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# The School of Chemical Engineering

## Process Control & Instrumentation

with special thanks to Manta Controls
Last Lecture
Defined process modelling
Qualitative; differential and algebraic equations
Process models derived from conservation equations
Assumptions are necessary
Non-linear equations can be linearised for easier solution
f f f
y yss x1 ' x2 '... xn '
x1 ss x2 ss xn ss

## where xi ' xi xi ,ss

Deviation variables simplify the maths
Must remember the form youre working with!

Tutorial
How do you get started?
Labelled Diagram Assumptions Conservation Equations
Q2: Obtain deviation form by subtracting the steady-state
balance from the linearised dynamic balance
Make sure you answer the question!
Last question:
D(s)

M(s) + 1 Y(s)
+
3s 1

Please put all group members names and student IDs on the cover sheet
M(s) Y(s)
G(s)

## Topic 2: Developing Open-Loop Transfer Functions

Laplace Transforms
Block Diagram Algebra
Transformations
View the same system from a different perspective
Moving from Cartesian coordinates to polar coordinates
( x, y) (r , )
Navigating a ship by latitude and longitude instead of
astronomical reference points, i.e. by the stars
Viewing a football game from above instead of from the sidelines

## An inverse transform refers to returning to the original

perspective
LT ( y(t )) Y ( s) LT 1 (Y ( s)) y (t )
Laplace Transform Inverse Laplace Transform

Laplace Transforms
Offer a very simple and elegant method of solving linear
or linearised differential equations
Reduce linear differential equations to algebraic
equations
Combined with block diagrams, they allow:
Simple development of input-output models, which are very
useful for control purposes
Straightforward qualitative analysis of how chemical processes
react to external influences

Definition

LT ( y (t )) Y ( s) 0 y (t )e st dt t [0, )

## Need to distinguish between deviation variables and true

variables
y' is the deviation of y in time domain
Y is the deviation of Y in s-domain
Note convention with lower case and upper case
Not always possible; may need to write domain explicitly, e.g.
T(t) and T(s)
s is considered a parameter in the definition
What is the dimension of s?
Allows you to continue to check dimensional homogeneity

Example
Say y (t ) e at

Y ( s) 0 y (t )e dt 0 e at e st dt
st

1 ( s a ) t
Y ( s) 0 e ( s a ) t
dt e 0
sa

1 1
Y ( s) 0
sa sa
In this example, an exponential function in the time
domain is transformed to a fraction in the s-domain

Other Examples
A
Step function y (t ) A Y ( s)
s
A
Ramp function y (t ) At Y ( s) 2
s
Trigonometric functions

y (t ) sin(t ) Y ( s) 2
s 2
s
y (t ) cos(t ) Y ( s) 2
s 2

Other Examples
n!
Power function y (t ) t Y ( s) n 1
n

s
Impulse function
0 t 0
y (t )
t 0
0 y (t )dt 1

1
Y ( s) 1

y(t)

t=0 t
Laplace Transform Properties
Linearity

LT ( y(t ) g (t )) LT ( y(t )) LT ( g (t )) Y ( s) G( s)

NOT multiplicative!

## LT ( y(t ) g (t )) LT ( y(t )).LT ( g (t ))

This is why you need to linearise equations before transforming
Convolution

## LT y(t ) g ( )d LT ( y(t)).LT ( g (t)) Y (s).G(s)

0
t

Laplace Transform Properties
Translation (delay of t = a)
as 0 ta
LT ( y(t a)u (t a)) e Y ( s) u (t a)
1 t a
Derivatives
n 1
dny n n 1 n2 dy d y
LT n s Y ( s) s y (0) s ... s 0
n 1
dt dt t 0 dt t 0

1st derivative LT
dy
sY ( s ) y (0)
dt
d2y 2 dy
2nd derivative LT 2 s Y ( s) sy (0)
dt dt t 0
Laplace Transform Properties
Integration Integrator

t 1

LT 0 y (t )dt Y ( s)
s
Final value theorem
lim y (t ) lim sY ( s)
t s0
at 1
e.g. lim e lim s 0
t s0 s a

## Initial value theorem

lim y (t ) lim sY ( s) at
lim s
1
1
t 0 s e.g. lim e
t 0 s s a
Stirred Tank: Mass Balance
Linearised and in deviation form:
dh' k
A Fi ' h'
dt 2 hss
Laplace Transform
dh'
A.LT LT ( Fi ' )
k
LT (h' )
dt 2 hss
k
AsH ( s) h' (0) Fi ( s) H ( s) Transfer
2 hss function
Only if height
initially at hss! 1
H (s) Fi ( s ) SISO
k
As
2 hss
Stirred Tank: Energy Balance
Linearised and in deviation form:

Ti , ss Tss Fi ' Fi , ssTi ' Fi , ss
dT ' U ss A st T '
Ahss
dt C p

U ss Ast
Tst '
Ast
Tst ,ss Tss U '
C p C p
Any variables that remain at steady-state can be removed
Laplace Transform

Ahss s Fi , ss U ss A st T ( s) Ti , ss Tss Fi ( s) Fi , ssTi ( s)
C
p

U ss Ast
Tst ( s )
Ast
Tst ,ss Tss U (s)
C p C p
Stirred Tank: Energy Balance
Arrange so the output is the subject
Ti,ss Tss Fi , ss
T ( s) Fi ( s) Ti ( s)
U ss Ast U ss Ast
Ahss s Fi , ss Ahss s Fi , ss
C p C p

## U ss Ast Ast Tst , ss Tss

Tst ( s) U ( s)
U A U A
C p Ahss s Fi , ss ss st
C p Ahss s Fi , ss ss st

C p C p
MISO: Multiple Input, Single Output

Generalised Representation
Mass balance
1 Kp
H (s) Fi ( s ) Fi ( s ) G ( s ) Fi ( s )
As
k ps 1
2 hss

2 hss 2 A hss
Here, K p and p
k k

## Process gain Process time constant

MV PV*
Fi (s) H (s)
G(s)

Generalised Representation
Energy balance

## T ( s) G1 ( s) Fi ( s) G2 ( s)Ti ( s) G3 ( s)Tst ( s) G4 ( s)U ( s)

In this case, each transfer function can be generalised to
the same form
K pi
Gi ( s )
ps 1
Process gains are all different
Same time constant for all transfer functions
Ahss
p
U ss Ast
Fi , ss
C p
Generalised Representation
Block diagram

## T ( s) G1 ( s) Fi ( s) G2 ( s)Ti ( s) G3 ( s)Tst ( s) G4 ( s)U ( s)

Fi (s)
G1(s)

Ti (s)
G2(s) +
T (s)
+
Tst (s)
+
G3(s) +

U (s)
G4(s)

Block Diagrams
Represent the inputs, outputs, transfer functions and the
structure of the process and control systems
Basic elements:
X(s) +/- Z(s)
Y(s)
Y(s)
+/- Y(s)
X(s) G(s)
Y(s) Y(s)

(Comparator)

## Cannot multiply signals as that would be non-linear

Layout is generally not unique: Can rearrange
Block Diagrams
Equivalent representations:
X(s) Y(s)
G1(s) G2(s) G3(s)

X(s) Y(s)
G1(s) G2(s) G3(s)

X(s) + Z(s)
G1(s)
-
X(s) + Z(s)
G1(s)
- 1/G1(s)

Y(s)
Y(s)

Transfer Functions
Every block represents a transfer function

## Output Y ( s ) M(s) Y(s)

G(s) G(s)
Input M ( s)
Shows how the output is related to the input
Input and output must be in the s-domain
Includes dynamics
Represents the system, e.g. tank size, controller algorithm
Includes units to convert from input to output
Often inputs and outputs are normalised by their respective ranges
so G(s) is dimensionless

%span
i.e. G (s )
%span
Transfer Functions
Many different processes can be represented by the same
transfer function form, particularly:
Kp
G( s)
ps 1
Often the process transfer function is unknown
Identify by sending in a known input, say a step change, and
evaluating the response
Good practice to verify a derived model with a test
Design controller to suit the model and ideally the plant
Need to invert the output function back to time domain!

Laplace Transform Inversion- Option 1
Look up the inverse transform in a table
Stirred tank mass balance example:
Say we choose to input a unit step in inflow rate:

Fi (s) H (s)
G(s)

1 Kp
H ( s) Fi ( s )G ( s ) .
s ps 1
1
LT ( H ( s)) h' (t ) K p 1 e t
p

h(t ) hss K p 1 e
t
p

Laplace Transform Inversion- Option 2
What if the inverse transform is not available in a table?
1. Use partial fractions expansion to split the transform into
fractions that are:

an s n an 1s n 1 ... a0 C1 C2 C3
Y ( s) m 1
...
bm s bm1s ... b0 R1 ( s) R2 ( s) R3 ( s)
m

where Ci are constants and Ri(s) are 1st or 2nd order polynomials in s

## 2. Invert the individual terms and apply the linearity property:

1 C1
1 1 C2 1 C3
LT (Y ( s)) LT LT LT ...
R1 ( s) R2 ( s) R3 ( s)
Partial Fractions Expansion- Case 1
Say we have:
s2 s 6
Y ( s) 3
s 2s 2 s 2

## The denominator can be factorised to three distinct

real roots:
s2 s 6
Y ( s)
( s 1)( s 1)( s 2)
We can write:
s2 s 6 C1 C2 C3
Y ( s)
( s 1)( s 1)( s 2) s 1 s 1 s 2
Partial Fractions Expansion- Case 1
To solve for the constants, can cross-multiply and equate
numerators:
s 2 s 6 C1 ( s 1)(s 2) C2 ( s 1)(s 2) C3 ( s 1)(s 1)

s 2 s 6 C1 ( s 2 s 2) C2 ( s 2 3s 2) C3 ( s 2 1)

s 2 : C1 C2 C3 1
s : C1 3C2 1
s 0 : 2C1 2C2 C3 6

## Solve this set of linear equations

Partial Fractions Expansion- Case 1
Or can multiply by a factor and set s equal to the root of
the factor:
( s 2 s 6)( s 1) C1 ( s 1) C2 ( s 1) C3 ( s 1)

( s 1)( s 1)( s 2) s 1 s 1 s 2 s 1

( s 2
s 6)
C1 3
( s 1)( s 2) s 1
Similarly:

( s 2 s 6) 2 ( s 2 s 6) 4
C2 and C3
( s 1)( s 2) s 1 3 ( s 1)( s 1) s 2 3

Partial Fractions Expansion- Case 1
Invert to time domain:

1 3 11 2 1 4
LT (Y ( s)) LT LT LT
s 1 3( s 1) 3( s 2)

2 t 4 2 t
y (t ) 3e e e
t

3 3

Partial Fractions Expansion- Case 2
Say we have:
s 1
Y ( s) 2
s 2s 5

## The denominator can be factorised to two distinct

complex roots:
s 1
Y ( s)
s 1 2 j s 1 2 j
We can write:
s 1 C1 C2
Y ( s)
s 1 2 j s 1 2 j s 1 2 j s 1 2 j
Partial Fractions Expansion- Case 2
Can multiply by a factor and set s equal to the root of the
factor:
( s 1)s 1 2 j C1 s 1 2 j C2 s 1 2 j

s 1 2 j s 1 2 j s 1 2 j s 1 2 j s 1 2 j
s 1 1 j
C1
s 1 2 j s 1 2 j 2

s 1 1 j
Similarly: C2
s 1 2 j s 12 j 2
Note that C1 and C2 must be complex conjugates

Partial Fractions Expansion- Case 2
Invert to time domain:

1 1 j 1 1 1 j
LT (Y ( s)) LT LT
2s 1 2 j 2s 1 2 j

1 j 1 2 j t 1 j 12 j t
y (t ) e e
2 2

y (t )
et
2
(1 j ) e 2 jt
(1 j ) e 2 jt

Partial Fractions Expansion- Case 2
Applying Eulers identity, e j cos j sin

et
y (t ) (1 j )cos 2t j sin 2t (1 j )cos 2t j sin 2t
2
y (t ) e cos 2t sin 2t
t

## Therefore in this case the output oscillates!

(Can complete the square instead and avoid complex
numbers)

Partial Fractions Expansion- Case 3
Say we have:
1
Y ( s)
( s 1)3 ( s 2)

## The denominator has repeated real roots

We can write:

1 C1 C2 C3 C4
Y ( s)
( s 1) ( s 2) s 1 ( s 1) ( s 1) s 2
3 2 3

Partial Fractions Expansion- Case 3
Can multiply by a factor and set s equal to the root of the
factor:
( s 2) C1 ( s 2) C2 ( s 2) C3 ( s 2) C4 ( s 2)

( s 1) ( s 2)
3
s 1 ( s 1) 2
( s 1) 3
s 2 s 2

1
C4 1
( s 1) s 2
3

1
Similarly: C3 1
( s 2) s 1
Cannot use this method for C1 and C2!

Partial Fractions Expansion- Case 3
Multiply Y(s) by the highest order factor, differentiate
both sides and set s equal to the root of this factor:

d 1 d C ( s 1) 3

C1 ( s 1) C2 ( s 1) C3
2 4

ds s 2 s 1 ds s 2 s 1

1 C4 ( s 1) 2 (2s 5)
2C1 ( s 1) C2 C2 1
( s 2) 2 s 1
( s 2) 2
s 1

2
Differentiate again to solve for C1: 2C1 2
C1 1 ( s 2) s 1
3

Partial Fractions Expansion- Case 3
Invert to time domain:
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
LT (Y ( s)) LT LT 2
LT 3
s 1 ( s 1) ( s 1)

1
LT
1

s 2
2
t t t t 2t
y (t ) e te e e
2

Laplace Transform Inversion- Option 3
Apply the convolution theorem:

0
t

## Say two invertible transfer functions are identified

multiplied together:

1 K p 1 Kp
F ( s ) Y ( s ).G ( s ) ; Y ( s) , G( s)
s p s 1 s ps 1
t t K p
LT ( F ( s)) 0 y (t ) g ( )d 0
1
e d p

p
1
LT ( F ( s )) K p e K 1 e
p t
0 p
t
p