracks, or other
reaction in the transition zone from he invert to signs of structural distress adjacent to the
the bench area was about one-tenth of what was excavation. Several geotechnical experts were
used in the original design. Finite element unable reach consensus on the cause of the
analyses with the more representative values of problem.
modulus disclosed that the stability of the
tunnel would be maintained during the remaining The authors conducted a comprehensive
portion of the construction if less thickness of analytical study of the behavior of strutted and
backfill were placed than originally planned. anchored walls in stiff soils and rocks like
The new scheme was implemented, and the tunnel those in Los Angeles. They used a finite
has been in operation since 1987 without any difference computer program FLAC, which allowed
problems. realistic modeling of the construction sequence
and of the non- linear soil properties. They
General Comments considered various alternatives of struts,
tiebacks, preloading, in situ stresses, and so
The three case studies reported are on. They also investigated the possible effects
successful examples of using state-of-the-art of a "structural fuse," which limits the axial
analytical procedures in conjunction with force that can be transmitted to a strut to
construction performance monitoring to deal with prevent it from overloading.
critical excavations and backfilling projects.
Where ground displacements are to be controlled The conclusions of the study were that, for
within only a few centimeters to maintain the competent soils like those at the site and in the
operation and to protect the structural integrity Los Angeles basin in general:
of existing critical structures, the design and
construction of excavation support systems become "The inherent stiffness of the struts
challenging tasks for the designer, the attracts large support forces. This
contractor, and the owner. The success of such situation is further aggravated by the
delicate undertakings depends primarily on the practice of strut preloading, and by
close and positive interaction among these three horizontal tectonic compression of the
parties. region."

Third International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering 1601

Missouri University of Science and Technology
11 In contrast to struts, tie-back Castellanos and Sedano (paper 5.46) describe
anchors are inherently flexible and, a case in which the observed flow into the
therefore, not susceptible to excavation for a power plant in Mexico was
overloading. They allow excavation significantly less than the predicted amount. A
walls to deflect, regardless of the sump pump was used to control water flow into the
anchors' structural stiffness and the excavation. The observed flow was 35 1/s (1.24
amount of preloading applied." cfs), compared to a predicted flow of 470 1/s
(16.6 cfs). This is a over prediction of better
11 The amount of anchor pre loading in a than one order of magnitude. The authors sate
mixed Strut-Anchor support system has that the results of what are presumably
little, if any, effect on the support laboratory permeability tests and field pumping
forces induced in the adjacent strut tests showed about the same values of hydraulic
support levels. " conductivity, so they attribute the discrepancy
between predicted and observed flows not to
"Strut preloading, on the other hand, inaccuracies in predicting the values of
significantly increases the final strut permeability but to inaccuracies in the
loads, but only negligibly reduces description of the stratigraphy around the site.
excavation wall deflections." This suggests that a more continuous evaluation
of subsurface conditions, such as might be
"Strut loads for excavations in provided by a cone penetrometer, would have been
competent bedrock without adverse useful in this case.
bedding conditions can be significantly
reduced by installing a 'structural Shah et al. (paper 7. 38) describe a
fuse.' Induced support forces can be technique for lining irrigation canals in India.
relieved at the expense of minor The system consists of two outside shells of
increases in wall deflections." synthetic fiber fabric connected by nylon spacer
threads. This is placed under water and the
space between the fabrics is filled with a sand
FLOW THROUGH POROUS MEDIA cement grout. The water-cement ratio is between
0. 7 and 0. 78, and the sand-cement ratio is
Three papers presented to this session deal between 1. 5 and 2. The system is reported to
with flow into excavations, dewatering of work well, although the paper does not present
excavations, or observations of quantities of data on the hydraulic conductivity of the liner
flow. The field conditions are quite different or any other performance data.
in each of the cases reported.
Ergun and Nal9akan (paper 5 .12) report on GENERAL OBSERVATIONS
the design of a dewatering system for the
excavation for a pumping station in Turkey. In The papers presented in this session cover a
order to design a well point system as accurately variety of topics of importance in the design and
as possible, the engineers used the results of a construction of excavations. Most of them deal
pumping test to evaluate the in-place, large- in one way or another with the behavior of braced
scale permeability (hydraulic conductivity) that or tied back excavations and concentrate on
would affect the pumping operation. The authors predictions, calculations, observations, and
point out that laboratory tests at small scale explanations of movements and earth pressures.
would not be appropriate because they tend to The profession's understanding of these phenomena
under-predict permeability for performance at has obviously been significantly enhanced by the
field scale. This phenomenon is largely caused increasing use of field instrumentation, both to
by the dominant effect of regions of high guide the process of construction and to improve
permeability that are likely not to be modeled in the interpretation of predicted behavior. It is
the laboratory sample. In fact, this has been encouraging to note so many reported instances of
illustrated by a number of recent investigations combined instrumentation and analysis.
reported in the literature, including laboratory
and field tests performed on the same soils. The General Reporter does have the
'1'hese studies show that fluid flow behavior is impression that the details of the analytical
elated to the volume of the soil involved and models, especially the finite element analyses,
hat values of hydraulic conductivity reach may not be as well understood as the field
symptotic values at some finite but large instrumentation and the laboratory tests. In
haracteristic volume of soil. particular, many papers in this session report on
comparisons between observed movements and
The present project involved an excavation calculations made with the program SOILSTRUCT or
greater than 18 m (59 ft) deep with a cross some of its descendants. The basic papers
section of 55 by 95 m (182 by 314 ft) at the describing the use of this program, for example
bottom and 120 by 160 m (400 by 530 ft) at the Mana and Cloygh (1981), make it clear, that the
top. The water table was about 1 m (3 ft) below stiffness of the soil is a critical parameter and
the surface. The soils consisted of layers of that selecting its proper value is neither easy
clay, sand, and sandy clay. The predictions, nor intuitively obvious. A more important
using parameters derived from the. field pumping limitation of this technology is that the
test and the formulas for the case of a fully numerical procedure used to simulate excavation
penetrating well, greatly over estimated the rate has been demonstrated since 1970 to yield
of discharge. The revised estimate using a incorrect results for multiple steps of
partially penetrating well significantly improved excavation, even for linearly elastic, isotropic,
the agreement between calculation and and homogeneous materials. Therefore, any
observation. agreement between calculation and observation for
non -linear, inelastic, and inhomogeneous

Third International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering 1602

Missouri University of Science and Technology
materials must be regarded as fortuitous at best. 5.25 Bray, J.D.; Deschamps, R. J.; Parkison, R.
For a recent example in which the engineers have S.; & Augello, A. J. "Braced Excavation at
taken proper care for the details of the analysis the NIPSCO Bailly Station Power Plant."
as well as the numerous uncertainties in the soil
behavior, the reader is referred to the recent 5.26 Graham, J. R.; Humphries, R. W.; Fuller, J.
paper by Whittle et al. (1993). M.; & Elliott, G. M. "Pressure Relief Tunnel
System at US22/SR7 Interchange, OH."
ADDITIONAL REFERENCES 5.30 Jamnongpipatkul, Pichit; Taesiri, Yongyuth;
& Charumas, Vorani t "Reinforced Soil
Mana, A. I., & Clough, G. W. (1981) Structure Test sections in Mountainous
"Prediction of Movements for Braced Cuts in Terrain."
Clay, " Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering
Division, ASCE, Vol. 107, No. GT6, pp 759-777. 5.31 Olson, R. E. "Failure of a Twenty-Foot High
Retaining Wall. "
U. s. Department of Labor (1989),
occupational Safety and Health Administration, 29 5.32 Olson, R. E., & Heuer, R. E. "Failure of a
CFR Part 1926: Standards - Excavation, Federal Large Circular Excavation."
Register, Vol. 54, No. 209, 31 October.
5.33 Roth, Wolfgang; Stirbys, Anthony; de
Whittle, A. J.; Hashash, Y. M. A.; & Rubertis, Corbin; & Ellis, Richard
Whitman, R. J. (1993) "Analysis of Deep "Performance of a Braced Excavation in
Excavation in Boston, " Journal of Geotechnical Siltstone."
Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 119, No. 1, pp 69-90.
5.35 Abedi, H.; Porter, T. G; Lien, B. H.; &
Wong, K. S., & Broms, B. B. (1989) "Lateral Ramos, J. A. "Behavior of Braced Sheetpile
Wall Deflections of Braced Excavations in Clay," Excavation in Detroit Clay."
Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE, Vol.
115, No. 6, pp 853-870. 5.36 Marangos, Ch. "Underpinning of a Tilted
Building, a Case History."
PAPERS PRESENTED AT THIS SESSION 5.39 Horii, Noriyuki; Hanayasu, Shigeo; Toyosawa,
Yasuo; Tamate, Satoshi; and Maruyasu,
5.03 Saran, Swami, & Khan, I. N. "Studies on a Takakazu "A Case History of the Collapse
4.0 m High Reinforced Earth Wall." Accident of a Temporary Earth Support
5.06 Tamara, Mark; Lopez, Pablo; & Pamucku, Sibel
"Prediction of Structural Slurry Wall 5.40 Lin, Jeen-Shang, & Deng, J. G. "Predictions
Behavior." of the Behavior of a Deep Excavation."
5 . 0 8 Hohmeyer, D. w. "Augercas t Pile Retaining 5.44 Moh, z. c., & Hwang, R. N. "Earth Pressures
Walls." on Walls of a Deep Excavation."
5.12 Ergun, M. u., & Nal9akan, M. S. "Dewatering 5.45 Byrne, P. M.; Srithar, T.; & Kern, C. B.
of a Large Excavation Pit by Wellpoints." "Measurements and Predictions on the Elkhart
Creek Culvert."
5. 13 Schick, T. "Reinforced Earth Wall Supported
by an Unstable Foundation." 5.46 Castellanos, G., & Sedano, S. "Large
Excavation Behavior at Petacalco, Mexico."
5. 14 Edstam, T. , & Jendeby, L. "Behavior of a
Braced Sheet Pile Wall in Soft Clay." 5.48 Lien, B. H.; Abedi, H.; Ramos, J. A.; &
Porter, T. G. "Performance of a Semi-Rigid
5.15 Rodgers, Richard, & Majchrzak, Michael "An Braced Excavation in Soft Clay."
Unsuccessful Urban Deep Excavation in Soft
Soils." 5.53 Pottler, R. "Cut and Cover at
Landruckentunnel North."
5.16 Lim, Robin M., & Majchrzak, Michael
"'Unconventional' Drilled Pier 5.55 Parreira, A. B., & Azevedo, R. F.
Underpinning." "Geotechnical Performance of a Tunnel in
Soft Ground."
5.18 Woo, Edwin P.; Soydemir, c;etin; & Liu,
Thomas K. "Performance of a Pier Consisting 7.28 Matsui, T.; Nakajima, H.; Nagano, T.; HosoL
of Three Sections." T.; Fukuda, Y.; & Hayashi, K. "Filed
Measurements of a Diaphragm Wall
5 . 21 Teparaska, Wanchai "Behavior of Deep Foundation."
Excavation Using Sheet Pile Bracing System
in Soft Bangkok Clay." 7.38 Shah, D. L.; Shrott, A. V.; & Parikh, Piyush
V. "Lining of Perennial Canals under Flowing
5.22 Toyosawa, Yasuo; Horii, Noriyuki; & Tamate, Conditions by Ulomat Grouted Mattress
Satoshi "Analysis of Fatal Accidents Caused Technique."
by Trench Failure."
5 . 2 3 Rahimi , M. M. ; Karwaj , C . ; & Deb , P . K.
"Failure of Sewerage Mains Constructed in
Soft Estuarine Deposit."

Third International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering
Missouri University of Science and Technology