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University of Balamand Georgio Daloul El Sayegh

CSPR 201B A1510043

Assignment 1

1. Define the following terms:


Genesis: the story of the creation of Adam and Eve and their fall. It is the first
chapter of the old testament in the Bible.
Sura: Sura is what we call a chapter in the Quran.
Exegesis: it is an explanation or interpretation of a sacred text.

2. Identify briefly the following individuals:


Anastasius Sinaita: He is a seventh-century Orthodox monk. His exegesis of the
Genesis was original, for he considered that the story showed that the woman
was more resilient than the man, and that she can be excused.
Tertullian: He was a third century Christian from North Africa and is considered
as one of the Church Fathers. He related his exegesis of the Genesis to woman
clothing and apparel.
Ambrose: Ambrose is also a Church Father. He was a fourth-century priest and
bishop of Milan. He had a great influence over St. Augustine and was very
influential on Christian doctrine as a whole. He considered Eves sin to be greater
than Adams in his exegesis of the Genesis.
John Crysostom: He was the archbishop of Constantinople and is considered to
be a Church Father. He was given the epithet of Crysostom or Crysosotomos in
Greek, meaning the golden mouth, because of his eloquence.
Al-Tabari: Al-Tabari was an influential historian and interpreter of the Quran. He
wrote a Tafsir which is a commentary or explanation of the Quran.
Ibn Masud: He was a companion of the Prophet Muhamad.
Ibn Abbas: He was the Prophets cousin and one of his companions.
Ibn Ishaq: Ibn Ishaq wrote Prophet Muhamads biography called Sira. This
Sira is currently lost but we know about it, because Ibn Hisham, another
prominent Sira writer, based his work on that of Ibn Ishaq.
Ibn Wahb: He was the student of Malik ibn Anas, the founder of the Maliki
school in Islam.
3. Table:
Sinaita Ambrose Tertullian Chrysostom Genesis 1-3
How and why He implicitly Eve was Not Eve was Eve was created
Eve was states that created mentioned Adams from Adams rib in
created Eve was inside the helpmate order to be his
Adams Garden of helper and
assistant Eden to be companion
the mans
assistant
How Eve and God It wasnt Not They were God informed Adam
Adam were informed mentioned mentioned both but it was not
informed of Adams and, how Eve and informed by mentioned how Eve
the and the Adam were God was informed
Forbidden author thinks informed
Tree that Adam
informed Eve
Roles of Eve Eve tried to Ambrose Eve was the Eves mistake Eve was tempted by
and Adam in argue with believed that gateway of was that she the serpent, then
disobeying the serpent Eve the devil. She accepted to Eve tempted Adam
Gods before being disobeyed managed to converse
instructions deceived, but Gods will persuade with the devil
Adam is twice. The Adam whom and Adams
directly first time was the devil fault was that
deceived by when she himself was he was also
Eve. He was deceived not valiant to indifferent in
didnt even by the attack applying
argue. serpent and Gods law
the second and ate the
was when fruit with his
she made wife
Adam
disobey
Punishment The Their She would Eve was Adams punishment
of Eve and punishment punishment bear children punished first was that he had to
Adam for wasnt was their in pain and with the pain work hard in order
their mentioned expulsion will have to of child to have what he
disobedience from The dress bearing and needed to live and
Garden of modestly. being ruled Eves punishment
Eden Also she by her was that she would
would be husband. conceive and bear
ruled by her Adam was children in pain. Also
husband punished she will be ruled by
with hard her husband and will
labor desire him
Ibn Abbas Ibn Ishaq Ibn Wahb Tabari Quran
and Ibn
Massud
How and Eve was Eve was Not mentioned Not Not
why Eve was created created mentioned mentioned
created after Adam before Adam
was put in was put in the
the Garden, Garden, from
from his rib his rib while
while he he was
was asleep, asleep, so
so that he that he can
can find find repose in
repose in her
her
How Eve and Adam was God told Not mentioned God spoke God spoke
Adam were informed by Adam not to to Adam to Adam
informed of God eat from the only only
the tree
Forbidden
Tree
Roles of Eve Both Adam Satan saw a Eve was tempted by Iblis caused Both
and Adam in and Eve weakness in Satan to eat the fruit. both Adam Adam and
disobeying were Adams desire Then, Adam was and Eve to his wife
Gods tempted by for tempted by her beauty disobey the ate from
instructions Iblis. Satan immortality. and ate the fruit himself. words of the
failed to He God forbidden
persuade approached tree
Adam but both Adam
succeeded and Eve and
with Eve tried to
who deceive them.
successfully He tried to
tempted convince
Adam after them that the
sinning tree will make
herself them angels
and
immortals
Punishment Not Not Eves punishment and They were They were
of Eve and mentioned mentioned therefore the both, along both
Adam for punishment of all with Iblis, expelled
their woman, was to bleed expelled from the
disobedience once every single month, from the Garden
to be foolish and to have Garden
painful pregnancies and
childbirth
4. Conclusion:

It is known that in the different periods and places where the presented exegeses
were written, the dominant cultural systems were patriarchal ones where men had
the control. In these cultures, women were considered inferior to men, and men
considered themselves to be womens masters.
This clearly shows in these interpretations, written by both Christian and Islamic
scholars. It can be seen that there was a pejorative view on the woman in the
Genesis. Eve was considered to be the weaker link, the one that not only was
tempted by the devil and sinned, but also cause Adam to sin. Also, the common view
was that because of her actions, one of the womans punishments was that she
would be ruled by her man.
The only interpretation that stands out is Anastasius Sinaitas interpretation where
he states that the woman was stronger than the man because, at least, she tried to
resist the temptation, unlike the man who didnt even argue. But this view is clearly
an exception and no other scholar had a similar opinion.