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UnderstandingVectorGroupofTransformer(part1)|EEP

Introduction

Threephasetransformerconsistsofthreesetsofprimarywindings,oneforeachphase,andthreesetsofsecondary
windingswoundonthesameironcore.

Separatesinglephasetransformerscanbeusedandexternallyinterconnectedtoyieldthesameresultsasa3phaseunit.

Theprimarywindingsareconnectedinoneofseveralways.Thetwomostcommonconfigurationsarethedelta,inwhich
thepolarityendofonewindingisconnectedtothenonpolarityendofthenext,andthestar,inwhichallthreenon
polarities(orpolarity)endsareconnectedtogether.Thesecondarywindingsareconnectedsimilarly.Thismeansthata3
phasetransformercanhaveitsprimaryandsecondarywindingsconnectedthesame(deltadeltaorstarstar),ordifferently
(deltastarorstardelta).

Itsimportanttorememberthatthesecondaryvoltagewaveformsareinphasewiththeprimarywaveformswhenthe
primaryandsecondarywindingsareconnectedthesameway.Thisconditioniscallednophaseshift.
Butwhentheprimaryandsecondarywindingsareconnecteddifferently,thesecondaryvoltagewaveformswilldifferfrom
thecorrespondingprimaryvoltagewaveformsby30electricaldegrees.Thisiscalleda30degreephaseshift.Whentwo
transformersareconnectedinparallel,theirphaseshiftsmustbeidenticalifnot,ashortcircuitwilloccurwhenthe
transformersareenergized.

BasicIdeaofWinding

Anacvoltageappliedtoacoilwillinduceavoltageinasecondcoilwherethetwoarelinkedbyamagneticpath.Thephase
relationshipofthetwovoltagesdependsuponwhichwaysroundthecoilsareconnected.Thevoltageswilleitherbein
phaseordisplacedby180degree.

When3coilsareusedina3phasetransformerwindinganumberofoptionsexist.Thecoilvoltagescanbeinphaseor
displacedasabovewiththecoilsconnectedinstarordeltaand,inthecaseofastarwinding,havethestarpoint(neutral)
broughtouttoanexternalterminalornot.

SixWaystowireStarWinding:

SixWaystowireStarWinding

SixWaystowireDeltaWinding:
SixWaystowireDeltaWinding

Polarity

AnACvoltageappliedtoacoilwillinduceavoltageinasecondcoilwherethetwoarelinkedbyamagneticpath.The
phaserelationshipofthetwovoltagesdependsuponwhichwayroundthecoilsareconnected.Thevoltageswilleitherbe
inphaseordisplacedby180deg.

When3coilsareusedina3phasetransformerwindinganumberofoptionsexist.Thecoilvoltagescanbeinphaseor
displacedasabovewiththecoilsconnectedinstarordeltaand,inthecaseofastarwinding,havethestarpoint(neutral)
broughtouttoanexternalterminalornot.
Additiveandsubstractivepolarityoftransformer

WhenPairofCoilofTransformerhavesamedirectionthanvoltageinducedinbothcoilareinsamedirectionfromoneend
tootherend.WhentwocoilhaveoppositewindingdirectionthanVoltageinducedinbothcoilareinoppositedirection.

Windingconnectiondesignations

FirstSymbol:forHighVoltage:Alwayscapitalletters.
D=Delta,S=Star,Z=Interconnectedstar,N=Neutral
SecondSymbol:forLowvoltage:AlwaysSmallletters.
d=Delta,s=Star,z=Interconnectedstar,n=Neutral.
ThirdSymbol:Phasedisplacementexpressedastheclockhournumber(1,6,11)

ExampleDyn11

Transformerhasadeltaconnectedprimarywinding(D)astarconnectedsecondary(y)withthestarpointbroughtout(n)
andaphaseshiftof30degleading(11).

Thepointofconfusionisoccurringinnotationinastepuptransformer.AstheIEC600761standardhasstated,the
notationisHVLVinsequence.Forexample,astepuptransformerwithadeltaconnectedprimary,andstarconnected
secondary,isnotwrittenasdY11,butYd11.The11indicatestheLVwindingleadstheHVby30degrees.

TransformersbuilttoANSIstandardsusuallydonothavethevectorgroupshownontheirnameplateandinsteadavector
diagramisgiventoshowtherelationshipbetweentheprimaryandotherwindings.

VectorGroupofTransformer

Thethreephasetransformerwindingscanbeconnectedseveralways.Basedonthewindingsconnection,thevector
groupofthetransformerisdetermined.
ThetransformervectorgroupisindicatedontheNamePlateoftransformerbythemanufacturer.Thevectorgroup
indicatesthephasedifferencebetweentheprimaryandsecondarysides,introducedduetothatparticularconfigurationof
transformerwindingsconnection.
TheDeterminationofvectorgroupoftransformersisveryimportantbeforeconnectingtwoormoretransformersinparallel.
Iftwotransformersofdifferentvectorgroupsareconnectedinparallelthenphasedifferenceexistbetweenthesecondary
ofthetransformersandlargecirculatingcurrentflowsbetweenthetwotransformerswhichisverydetrimental.

PhaseDisplacementbetweenHVandLVWindings

Thevectorforthehighvoltagewindingistakenasthereferencevector.Displacementofthevectorsofotherwindingsfrom
thereferencevector,withanticlockwiserotation,isrepresentedbytheuseofclockhourfigure.

IS:2026(Part1V)1977gives26setsofconnectionsstarstar,stardelta,andstarzigzag,deltadelta,deltastar,delta
zigzag,zigzagstar,zigzagdelta.Displacementofthelowvoltagewindingvectorvariesfromzeroto330instepsof30,
dependingonthemethodofconnections.

Hardlyanypowersystemadoptssuchalargevarietyofconnections.Someofthecommonlyusedconnectionswithphase
displacementof0,300,180and330(clockhoursetting0,1,6and11).
Symbolforthehighvoltagewindingcomesfirst,followedbythesymbolsofwindingsindiminishingsequenceofvoltage.
Forexamplea220/66/11kVTransformerconnectedstar,staranddeltaandvectorsof66and11kVwindingshavingphase
displacementof0and330withthereference(220kV)vectorwillberepresentedAsYy0Yd11.

Thedigits(0,1,11etc)relatetothephasedisplacementbetweentheHVandLVwindingsusingaclockfacenotation.The
phasorrepresentingtheHVwindingistakenasreferenceandsetat12oclock.Phaserotationisalwaysanticlockwise.
(Internationaladopted).

Usethehourindicatorastheindicatingphasedisplacementangle.Becausethereare12hoursonaclock,andacircle
consistsoutof360,eachhourrepresents30.Thus1=30,2=60,3=90,6=180and12=0or360.

Theminutehandisseton12oclockandreplacesthelinetoneutralvoltage(sometimesimaginary)oftheHVwinding.This
positionisalwaysthereferencepoint.

Example

Digit0=0thattheLVphasorisinphasewiththeHVphasor
Digit1=30lagging(LVlagsHVwith30)becauserotationisanticlockwise.
Digit11=330laggingor30leading(LVleadsHVwith30)
Digit5=150lagging(LVlagsHVwith150)
Digit6=180lagging(LVlagsHVwith180)

Whentransformersareoperatedinparallelitisimportantthatanyphaseshiftisthesamethrougheach.Parallelingtypically
occurswhentransformersarelocatedatonesiteandconnectedtoacommonbusbar(banked)orlocatedatdifferentsites
withthesecondaryterminalsconnectedviadistributionortransmissioncircuitsconsistingofcablesandoverheadlines.

PhaseShift(Deg) Connection

0 Yy0 Dd0 Dz0

30lag Yd1 Dy1 Yz1


60lag Dd2 Dz2

120lag Dd4 Dz4

150lag Yd5 Dy5 Yz5

180lag Yy6 Dd6 Dz6

150lead Yd7 Dy7 Yz7

120lead Dd8 Dz8

60lead Dd10 Dz10

30lead Yd11 Dy11 Yz11

ThephasebushingsonathreephasetransformeraremarkedeitherABC,UVWor123(HVsidecapital,LVsidesmall
letters).Twowinding,threephasetransformerscanbedividedintofourmaincategories

Group Oclock TC

GroupI 0oclock,0 delta/delta,star/star

GroupII 6oclock,180 delta/delta,star/star

GroupIII 1oclock,30 star/delta,delta/star

GroupIV 11oclock,+30 star/delta,delta/star

MinusindicatesLVlaggingHV,plusindicatesLV
leadingHV

ClockNotation0(PhaseShift0)

ClockNotation0(PhaseShift0)
ClockNotation1(PhaseShift30)

ClockNotation1(PhaseShift30)

ClockNotation2(PhaseShift60)

ClockNotation2(PhaseShift60)

ClockNotation4(PhaseDisplacement120)
ClockNotation4(PhaseDisplacement120)

ClockNotation5(PhaseDisplacement150)

ClockNotation5(PhaseDisplacement150)

ClockNotation6(PhaseShift+180)
ClockNotation6(PhaseShift+180)

ClockNotation7(PhaseShift+150)

ClockNotation7(PhaseShift+150)

ClockNotation11(PhaseShift+30)
ClockNotation11(PhaseShift+30)

Tobecontinued