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CODE : WK 1 / D3

HOW FRICTION AFFECTS MOTION?


Activity 1.3 FRICTION FREE

Problem: How does a lubricant work?

Materials:
A smooth metal tray notebook a small flat glass
Bottle water soap

Procedure:
1. Hold up the tray on the books to make a slope?
2. Wet one side of thr tray and slide the bottle down each side in turn.
3. Now rub the soap on the wet side and slide the bottle down again. Observe the movement
of the bottle.

Guide Questions:
1. Is there friction between the bottle and the dry metal tray? Why do you say so?
______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

2. Why did the glass bottle slide down easily when the surface of the tray was wet with water?
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

3. What happened when you rubbed the soap on the wet side of the tray?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

4. Is soap a lubricant? Why or why not?


________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

CODE : WK 1 / D4
HOW FRICTION AFFECTS MOTION?
Problem: How does friction affects motion of an object ?
Materials needed:
Three textbooks of different weight and dimensions
String (8 feet in length)
Three different testing surfaces like a table, carpet or tile floor
Scale
Tape Measure/yard stick
Stop-watches
Procedure:
1.Collect three of your school textbooks that are different size and weight (you can use books
of various sizes that you have at home as well).
2. Record the weight of each of the books before experimenting.
3. Find three different surfaces to slide (or push) the textbooks on (examples: table, carpet, tile
floor, etc.).
4.Being sure not to damage the textbook, slide the textbook along various surfaces, keeping a
keen eye on the frictional force that each surface has on the movement of the textbooks.
5. Record the time and distance that each book traveled on the three different surfaces.
6. Tie strands of string around each textbook, and this time, pull each book and record the time
it takes to pull the same distance you pushed the book on the three surfaces. Write down
your observations and record the times of this experiment.

Push #1: Distance Distance Time Fas or Slow


and speed on table
surface
Push #2: Distance
and speed on
carpet surface
A. Push #3: Distance
and speed on tile
floor surface

Guide Questions:
1. Which book travels a short distance? Why?
____________________________________________________________________________
2. Which book travels a long distance? Why?
____________________________________________________________________________
3. Do you think which surface shows lesser frictional force?
____________________________________________________________________________
4. Do you think which surface shows greater frictional force?
____________________________________________________________________________
5. What is the effect of the rough surface to the motion and distance travelled by the book?
____________________________________________________________________________
6. What is the effect of the smooth surface to the motion and distance travelled by the book?
____________________________________________________________________________
7.How does friction affect motion of an object?
____________________________________________________________________________

CODE : WK 2 / D4

Observing Force of Gravity


Problem: does weight affect how fast the object falls?

Materials: ball (plastic and metal balls)


platform balance
notebook
eraser

Procedure:
1. Measure the mass of the different objects. Record it below.
2. Get two different balls. One in each hand at the same height.
Stand and stretch your arms in front of you at the shoulder height.
3. Drop the two balls at the exactly the same time and listen for them to hit the floor.
Record your result.
4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 three times to be sure that your observation are accurate.
5. Do the activity using a pencil and an eraser. Record your observations.

Objects Used Object That Hits The Floor First


Mass Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3
Plastic ball
Metal ball
Pencil
eraser

What have you found out:

1. Which ball consistently hits the floor first?


________________________________________________________________________________
2. When you dropped different objects, which hits the floor first-the lighter or the heavier one? Why?
________________________________________________________________________________
3. What force acts on the objects as they fall on the floor?
________________________________________________________________________________
4. How is the mass of an object related to the gravitational force of attraction?
________________________________________________________________________________

Conclusion:
How is gravitational force related to the mass of an object?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
CODE : WK 3 / D1
Moving on Different Surface

Problem: How does friction affect the motion of objects?

Materials: spring balance, block of wood with a string. Wooden board for your ramp, wax paper,
masking tape

Procedure:
1. Set the ramp with one side higher.
2. Cover one side of the ramp with wax paper. This is your smooth surface.
3. Cover the other side of the ramp with sand paper. This is your rough surface.
4. Set the block of wood at the lower end of the ramp in the smooth surface.
4. Hook the spring balance to the block of wood.
5. Pull the spring balance slowly. Take note of the reading on the string balance ust before the
block moves. Record your reading.
6. Repeat numbers 4-6 on the rough surface. Compare the data gathered.

Lets write down our observation


What is the reading on the spring balance on the
smooth surface? __________________________
rough surface? ____________________________

Guide Question:
1. Which surface registered a greater force in pulling the block? Why?
______________________________________________________

2. In which surface does the block of wood move easily or fast?


______________________________________________________

Conclusion:
How does friction affect the motion of an object?
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

CODE : WK 3 / D1
Measuring Distance of a Moving

Lets find out: How does friction affect the distance travelled by a moving object?

Lets use this materials:


Ball, meter stick, stopwatch

Lets do it this way:


1. Look for a smooth floor (i.e. stage). Draw a starting line.
2. From the starting line, roll the ball gently. Make sure that the ball will not hit any object while rolling.
3. Use the stopwatch to get the time the ball start rolling until it stops. Record this on the table below.
Observe if there is a change in the ball speed.
4. Measure the distance travelled by the ball using your meter stick>Record this on the table below.
5. Repeat the procedure. Have at least two more trials. Be sure to apply the same amount of force.
6. Compute for the average distance and average time.
7. Look for a rough ground (i.e. stony ground)
8. Do the same procedure as you have done in the smooth surface. Be sure to apply the same
amount of force.
Compare your data.

Distance and Time Travelled by a Rolling Ball on a Smooth Floor


Trial Distance (m) Time (s)
1
2
3
Average
Distance and Time Travelled by a Rolling Ball on a Rough Floor
Trial Distance (m) Time (s)
1
2
3
Average

Lets write our observation:

1. What happens to the ball after rolling for some time?


________________________________________________________________________________

2. Is the speed of the ball the same all throughout the travel?
________________________________________________________________________________

3. What causes the ball to change speed and stops?


________________________________________________________________________________

4. Compare the average distance travelled by a moving object?


________________________________________________________________________________

Let share our knowledge:


How does friction affect he distance travelled by a moving object?
__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

CODE : WK 3 / D3

Comparing Movements of Objects on Different Surfaces

Problems: how does the kind of the surface affect the movement of an object?

What you need:


Block of wood spring scale hook tape
Sand paper baby powder rods

What you need to do:


1. attach a piece of sandpaper on one side of the block of wood.
2. hook a spring scale to the block of wood. Place the wood on the table (The sandpaper should meet
the surface of the table.)
3. Using a steady force, use the spring scale to pull the wood across the table at a steady speed.
Record the force applied to pull the block of wood across the table.
4. Remove the sandpaper from the block of wood. Sprinkle a small amount of powder on the table.
Repeat step 3.
5. Place several rods on the table. Place the block of wood on top of the rods. Then, repeat step 3.

Kinds of surface Force Exerted (N)

Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Trial 4


Smooth surface

Rough surface

Surface with rollers


What have you found out:
1. What affects the motion of the block of wood ?
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

2. What kind of friction is shown when you let the block of wood with sandpaper slide on the surface
of the table?
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

3. What kind of friction is shown when you let the block of wood roll on the rods?
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

4. Under what condition was the frictional force smallest?


_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

5. How do rollers help in decreasing the amount of force needed to pull the block of wood?
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

CODE : WK 3 / D4

Making an Advertisement on Road Safety

Lesson Concept
Friction occurs between the parts of the vehicle and between the road and the tires.
Wearing away of parts in engines sometimes cause road accidents.

Materials: pictures
Procedure:
1.Form 4 groups.This will be according to their talents.
2. Create an advertisement to show road safety.
3. Present the outputs based on the task assigned.
GROUP 1 GROUP 2

GROUP 3 GROUP 4
RUBRIC
Criteria Rating
4 3 2 1
Ideas and Contents The The The The
jingle/,poster/,song,/dial jingle/,poster,/song,/d jingle,/slogan/,poster jingle/,poster/,sl
ogue which is used as ialogue which is used /dialogue which is ogan/,dialogue
advertisement is as advertisement on used as is not used as
clear,and thorough and road safety have advertisement on advertisement
provides needed some missing parts road safety contain on road safety.
information for the topic but provides needed information not
on road safety. information for the essential to the topic
topic . .
Creativity The The The The
(for slogan and jingle/poster/slogan/dial jingle/poster/slogan/d jingle/poster/slogan/d jingle/poster/slo
poster) ogue which is used as ialogue which is used ialogue which is used gan/dialogue
advertisement is as advertisement is as advertisement is which is used as
creatively done and creatively done but done and presented. advertisement is
presented. not clearly done but not
presented.. presented.
The audience is The audience is The audience is The audience is
Audience Impact captured by the output captured by the captured by the not captured by
and presentation output and output and the output and
And is convinced by it. presentation presentation but not presentation
But not really convinced by it. And is not
convinced by it. convinced by it.

CODE : WK 4 / D3
ENERGY TRANSFORMATION
Electrical Energy to Sound Energy
Objectives: How to transform electrical energy to sound energy ?

Materials: Portable radio

Procedure:
Let the pupils plug-in the portable radio to the electrical outlet, and turn on the radio what will be the
result?

QUESTIONS:
1. What are the materials in the activity? ______________________________________________
2. What did you do with the portable radio? ____________________________________________
3. What does it produce? __________________________________________________________
4. How did they produce the sounds? ________________________________________________

CODE : WK 4 / D4
ENERGY TRANSFORMATION
Electrical Energy to Light Energy

ACTIVITY: Electrical energy to light energy

PROBLEM: How does electrical energy transformed to light energy ?

Materials : lamp shade

Outlet

Procedure:

1. Prepare the lamp shade inside the classroom.


2. Be sure that thre is an outlet inside the classroom.
3. Look for the outlet inside the room.
4. Plug in the lamp shade in the outlet.
5. Make sure the hands are dry.
6. Observe what happen .

QUESTIONS:

1.What happen when you plug in the lamp shade ?

2.Why do you think the lamp shade lighted?

3. How is light produced ?

4. Where does the energy comes from?

5.How does it happen ?

6.W hy do you think that electrical energy transformed to light energy ?

7.What are the advantage of energy transformation to us ?

CONCLUSION

What conclusion can you make from your observation?

CODE : WK 6 / D3

Investigating the Transformation of Energy

ACTIVITY I

Light Me Up!

I. Materials: Matches and candle


II. Procedure:
1. Prepare your materials
2. Light the candle
3. Observe what happen
III. Questions
1. What form of energy is present in the candle?
___________________________________________________
2. How did energy changed to another form when the candle was lighted?
________________________________________________________
IV. Conclusions
________________________________________________________

ACTIVITY II
Move the toy car

I. Materials: Toy car and battery


II. Procedure:
1. Prepare the materials needed.
2. Place the battery in a toy car.
3. Observe what happen.
III. Questions
1. What form of energy is present in the battery?
__________________________________________________
2. How is this energy changed when it is placed in a toy car?
_________________________________________________
IV. Conclusions
_________________________________________________
ACTIVITY III
Pluck the guitar
I. Materials: guitar
II. Procedure:
1. Prepare the materials
2. Let the pupils pluck the guitar.
3. Observe what happen.
III. Questions
1. What form of energy is present in the guitar?
________________________________________________
2. How is energy changed when you pluck the strings of guitar?
_________________________________________________
IV. Conclusions
_________________________________________________

CODE : WK 6 / D4
Group Activity: Constructing a Model of Energy Transformation
Group 1 Construct A Model of Electric Circuit

You need:
1 dry cell
1 flashlight bulb
1 connecting wire
1 switch
Do these:
1.Construct a simple electric circuit using the given materials.
2.Hold the flashlight bulb for a minute. Observe.
3.Press the switch down. Observe.
4.Leave the switch in on position for about five minutes.
5.After five minutes hold the flashlight bulb. Observe.
6.Compare your first and second observations about how you feel when you hold the flashlight bulb.

Answer These:
1. How does the flashlight bulb feel before turning on the light? After the switch has been turned on for
about five minutes, how does the bulb feel?
________________________________________________________________________________

2.What does current electricity produce? Why?


________________________________________________________________________________

Group 2 Construct A Model of Pinwheel using Recyclable material

In this activity, you will need the following:


two candles
a pinwheel made of paper
a pencil or a ballpen
string or thread
match
What to do:
1. Hang the pinwheel with the string in the pencil or ballpen as shown in the picture.
2. Light the two candles.
3. Place the pinwheel about 2.5 cm. above the burning candles. Observe what happens.

Answer the following questions:


1. What energy does the candle posses? _______________________________________________________

2. As you light the candle, what happens to the air around? ________________________________________

3. What happens as the air around the candle heats up? __________________________________________
4. Did the pinwheel turn? ___________________________________________________________________

If yes, what causes the pinwheel to turn? _____________________________________________________

If no, repeat the activity until the pinwheel turns. ________________________________________________

5. What energy transformations are shown in this activity? _________________________________________

A. When you lighted the candle


_________ energy to _________ and _________ energy

B. When you placed the pinwheel over the burning candle


_________ energy to __________ energy

CODE : WK 7 / D1-2

Investigating Simple Machines

Problem: What are the characteristics of simple machines?

What you need:

Scissors doorknob safety pins

Screw pulley in the flagpole stairs

What you need to do:

1. Find out how the different simple machines work.


2. Manipulate machines to describe their characteristics and uses. List down the observation in the chart
below.

Machines How does it Work? Characteristics Types

Scissors

Doorknob

Screw

Stairs

Safety pins

Pulley
What have you found out:

1.What are the different kinds of simple machines?

2. What are the distinguishing characteristics of each simple machine?

a. lever _______________________________________________________________

b. inclined plane________________________________________________________

c. pulley______________________________________________________________

d. wedge______________________________________________________________

e. screw______________________________________________________________

f. wheel and axle_______________________________________________________

Conclusion: Make a conclusion based from the given problem.

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

CODE : WK 7 / D4

Activity 1
Investigating Lever

Problem: What are the characteristics of a lever?


What you need:
bottle opener broom spoon
tongs scissors pliers
clothespin tweezers

What you need to do:


1. Use the different objects. Identify the fulcrum, load resistance, and the effort.
2. Classify unto what type of lever the objects belong.
Device/Objects Location of Types of
Fulcrum, Lever
Load and
Effort
Example: Fulcrum Resistance Effort Second-class
wheelbarrow wheel Load Handle Lever
1. Bottle
opener
2. Tongs
3. Scissors
4. Clothespin
5. Broom
6. Spoon
7. Pliers
8. Tweezers

Activity 2
Lever

Problem: What are the characteristics of a lever?

What you need:


scissors
pliers
tweezers
tongs
What you need to do:
1. Examine the scissors, pliers, tweezers and tongs.
2. Fill in the following table based on your observations.
Devices/Objects Uses Characteristics
1. Pliers
2. Tweezers
3. Tongs

Activity 3
Wedge

Problem: How a wedge helps to do the work?

What you need:


Needle with thread
Pieces of cloth

What you need to do:


1. Examine a needle. Observe its appearance.
2. Thrust the needle into two pieces of cloth.
3. Make stitches on these pieces of cloth to fasten them together.

Questions:
1. How does a needle look like?
2. What kind of simple machine is needle?
3. What are the characteristics of a needle?

Activity 4
Wedge

Problem: What are the characteristics of a lever?

What you need: (pictures or real objects)


knife
chisel
saw
axe

What you need to do:


1. Examine the scissors, pliers, tweezers and tongs.
2. Fill in the following table based on your observations
Devices/Objects Uses Characteristics
1. Knife
2. Chisel
3. Saw
4. Axe

Other Suggested Simple Activities:


Activity 5
a. Get a piece of paper (half crosswise intermediate pad)
b. Divide into two equal triangles. What do you have?
c. Put the two triangles back to back with their shortest edge as the base.
Can you describe what you have found?
This is called wedge.
Record all your observations.

Activity 6
a. Examine a chisel.
b. Lay it on one side of its flat surfaces.
What do you observe?
Does the surface look like an inclined plane?
How many inclined plane do you see? (This is called a single wedge)
Record all your observations.
Activity 7
a. Examine a knife.
b. Lay it on one side of its flat surfaces.
What do you observe?
How many inclined planes are there?
How do you call this? (This is called a double wedge)
Record all your observations.

Activity 8
a. Force a wedge between two books. Observe.
b. Record your observation.

CODE : WK 9 / D1

Activity 7.9
Investigating Wheel and Axle

Problem: How does the wheel and axle work?


What you need:

Thick shoe box String


Pencil Match box
Paper clip Tape
What you need to do:
1. Remove the cover and the base of the shoe box. Be sure that the frame is strong. Bore two
holes about 2 inches from the top of the box and put the pencil through.
2. Make a mark in the center of the pencil and tie a cord or string to it. If you want a counter
weight, place a stone in a small plastic and tie it with cord.
3. Stretch paper clip and attach it to the end of the pencil. Bend it into shape to serve as a
handle of the wheel and axle.
4. Using the scotch tape or strong adhesive tape, wind the handle to the axle so as not to slip
it.
5. Attach a small box to serve as a cart of your freight.
6. Wind the wheel and axle. Now you have a model of a freight elevator.
7. Observe the function of the wheel and axle in the model.
What have you found out?
1. Which is the wheel and axle in the model?
2. How does the wheel and axle work?
3. How does counterweight work when the freight goes up and down?
Conclusion:
Make a conclusion based from the given problem.

CODE : WK 9 / D3

Investigating Pulleys

Problem: How do different pulleys differ!

What you need:


Pulley
Small plastic bag
Broomstick or mop handle
200 gram weight
2 meters cord or string
Spring scale
Chair
What you need to do:
A. 1. Put two chairs back-to-back 1 meter apart.
2. Place the stick across the top of the chair. Attached one end of the cord to the center of the stick.
3. Place the cord through the pulley so that the wheels ride freely. The cord will serve as a track. This is movable
pulley.
4. Attached the weight to the pulley. Then attach the spring scale to the end of the cord and pull up as shown in
figure 7.68
5. Read and record the reading on the spring scale.
See Reference SCIENCE LINKS page 367-368
Fig. 7.70 Movable pulley
Fig. 7.71 Combination pulley
B. 1. Attached one pulley to the center of the stick using a short piece of cord.
This will be the fixed pulley refer to figure 7.69.
2. Tie one end of the cord to the stick. Pull the cord through the movable pulley up through the fixed pulley.
3. Attach the free end of the cord to the spring scale. Attach the weight tied in the bag to the movable pulley.
Pull and read the scale.

Observation table:
Pulley used Effort force
Movable pulley
Black and Tackle
(combination Pulley)

What you have found out:


1. Compare the effort force in the movable pulley in the block and tackle.
2. What is the function of the fixed pulley in the block and tackle?
3. What is the advantage of using pulley?
Conclusion
Based a conclusion based from the given problem.______________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________