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Design Example 1

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DESIGN EXAMPLE 1

This example is to illustrate the design of one way and two way
spanning walls in a rectangular water tank.

Design an open overhead tank (internal dimensions 3.5 m x 6 m x 2.5


m) supported on a reinforced concrete frame structure as shown below.
Use a minimum thickness of 200 mm for walls and floor slab.

Over flow pipe


200 mm
2.5 m

3.5 m

Consider the following material properties in the design

Density of water = 9.8 kN/m3


Density of concrete = 25 kN/m3
fcu = 35 N/mm2
fy = 460 N/mm2

Structural Analysis

(1) Long wall - ULS


effective length
lx = 6000 + x 2 x 200
= 6200 mm 200 mm
2.5 m
6m
effective height
ly = 2500 + x 200
= 2600 mm
200 mm

lx 6200
2.4 2 Hence slab will span one way i.e. as a cantilever.
ly 2600
2 Design of water-retaining structures

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Maximum water pressure


2.2.2
= 9.8 x 2.5 x 1.4 BM at
= 34.3 kN/m2 Base

2500
Water load F = x 34.3 x 2.5 x 1 (ULS)
= 42.875 kN/m F = 40.02
BM at base (vertical bending) kNm/m
= 42.875 x [1/3 (2.5) + 0.1] SF at
= 40.02 kNm/m Base

(2500)/3
100
(ULS)
Direct tension (Vertical direction) = 0 = 42.875
BM (Horizontal direction) = 0 kN/m

Long wall (SLS)

The liquid level should be taken to the working top liquid level or Max. BM
2.3
overflow level. (SLS)
Maximum water pressure = 9.8 x 1.0 x 2.3 = 22.46
= 22.54 kN/m2 kNm/m
Water load = x 22.54 x 2.3
= 25.92 kN/m Max. SF
Maximum vertical BM = 25.92 x [1/3 x 2.3 + 0.1] (SLS)
= 22.46 kNm/m = 25.92
Maximum shear force at Base = 25.92 kN/m kN/m

(2) Short Wall (ULS)

lx = 3500 + x 2 x 200 3500


2500
= 3700 mm
ly = 2500 + x 200
= 2600 mm

lx 3700
1.4 2 (Two way spanning slab)
ly 2600

Maximum water pressure at ULS = 9.8 x 2.5 x 1.4


= 34.3 kN/m2

Maximum water pressure at SLS = 9.8 x 2.3


= 22.5 kN/m2
Design Example 1 3

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Note:

Ultimate limit state analysis of two way spanning walls

Method 1 By elastic analysis with ULS loads (approximate method)


Method 2 - Plastic analysis using yield line theory ( exact method)

Method 1

To carry out elastic analysis of thin walls any available method can
be used. There are design charts (T 53) are available in the
Reynoldss Hand book for different boundary conditions of the wall.
The curves given in Table 53 (RHB) can be used to calculate critical
service bending moments on vertical and horizontal strips of unit
width when the slab is fully fixed or freely supported or unsupported
along the top edge. The curves are based on elastic analyses and for a
value of Poissons ratio of 0.2.

Maximum water load (ULS) = f = 34.3 kN/m2

Using T53/RHB
0.015
For top edge unsupported wall slab
0.008
-0.021 -0.021 BM at ULS
lx = 3700
lz = 2600 (method 1)
k = lx / lz = 1.4 (kNm/m)

-0.055 Mm=3.48
Mm = 0.015 x 34.3 x 2.62 = 3.48 kNm/m
Ms = 0.055 x 34.3 x 2.62 = 12.75 kNm/m Ms=12.75
Mhm = 0.008 x 34.3 x 3.72 = 3.76 kNm/m Mhm=3.76
Mhs = -0.021 x 34.3 x 3.72 = 9.86 kNm/m Mhs =9.86
4 Design of water-retaining structures

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Method 2 Yield line analysis

The ultimate moments in a wall panel subjected to triangular loading


can be determined by Yield-line method. A feature of yield line
method of designing two-way slabs is that the designer is free to
choose the ratio between the moments in each direction and between the
positive and negative units in each direction. However, in case of wall
panel subjected to triangular load distribution results from the storage
of liquid, it is more important to ensure that the choice of these ratios
in such that the formation of cracks under service loading is
minimized. This is achieved if the ratios selected correspond
approximately to those given by elastic analysis.

The following design procedure is thus suggested.

1. Determine the proportion of the horizontal moments at mid span


Mhm and at the supports Mhs, and the vertical moment at the base
Ms to the vertical moment at mid span Mm from the appropriate
chart on T53/RHB.
2. Then if i4 = Ms / Mm , = Mhm / Mm and i1 = i3 = Mhs /
Mm , determine , i1, i3 and i4
3. Calculate lyr from
2l y
l yr
(1 i1 ) 1 i3
and if the slab is supported at top edge, calculate lxr from
2lx
lxr
(1 i2 ) 1 i4
4. Finally, with f, lx (or lxr), lyr and i, determine M from the scale on
Table 58 (RHB) if the slab is supported at top edge and from the
chart T 61 otherwise.

In the given example. From T 53 top edge unsupported


lx = 3700 Moments for SLS
lz = 2600 f = 24.5 kN/m2
k = lx / lz = 1.4 Mm = 0.015 x 24.5 x 2.62= 2.48 kNm/m
Ms = 0.055 x 24.5 x 2.62 = 9.12 kNm/m
Mhm = 0.008 x 24.5 x 3.72 = 2.68 kNm/m
Mhs = -0.021 x 24.5 x 3.72 = 7.04 kNm/m
Design Example 1 5

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The most suitable values for , i1, i3 and i4

M s 9.12
i4 3.6
M m 2.48
M hm 2.68
1.08
M m 2.48
M hs 7.04
i1 i3 2.63
M m 1.08 x 2.48
2l y 2 3.7

l yr
(1 i1 ) 1 i3 1 2.63 2 1.94
l yr 1.94
0.75
lx 2.6
From T61 /RHB M 0.013 (for i4 = 3, lyr / lx = 0.8) BM at ULS
flx 2 (method 2)
(kNm/m)
M = M m = 0.013 x 34.3 x 2.62 = 3.01 kNm/m Mm=3.01
Ms = i4 x Mm = 3.6 x 3.01 = 10.84 kNm/m Ms=10.84
Mhm = 1.08 x Mm = 1.08 x 3.07 = 3.25 kNm/m Mhm=3.25
Mhs = 2.63 x 1.08 x 3.01 = 8.55 kNm/m Mhs=8.55

BM at SLS

Maximum water pressure = 2.3 x 9.8 = 22.54 kN/m2

T 53 can be used although there is no water on the top 200 mm. BM at SLS
(kNm/m)
Mm = 0.015 x 22.54 x 2.62 = 2.29 kNm/m Mm= 2.29
Ms = -0.055 x 22.54 x 2.62 = -8.38 kNm/m Ms = 8.38
Mhm = 0.008 x 22.54 x 3.72 = 2.47 kNm/m Mhm= 2.47
Mhs = -0.021 x 22.54 x 3.72 = -6.48 kNm/m Mhs = 6.48
6 Design of water-retaining structures

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Direct tension (or reaction on short wall) carried by long wall (ULS)
Short wall
R2
Ly = 3.7 m
Lx = 2.6 m
K = ly / lx = 1.42 < 2 3500
R1 2500 R3

Total water load =


x 34.3 x 3.5 x 2.5
R4
Assuming total load is uniformly distributed
Intensity of load (w) = x 34.3 = 17.15 kN/m2

From T63 /RHB


R1 = R3 = K (1 - K) w lx2
= x 1.42 (1 1.42/4) x 17.15 x 2.62
= 52.3 kN (total load carried by the shorter side)

Direct tension carried by long wall = 52.3/2.6 = 20.12 kN/m

Direct tension carried by long wall (SLS)


Maximum water pressure = 22.54 kN/m2
W = x 22.54 = 11.27 kN/m2
From T63/RHB
R1 = R3 = x 1.42 (1 1.42/4) x 11.27 x 2.62
= 34.9 kN
Direct tension carried by
long wall (SLS) = 34.9/2.6 = 13.41 kN/m

ULS SLS
Mm Ms Mhm Mhs T Mrm Ms Mlm Mhs T
(KNm/m) KN/m (KNm/m) KN/m
Long
- 40.02 - - 20.12 - 22.46 - - 13.41
wall
Short 3.01 10.84 3.25 8.55 -
wall Method 2
2.39 8.38 2.47 6.48 -
Short 3.48 12.75 3.76 9.86
wall Method 1
Design Example 1 7

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Design of walls

a.1 long wall

2.7.6 Thickness of the wall = 200 mm Cover = 40

a.1.1 r/f to carry vertical ultimate BM

Assume main bars to be 20 mm and distribution bars to be 12 mm.

d = 200 40 12 20/2
= 138 mm 40
M = 40.02 KNm/m
12
K = 0.156 No. redistribution
20
M 40.02 10 6
K 3 0.06 K '
bd 2 f cu 10 138 2 35 Hence no
3.4.4.4/ compression r/f 200
BS8110 is reqd
K
Z d 0.5 0.25
0.9
= 0.93 d = 0.93 x 138 = 128.3 mm

M 40.02 106
As 779mm2 / m
0.87 f y Z 0.87 460 128.3

a.1.2 R/f to carry ultimate direct tension (horizontal)

20.12 10 3
T = 20.12 KN/m As 50.3mm 2 /m
0.87 460

a.1.3 R/f to carry vertical serviceability BM

There are two methods available to calculate r/f under SLS

Method 1 Based on limiting steel stress


Method 2 Based on crack width limitation
8 Design of water-retaining structures

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Considering the method 1

M (SLS) = 22.46 KNm/m


M 22.46 103
1.2
bd 2 103 1382

T 3.1 Allowable steel stress fst = 130 N/mm2


From design chart T 118 (Reynolds HB)
= 0.011
fcr = 6.5 N/mm2 (Maximum compression stress of concrete)
As
0.011
bd
As = 0.011 x 103 x 138 = 1518 mm2/m

B2 Ultimate stress of concrete = 0.45 fcu


= 0.45 x 35
= 15.8 N/mm2
> fcr = 6.5 N/mm2
Hence concrete Stress is not near ultimate.

Note: Method of obtaining As by calculating crack width (method 2)


will be illustrated later.

a.1.4 R/f to resist serviceability direct tension in mature concrete


(SLS)

T 3.1 Allowable steel stress = 130 N/mm2


T 13.41 103
Ast 103.2mm2 / m
f st 130

2.6.2.3 a.1.5 R/f to resist shrinkage and thermal movement in immature


concrete
A.2
Minimum steel ratio in each surfaces zone is given by
f
T A.1 crit ct 0.0035
fy
Fig. A.1 As
0.0035 h Depth of surface zone
bh'
Design Example 1 9

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Fig. A.1 h = h/2 (Since h 500 mm)


= 100 mm
As = 0.0035 x 103 x 100 = 350 mm2 / m
per each layer.

R/f in controlling crack spacing has to be provided according to


Cl. A.3 (8007).
Wmax = Smax R . . (T1 + T2)

Considering T1 = 30o C
T2 = 10o C
= 10 x 10-6 / oC
R = 0.5 for rigid end restraints
Wmsx
0.5 10 10 6 (30 10)
S max
2 10 4

f ct
A.3 Smax Steel ratio based on surface zone.
fb 2

T A.1 fct / fb = 0.67


h/2 h/2
2.2.3.3 Use 12 mm bars and Wmax = 0.2 mm
12
S max 0.67
2 Surface
Wmax 0.2 zone
and S max 4
1000mm
2 10 2 10 4
0.67 6
0.004 crit (0.0035)
1000 200

This steel ratio has to be placed in both surface zones.


As = 0.004 x 1000 x 100
= 400 mm2 / m (for each direction)

Calculate r/f required for 20 mm bars as well.


10 Design of water-retaining structures

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Long wall vertical R/f


R/f to carry ult. BM (u1) - 779 mm2/m (U1)
R/f to carry serv. BM (S1) - 1518 mm2/m (S1)
R/f to shrinkage and thermal movement - 400 mm2/m (S3) per
each layer.(S3)

U1 - 771
S3 - 400 S1 - 1518 ( Y20 @ 200 )
S3 - 400

200
Long wall horizontal R/f
R/f to carry ult. tension - 50.3/2 per layer (U2)
R/f to carry serv. tension - 103.2/2 per layer (S2)
R/f to shrinkage and thermal movement - 400 per layer (S3)

U2 - 50.3/2
U2 - 50.3/2 S2 - 103.2/2
S2 - 103.2/2 S3 - 400 ( Y12@275 )
S3 - 400

200

R/f provided

Maximum spacing lesser of 300 mm and thickness of the


2.6.2.3
member (200mm). Therefore max. spacing = 200 mm

Y12@200 Y20@200

Y12@200 Y12@200

200
Design Example 1 11

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3.5.5
Check for ultimate limit state of shear

Long wall
Ultimate Shear force at the base = 42.875 KN/m

V 42.875 10 3
0.31 N / mm 2
bd 10 138
3

0.8 f cu 0.8 35 4.73 N / mm 2


3.4.5.2 Hence OK
5 or 0.8 f cu .

100 As 100 1570


1.14
bd 1000 138
3.4.5.4
T3.9 /BS 8110 indicates Vc > v (=0.31) Hence No. shear r/f are
required.
Note: This is the normal situation.

Other considerations

(a) Anchorage Bond


3.12.8.3
Bond stress fb fbu (design ult anchorage bond stress)
Fs 0.87 f y . . 2 0.217 f y
fb 4 f bu
.l .l l
3.12.8.4
f bu f cu 0.5 35 0.7
T 3.28 ( BS 8110)
2.07 N / mm 2

The design ultimate anchorage bond stress for horizontal bars in


sections under direct tension should not be greater than 0.7 times the
values in 3.12.8.4/BS8110.
f b f bu
0.217 460 12
2.07
l
l 579mm
Anchorage length for 12 bars = 580 mm
12 Design of water-retaining structures

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(b) laps

Use lap length required according to (Cl. 3.12.8.9 / 3.12.8.11 /


3.12.8.13 and T 3.29)

(c) Curtailment of r/f


Simplified rules for curtailment given in Cl. 3.12.10.3 of BS 8110 do
not apply as the wall is not subjected to a UDL.

Bars should extend beyond the point at which it is no longer required for
a distance equal to an anchorage length.

In this particular example it is not possible to curtail the bars as it


violates the maximum bar spacing requirement.

(d) SLS of deflection

The hand book for the previous code of practical (BS 5337) states that
deflection at the top of wall need not be checked for open structures.. But
when the reservoir is roofed, or supported at top, the criteria has to be
checked.

Cl. 3.5.7 / BS 8110 , Cl 2.1/ BS 8007 give the procedure to check


deflection. Example 2 explains the applications of these clauses.

To determine adequacy of r/f used to carry vertical serviceability BM


by calculation of crack width
This is repetition of step a.1.3 (done by limiting steel stress method)
To calculate crack width following procedure is necessary.

(a) Calculate serviceability BM


(b) Calculate depth of N.A, lever arm and steel stress by elastic theory.
(c) Calculate surface strain allowing for stiffening effect of concrete.
(d) Calculate the crack width.

Consider long wall,


h = 200 mm, d = 138 mm
M = 22.46 kNm/m
Design Example 1 13

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(As) provided = 1570 mm2/m (Y 20 @ 200)


As 1570
3 0.0114
bd 10 138

Es = 200 kN/mm2
Ec = x static modulus
= x 27(T.7.2 / BS 8110)
= 13.5 N/mm2

Es 200 200
e e 0.0114 0.169
E c 13.5 13.5

x 1 2 1
d e
e
2
0.169 1 1 0.436
0.169
X = 0.436 x 138 = 59.4 mm
59.4
Z d x 138 118.2mm
3 3

Check stress levels


Ms 22.46 10 6
fs 121 N/mm 2
Eq. (4) Z.As 118.2 1570
0.8 460 N/mm 2
2Ms 2 22.46 10 6
f cb 3 6.4 N/mm 2
bxZ 10 59.4 118.2
Eq. (5)
0.45 35
Hence O.K. N/mm 2
fs h x
1 d x
Es
121 200 59.4 3
1.08 10
200 10 3 138 59.4
14 Design of water-retaining structures

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b t(h x)(a1 x)
2
3 E s A s(d x)
1000(200 59.4)(200 59.4)

3 200 10 3 1570(138 59.4)
0.267 10 3

m 1 2 0.815 10 3
3 acr . m
w
a C min
1 2 cr
h x
Cmin = 40 + 12 = 52 mm
(acr + 10)2 = 622 + 1002
acr = 107.7 mm

3 107.7 0.815 10 3
w
107.7 52
1 2
200 59.4

0.15mm 0.2mm
Hence O.K.
Note:
Since the crack width is not close to the design crack width it is
possible to reduce the reinforcement. Therefore by adopting this method
an economical solution can be achieved.
Design Example 1 15

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Design options for control of early thermal contraction and


restrained shrinkage
For large structures it is possible to save amount of steel required
to control cracking in immature concrete, as well as to obtain a
large spacing between bars so that compaction of concrete will be
easier by the use of movement joints (Cl. 5.3 / 8007)

Cl. 5.3.3 / 8007 gives the options available in providing


movement joints.

These options are explained by the following examples.

Design r/f to control cracking due to shrinkage and thermal movement in


immature concrete in a wall 225 mm thick.

fcu = 35 N/mm2
fy = 460 N/mm2 (10 mm - type 2 deformed bars)

Option (1) - Continuous construction (with no joints)


f 1.6
A2 / 8007 crit ct 0.0035
f y 460
Wmax = Smax . R (T1 + T2)
Wmax 1
10 10 6 (30 10) 2 10 4
Smax 2
f
Also Smax ct (A.3 / 8007 )
fb 2
Wmax 10
0.67
2 10 4
2
0.2 10
0.67 0.00335 crit
2 10 4
2
As
Hence provide crit = 0.0035
225
1000
2
As = 394 mm2/m (each surface zone, each direction)
Provide Y 10 @ 175 mm C/C (As = 449 mm2)
16 Design of water-retaining structures

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Option (2) Partial contraction joints at 7.5 mm or complete


contraction joints at 15 m
crit = 0.0035
Wmax
R (T1 T2 ) = x 10 x 10-6 x (30 + 0) = 1.5 x 10-4
Smax
f 10
Also Smax ct 0.67
fb 2 2
0.2 10
0.67 0.0025
1.5 10 4 2
provide crit = 0.0035
i.e. Y10 @ 175 mm c/c

Option (3) Close joint spacing with controlled cracking.

Minimum steel ration = 2/3 crit = 2/3 x 0.0035 = 0.00233

As given in T 5.1 (Note 2) / 8007, the minimum steel ratio is


sufficient in option (3).
As = 0.00233 x 1000 x 225/2 = 263 mm2/m
provide Y 10 @ 200 mm c/c (maximum bar spacing )

Joint spacing for option 3 (a)


w
4.8 4.8 Smax (if Wmax isused) A.3/8007

Wmax
R. .T1 1 10 10 6 30
S 2
max

0.2
S max 1333.3mm
1 10 10 6 30
2
Joint spacing = 4.8 + 1.33 = 6.13 m
provide complete joints at 6 m.

Joint spacing for option 3 (b)


0.5 Smax + 2.4 + W/
= 0.5 Smax + 2.4 + Smax
= 1.5 Smax + 2.4
= 1.5 x 1.33 + 2.4 = 4.4 m
Joint spacing for option 3 (b) 4.4 m
Provide alternate partial and complete joints at 4 m.
Design Example 1 17

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Joint spacing for option 3 (c)

Smax + W/ = Smax + Smax = 2 Smax


= 2 x 1.33 = 2.7 m

provide partial joints at spacing of 2.5 m.

Note:

Control of early thermal contraction and restrained shrinkage in


walls and slabs can be effected by a suitable arrangement of r/f with
or without joints. At one extreme control can be obtained by
providing substantial amount of r/f in form of small bars
preferably of high bond type at close spacing and without joints in
conc. At the other extreme control can be effected by presence of
minimum r/f in form of large bars together with movement joints
at close spacing.
18 Design of water-retaining structures

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Design Example 1 19

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20 Design of water-retaining structures

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