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Project Management Institute

PMI Lexicon of Project


Management Terms
Version 3.2

PMILexiconofProjectManagementTermsVersion3.2

Published by: Project Management Institute, Inc.

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2017 Project Management Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

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2017 Project Management Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

PMILexiconofProjectManagementTermsVersion3.2

PREFACE
WelcometoVersion3.2ofthePMILexiconofProjectManagementTerms.TheLexicon
wasfirstpublishedin2012,andwasheraldedasPMIsnewesttoolforproject,program,and
portfolio managers, providing access to approximately 150 clear and concise definitions for
frequentlyusedterms.Intheyearssinceitsintroduction,ithasgrowntoinclude200+definitions
and PMI standard development committees are chartered to use the PMI Lexicon definitions
withoutmodification.
ThePMILexiconofProjectManagementTermscontainsfoundationaltermsusedwithin
professional project, program, and portfolio management. This tool should be used by
lexicographersandstandardsteamsasareferencesourceandnotasaglossaryofeverypossible
project,program,orportfoliomanagementrelatedtermthatwouldnormallybedefinedinthe
glossaryofatypicalPMIglobalstandard.
SinceJanuary2016,theLexiconcommitteehasbeencharteredtomaintaintheLexicon,
addresschangerequestsfromthepublic,andworkwithstandarddevelopmentcommitteesto
ensurethatglossariesanddefinitionswithinthecontentofthestandardsarealignedwiththe
PMILexiconandwithoneanother.Membersofthe2017LexiconCommitteeare:
ElenaDunne,PhD,PMP(CommitteeChair)
EtienneCornu,PhD,PMP,PMIRMP(CommitteeViceChair)
DianneE.Allen,PMP,M.Eng.,P.Eng.
DebraA.Hunter,PMP
LarryMarks,PMP
NanetteS.Patton,MSBA,PMP
QuintonvanEeden,PMP,PMIRMP
This Lexicon is the intellectual property of PMI and, as such, may only be used as
permitted by PMI. PMI permits and encourages the use of specific terms and definitions
containedinthisLexiconprovidedthatattributiontoPMIisprovided.However,thePMILexicon
ofProjectManagementTermsmaynotbereproducedinwholeorinpartnormayderivative
works be created based on it (including but not limited to translations), without the express
writtenpermissionofPMI.Forinformationregardingpermissions,pleaselogontoPMI.organd
clickonKnowledgeCenterforlinkstothePermissionsFAQandthePermissionsForm.


2017 Project Management Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

PMILexiconofProjectManagementTermsVersion3.2

Acceptance Criteria. A set of conditions that are met before deliverables are accepted. See also
deliverableandrequirement.

Activity.Adistinct,scheduledportionofworkperformedduringthecourseofaproject.

Activity Code. An alphanumeric value assigned to each activity that enables classifying, sorting, and
filtering.Seealsoactivityidentifierandactivitylabel.

Activity Identifier. A unique alphanumeric value assigned to an activity and used to differentiate that
activityfromotheractivities.Seealsoactivitycodeandactivitylabel.

ActivityLabel.Aphrasethatnamesanddescribesanactivity.Seealsoactivitycodeandactivityidentifier.

ActualCost(AC).Therealizedcostincurredfortheworkperformedonanactivityduringaspecifictime
period.Seealsobudgetatcompletion(BAC),earnedvalue(EV),estimateatcompletion(EAC),estimateto
complete(ETC),andplannedvalue(PV).

AnalogousEstimating.Atechniqueforestimatingthedurationorcostofanactivityoraprojectusing
historicaldatafromasimilaractivityorproject.Seealsobottomupestimating,parametricestimating,
programevaluationandreviewtechnique(PERT),andthreepointestimating.

ApportionedEffort.Anactivitywhereeffortisallottedproportionatelyacrosscertaindiscreteeffortsand
notdivisibleintodiscreteefforts.[Note:Apportionedeffortisoneofthreeearnedvaluemanagement
(EVM)typesofactivitiesusedtomeasureworkperformance].Seealsodiscreteeffortandlevelofeffort.

Assumption. Afactorin theplanning processconsideredtobe true,real,orcertain,withoutproofor


demonstration.

BackwardPass.Acriticalpathmethodtechniqueforcalculatingthelatestartandlatefinishdatesby
workingbackwardthroughtheschedulemodelfromtheprojectenddate.Seealsoforwardpass.

Baseline. The approved version of a work product that can be changed using formal change control
proceduresandisusedasthebasisforcomparisontoactualresults.Seealsocostbaseline,performance
measurementbaseline,schedulebaseline,andscopebaseline.

BottomUpEstimating.Amethodofestimatingprojectdurationorcostbyaggregatingtheestimatesof
the lowerlevel components of the work breakdown structure (WBS). See also analogous estimating,
parametricestimating,programevaluationandreviewtechnique(PERT),andthreepointestimating.

BudgetatCompletion(BAC).Thesumofallbudgetsestablishedfortheworktobeperformed.Seealso
actualcost(AC),earnedvalue(EV),estimateatcompletion(EAC),estimatetocomplete(ETC),andplanned
value(PV).

Change Control. A process whereby modifications to documents, deliverables, or baselines associated


withtheprojectareidentified,documented,approved,orrejected.Seealsochangecontrolboardand
changecontrolsystem.


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PMILexiconofProjectManagementTermsVersion3.2

Change Control Board. A formally chartered group responsible for reviewing, evaluating, approving,
delaying,orrejectingchangestotheproject,andforrecordingandcommunicatingsuchdecisions.See
alsochangecontrolandchangecontrolsystem.

ChangeControlSystem.Asetofproceduresthatdescribeshowmodificationstotheprojectdeliverables
anddocumentationaremanagedandcontrolled.Seealsochangecontrolandchangecontrolboard.

ChangeRequest.Aformalproposaltomodifyadocument,deliverable,orbaseline.

CodeofAccounts.Anumberingsystemusedtouniquelyidentifyeachcomponentoftheworkbreakdown
structure.

Communications Management Plan. A component of the project, program, or portfolio management


planthatdescribeshow,when,andbywhominformationwillbeadministeredanddisseminated.Seealso
projectmanagementplan.

Configuration Management System. A collection of procedures used to track project artifacts and
monitorandcontrolchangestotheseartifacts.

Constraint.Afactorthatlimitstheoptionsformanagingaproject,program,portfolio,orprocess.

ContingencyPlan.Adocumentdescribingactionsthattheprojectteamcantakeifpredeterminedtrigger
conditionsoccur.

ContingencyReserve.Timeormoneyallocatedinthescheduleorcostbaselineforknownriskswithactive
responsestrategies.Seealsomanagementreserveandprojectbudget.

Control Account. A management control point where scope, budget, actual cost, and schedule are
integratedandcomparedtoearnedvalueforperformancemeasurement.

Corrective Action. An intentional activity that realigns the performance of the project work with the
projectmanagementplan.Seealsopreventiveaction.

CostBaseline.Theapprovedversionofworkpackagecostestimatesandcontingencyreservethatcanbe
changedusingformalchangecontrolproceduresandisusedasthebasisforcomparisontoactualresults.
Seealsobaseline,performancemeasurementbaseline,schedulebaseline,andscopebaseline.

CostManagementPlan.Acomponentofaprojectorprogrammanagementplanthatdescribeshowcosts
willbeplanned,structured,andcontrolled.Seealsoprojectmanagementplan.

CostPerformanceIndex(CPI).Ameasureofthecostefficiencyofbudgetedresourcesexpressedasthe
ratioofearnedvaluetoactualcost.Seealsoscheduleperformanceindex(SPI).

CostVariance(CV).Theamountofbudgetdeficitorsurplusatagivenpointintime,expressedasthe
differencebetweentheearnedvalueandtheactualcost.Seealsoschedulevariance(SV).

Crashing. A schedule compression technique used to shorten the schedule duration for the least
incrementalcostbyaddingresources.Seealsofasttrackingandschedulecompression.


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PMILexiconofProjectManagementTermsVersion3.2

CriticalChainMethod.Aschedulemethodthatallowstheprojectteamtoplacebuffersonanyproject
schedulepathtoaccountforlimitedresourcesandprojectuncertainties.

Critical Path. The sequence of activities that represents the longest path through a project, which
determinestheshortestpossibleduration.Seealsocriticalpathactivityandcriticalpathmethod.

Critical Path Activity. Any activity on the critical path in a project schedule. See also critical path and
criticalpathmethod.

Critical Path Method. A method used to estimate the minimum project duration and determine the
amountofschedulingflexibilityonthelogicalnetworkpathswithintheschedulemodel.Seealsocritical
pathandcriticalpathactivity.

DataDate.Apointintimewhenthestatusoftheprojectisrecorded.

DecisionTreeAnalysis.Adiagrammingandcalculationtechniqueforevaluatingtheimplicationsofachain
ofmultipleoptionsinthepresenceofuncertainty.

Decomposition.Atechniqueusedfordividingandsubdividingtheprojectscopeandprojectdeliverables
intosmaller,moremanageableparts.

DefectRepair.Anintentionalactivitytomodifyanonconformingproductorproductcomponent.

Deliverable.Anyuniqueandverifiableproduct,result,orcapabilitytoperformaservicethatisproduced
tocompleteaprocess,phase,orproject.

DiscreteEffort.Anactivitythatcanbeplannedandmeasuredandthatyieldsaspecificoutput.[Note:
Discreteeffortisoneofthreeearnedvaluemanagement(EVM)typesofactivitiesusedtomeasurework
performance.]Seealsoapportionedeffortandlevelofeffort.

Duration.Thetotalnumberofworkperiodsrequiredtocompleteanactivityorworkbreakdownstructure
component,expressedinhours,days,orweeks.Seealsoeffort.

EarlyFinishDate.Inthecriticalpathmethod,theearliestpossiblepointintimewhentheuncompleted
portionsofascheduleactivitycanfinishbasedontheschedulenetworklogic,thedatadate,andany
schedule constraints. See also early start date, late start date, late finish date, and schedule network
analysis.

EarlyStartDate.Inthecriticalpathmethod,theearliestpossiblepointintimewhentheuncompleted
portions of a schedule activity can start based on the schedule network logic, the data date, and any
schedule constraints. See also early finish date, late finish date, late start date, and schedule network
analysis.

EarnedValue(EV).Themeasureofworkperformedexpressedintermsofthebudgetauthorizedforthat
work.Seealsoactualcost(AC),budgetatcompletion,estimateatcompletion(EAC),estimatetocomplete
(ETC),andplannedvalue(PV).

EarnedValueManagement.Amethodologythatcombinesscope,schedule,andresourcemeasurements
toassessprojectperformanceandprogress.


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Effort.Thenumberoflaborunitsrequiredtocompleteascheduleactivityorworkbreakdownstructure
component,oftenexpressedinhours,days,orweeks.Seealsoduration.

Enterprise Environmental Factors. Conditions, not under the immediate control of the team, that
influence,constrain,ordirecttheproject,program,orportfolio.

EstimateatCompletion(EAC).Theexpectedtotalcostofcompletingallworkexpressedasthesumof
theactualcosttodateandthe estimatetocomplete.Seealsoactualcost(AC),budget atcompletion
(BAC),earnedvalue(EV),estimatetocomplete(ETC)andplannedvalue(PV).

EstimatetoComplete(ETC).Theexpectedcosttofinishalltheremainingprojectwork.Seealsoactual
cost(AC),budgetatcompletion(BAC),earnedvalue(EV),estimateatcompletion(EAC),andplannedvalue
(PV).

FastTracking.Aschedulecompressiontechniqueinwhichactivitiesorphasesnormallydoneinsequence
are performed in parallel for at least a portion of their duration. See also crashing and schedule
compression.

FinishtoFinish. A logical relationship in which a successor activity cannot finish until a predecessor
activityhasfinished.Seealsofinishtostart,starttofinish,starttostart,andlogicalrelationship.

FinishtoStart.Alogicalrelationshipinwhichasuccessoractivitycannotstartuntilapredecessoractivity
hasfinished.Seealsofinishtofinish,starttofinish,starttostart,andlogicalrelationship.

Fixed Formula Method. A method of estimating earned value in which a specified percentage of the
budget value of a work package is assigned to the start milestone and the remaining percentage is
assignedwhentheworkpackageiscomplete.Seealsoweightedmilestonemethod.

ForwardPass.Acriticalpathmethodtechniqueforcalculatingtheearlystartandearlyfinishdatesby
workingforwardthroughtheschedulemodelfromtheprojectstartdateoragivenpointintime.Seealso
backwardpass.

FreeFloat.Theamountoftimethatascheduleactivitycanbedelayedwithoutdelayingtheearlystart
dateofanysuccessororviolatingascheduleconstraint.Seealsototalfloat,criticalpath,nearcritical
activity,andnearcriticalpath.

FunctionalOrganization.Anorganizationalstructureinwhichstaffisgroupedbyareasofspecialization
and the project manager has limited authority to assign work and apply resources. See also matrix
organizationandprojectizedorganization.

GanttChart.Abarchartofscheduleinformationwhereactivitiesarelistedontheverticalaxis,datesare
shownonthehorizontalaxis,andactivitydurationsareshownashorizontalbarsplacedaccordingtostart
andfinishdates.

Lag. The amount of time whereby a successor activity will be delayed with respect to a predecessor
activity.Seealsolead.

LateFinishDate.Inthe criticalpathmethod,thelatestpossible pointintimewhentheuncompleted


portionsofascheduleactivitycanfinishbasedontheschedulenetworklogic,theprojectcompletion


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PMILexiconofProjectManagementTermsVersion3.2

date,andanyscheduleconstraints.Seealsoearlyfinishdate,earlystartdate,latestartdate,andschedule
networkanalysis.

Late Start Date. In the critical path method, the latest possible point in time when the uncompleted
portionsofascheduleactivitycanstartbasedontheschedulenetworklogic,theprojectcompletiondate,
andanyscheduleconstraints.Seealsoearlyfinishdate,latefinishdate,earlystartdate,andschedule
networkanalysis.

Lead.Theamountoftimewherebyasuccessoractivitycanbeadvancedwithrespecttoapredecessor
activity.Seealsolag.

LessonsLearned.Theknowledgegainedduringaprojectwhichshowshowprojecteventswereaddressed
orshouldbeaddressedinthefutureforthepurposeofimprovingfutureperformance.

LevelofEffort.Anactivitythatdoesnotproducedefinitiveendproductsandismeasuredbythepassage
oftime.[Note:Levelofeffortisoneofthreeearnedvaluemanagement(EVM)typesofactivitiesusedto
measureworkperformance.]Seealsoapportionedeffortanddiscreteeffort.

LogicalRelationship.Adependencybetweentwoactivitiesorbetweenanactivityandamilestone.See
alsofinishtofinish,finishtostart,starttofinish,andstarttostart.

ManagementReserve.Timeormoneythatmanagementsetsasideinadditiontothescheduleorcost
baselineandreleasesforunforeseenworkthatiswithinthescopeoftheproject.Seealsocontingency
reserveandprojectbudget.

MatrixOrganization.Anorganizationalstructureinwhichtheprojectmanagersharesauthoritywiththe
functionalmanagertemporarilytoassignworkandapplyresources.Seealsofunctionalorganizationand
projectizedorganization.

Milestone.Asignificantpointoreventinaproject,program,orportfolio.

MilestoneSchedule.Atypeofschedulethatpresentsmilestoneswithplanneddates.

MostLikelyDuration.Anestimateofthemostprobableactivitydurationthattakesintoaccountallof
theknownvariablesthatcouldaffectperformance.Seealsooptimisticduration,andpessimisticduration.

NearCriticalActivity.Anactivitywithatotalfloatthatisdeemedtobelowbasedonexpertjudgment.
Seealsocriticalpath,freefloat,nearcriticalpath,andtotalfloat.

NearCriticalPath.Asequenceofactivitieswithlowfloatwhich,ifexhausted,becomesacriticalpath
sequencefortheproject.Seealsocriticalpath,freefloat,nearcriticalactivity,andtotalfloat.

NetworkLogic.Allactivitydependenciesinaprojectschedulenetworkdiagram.Seealsoearlyfinishdate,
earlystartdate,latefinishdate,latestartdate,andnetworkpath.

NetworkPath.Asequenceofactivitiesconnectedbylogicalrelationshipsinaprojectschedulenetwork
diagram.Seealsoearlyfinishdate,earlystartdate,latefinishdate,latestartdate,andnetworklogic.

Node.Apointatwhichdependencylinesconnectonaschedulenetworkdiagram.Seealsoprecedence
diagrammingmethod(PDM)andprojectschedulenetworkdiagram.


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PMILexiconofProjectManagementTermsVersion3.2

Opportunity.Ariskthatwouldhaveapositiveeffectononeormoreprojectobjectives.Seealsoissue,
risk,andthreat.

OptimisticDuration.Anestimateoftheshortestactivitydurationthattakesintoaccountalloftheknown
variablesthatcouldaffectperformance.Seealsomostlikelydurationandpessimisticduration.

Organizational Breakdown Structure. A hierarchical representation of the project organization, which


illustratestherelationshipbetweenprojectactivitiesandtheorganizationalunitsthatwillperformthose
activities. See also resource breakdown structure, risk breakdown structure, and work breakdown
structure(WBS).

Organizational Enabler. A structural, cultural, technological, or humanresource practice that the


performing organization can use to achieve strategic objectives. See also organizational project
management.

OrganizationalProcessAssets.Plans,processes,policies,procedures,andknowledgebasesspecificto
andusedbytheperformingorganization.

OrganizationalProjectManagement.Aframeworkinwhichportfolio,program,andprojectmanagement
are integrated with organizational enablers in order to achieve strategic objectives. See also
organizationalenabler.

OrganizationalProjectManagementMaturity.Thelevelofanorganizationsabilitytodeliverthedesired
strategicoutcomesinapredictable,controllable,andreliablemanner.

ParametricEstimating.Anestimatingtechniqueinwhichanalgorithmisusedtocalculatecostorduration
basedonhistoricaldataandprojectparameters.Seealsoanalogousestimating,bottomupestimating,
programevaluationandreviewtechnique(PERT),andthreepointestimating.

PathConvergence.Arelationshipinwhichascheduleactivityhasmorethanonepredecessor.Seealso
pathdivergence,predecessoractivity,andsuccessoractivity.

PathDivergence.Arelationshipinwhichascheduleactivityhasmorethanonesuccessor.Seealsopath
convergence,predecessoractivity,andsuccessoractivity.

PercentComplete.Anestimateexpressedasapercentoftheamountofworkthathasbeencompleted
onanactivityoraworkbreakdownstructurecomponent.

PerformanceMeasurementBaseline.Integratedscope,schedule,andcostbaselinesusedforcomparison
tomanage,measure,andcontrolprojectexecution.Seealsobaseline,costbaseline,schedulebaseline,
andscopebaseline.

PerformingOrganization.Anenterprisewhosepersonnelarethemostdirectlyinvolvedindoingthework
oftheprojectorprogram.

PessimisticDuration.Anestimateofthelongestactivitydurationthattakesintoaccountalloftheknown
variablesthatcouldaffectperformance.Seealsomostlikelyduration,andoptimisticduration.


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PhaseGate.Areviewattheendofaphaseinwhichadecisionismadetocontinuetothenextphase,to
continuewithmodification,ortoendaprojectorprogram.Seealsoprojectphase.

PlannedValue(PV).Theauthorizedbudgetassignedtoscheduledwork.Seealsoactualcost(AC),budget
atcompletion(BAC),earnedvalue(EV),estimateatcompletion(EAC),andestimatetocomplete(ETC).

Portfolio. Projects, programs, subsidiary portfolios, and operations managed as a group to achieve
strategicobjectives.Seealsoprogramandproject.

PortfolioBalancing.Theprocessofoptimizingthemixofportfoliocomponentstofurtherthestrategic
objectivesoftheorganization.

PortfolioCharter.Adocumentissuedbyasponsorthatauthorizesandspecifiestheportfoliostructure
andlinkstheportfolioto theorganizationsstrategicobjectives. Seealsoprogramcharterand project
charter.

Portfolio Management. The centralized management of one or more portfolios to achieve strategic
objectives.Seealsoprogrammanagementandprojectmanagement.

PortfolioManagementPlan.Adocumentthatspecifieshowaportfoliowillbeorganized,monitored,and
controlled.Seealsoprogrammanagementplanandprojectmanagementplan.

PortfolioManager.Thepersonorgroupassignedbytheperformingorganizationtoestablish,balance,
monitor, and control portfolio components in order to achieve strategic business objectives. See also
programmanagerandprojectmanager.

PrecedenceDiagrammingMethod.Atechniqueusedforconstructingaschedulemodelinwhichactivities
are represented by nodes and are graphically linked by one or more logical relationships to show the
sequence in which the activities are to be performed. See also node and project schedule network
diagram.

PredecessorActivity.Anactivitythatlogicallycomesbeforeadependentactivityinaschedule.Seealso
successoractivityandsummaryactivity.

Preventive Action. An intentional activity that ensures the future performance of the project work is
alignedwiththeprojectmanagementplan.Seealsocorrectiveaction.

ProbabilityandImpactMatrix.Agridformappingtheprobabilityofoccurrenceofeachriskanditsimpact
onprojectobjectivesifthatriskoccurs.Seealsorisk.

Procurement Management Plan. A component of the project or program management plan that
describeshowateamwillacquiregoodsandservicesfromoutsideoftheperformingorganization.See
alsoprojectmanagementplan.

ProductLifeCycle.Theseriesofphasesthatrepresenttheevolutionofaproduct,fromconceptthrough
delivery,growth,maturity,andtoretirement.Seealsoprojectlifecycle.

Program.Relatedprojects,subsidiaryprograms,andprogramactivitiesmanagedinacoordinatedmanner
toobtainbenefitsnotavailablefrommanagingthemindividually.


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Relatedprojects,subsidiaryprograms,andprogramactivitiesmanagedinacoordinatedmannertoobtain
benefitsnotavailablefrommanagingthemindividually.

ProgramCharter.Adocumentissuedbyasponsorthatauthorizestheprogrammanagementteamtouse
organizationalresourcestoexecute theprogramandlinks the programtotheorganizationsstrategic
objectives.Seealsoportfoliocharterandprojectcharter.

Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT). A technique used to estimate project duration
throughaweightedaverageofoptimistic,pessimistic,andmostlikelyactivitydurationswhenthereis
uncertaintywiththeindividualactivityestimates.Seealsoanalogousestimating,bottomupestimating,
parametricestimating,andthreepointestimating.

ProgramManagement.Theapplicationofknowledge,skills,andprinciplestoaprogramtoachievethe
programobjectivesandtoobtainbenefitsandcontrolnotavailablebymanagingprogramcomponents
individually.Seealsoportfoliomanagementandprojectmanagement.

Program Management Office. A management structure that standardizes the programrelated


governanceprocessesandfacilitatesthesharingofresources,methodologies,tools,andtechniques.See
alsoprojectmanagementoffice.

ProgramManagementPlan.Adocumentthatintegratestheprogramssubsidiaryplansandestablishes
the management controls and overall plan for integrating and managing the programs individual
components.Seealsoportfoliomanagementplanandprojectmanagementplan.

Program Manager. The person authorized by the performing organization to lead the team or teams
responsibleforachievingprogramobjectives.Seealsoportfoliomanagerandprojectmanager.

ProgressiveElaboration.Theiterativeprocessofincreasingthelevelofdetailinaprojectmanagement
planasgreateramountsofinformationandmoreaccurateestimatesbecomeavailable.

Project. A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result. See also
portfolioandprogram.

ProjectBudget.Thesumofworkpackagecostestimates,contingencyreserve,andmanagementreserve.
Seealsocontingencyreserveandmanagementreserve.

Project Calendar A calendar that identifies working days and shifts that are available for scheduled
activities.

Project Charter. A document issued by the project initiator or sponsor that formally authorizes the
existence of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational
resourcestoprojectactivities.Seealsoportfoliocharterandprogramcharter.

ProjectizedOrganization.Anorganizationalstructureinwhichtheprojectmanagerhasfullauthorityto
assignworkandapplyresources.Seealsofunctionalorganizationandmatrixorganization.

ProjectLifeCycle.Theseriesofphasesthataprojectpassesthroughfromitsstarttoitscompletion.See
alsoproductlifecycle.


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ProjectManagement.Theapplicationofknowledge,skills,tools,andtechniquestoprojectactivitiesto
meettheprojectrequirements.Seealsoportfoliomanagementandprogrammanagement.

ProjectManagementOffice.Amanagementstructurethatstandardizestheprojectrelatedgovernance
processesandfacilitatesthesharingofresources,methodologies,tools,andtechniques.Seealsoprogram
managementoffice.

ProjectManagementPlan.Thedocumentthatdescribeshowtheprojectwillbeexecuted,monitored
and controlled, and closed. See also portfolio management plan, program management plan,
communications management plan, cost management plan, resource management plan, procurement
managementplan,qualitymanagementplan,requirementsmanagementplan,riskmanagementplan,
schedule management plan, scope management plan, staffing management plan, and stakeholder
engagementplan.

ProjectManager.Thepersonassignedbytheperformingorganizationtoleadtheteamthatisresponsible
forachievingtheprojectobjectives.Seealsoportfoliomanagerandprogrammanager.

ProjectPhase.Acollectionoflogicallyrelatedprojectactivitiesthatculminatesinthecompletionofone
ormoredeliverables.Seealsophasegate.

Project Schedule. An output of a schedule model that presents linked activities with planned dates,
durations,milestones,andresources.

ProjectScheduleNetworkDiagram. Agraphicalrepresentation ofthelogicalrelationshipsamong the


projectscheduleactivities.Seealsonodeandprecedencediagrammingmethod(PDM).

ProjectScope.Theworkperformedtodeliveraproduct,service,orresultwiththespecifiedfeaturesand
functions.

Project Scope Statement. The description of the project scope, major deliverables, assumptions, and
constraints.

QualityManagementPlan.Acomponentoftheprojectorprogrammanagementplanthatdescribeshow
an organizations policies, procedures, and guidelines will be implemented to achieve the quality
objectives.Seealsoprojectmanagementplan.

Requirements Management Plan. A component of the project or program management plan that
describeshowrequirementswillbeanalyzed,documented,andmanaged.Seealsoprojectmanagement
plan.

Requirements Traceability Matrix. A grid that links product requirements from their origin to the
deliverablesthatsatisfythem.

ResidualRisk.Theriskthatremainsafterriskresponseshavebeenimplemented.Seealsosecondaryrisk.

ResourceBreakdownStructure.Ahierarchicalrepresentationofresourcesbycategoryandtype.Seealso
organizationalbreakdownstructure,riskbreakdownstructure,andworkbreakdownstructure(WBS).


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Resource Calendar. A calendar that identifies the working days and shifts upon which each specific
resourceisavailable.

Resource Leveling. A resource optimization technique in which adjustments are made to the project
schedule to optimize the allocation of resources and which may affect critical path. See also resource
smoothingandresourceoptimizationtechnique.

ResourceManagementPlan.Acomponentoftheprojectmanagementplanthatdescribeshowproject
resources are acquired, allocated, monitored, and controlled. See also project management plan and
staffingmanagementplan.

ResourceOptimizationTechnique.Atechniqueinwhichactivitystartandfinishdatesareadjustedto
balance demand for resources with the available supply. See also resource leveling and resource
smoothing.

ResourceSmoothing.Aresourceoptimizationtechniqueinwhichfreeandtotalfloatareusedwithout
affectingthecriticalpath.Seealsoresourcelevelingandresourceoptimizationtechnique.

Responsibility Assignment Matrix. A grid that shows the project resources assigned to each work
package.

Risk.Anuncertaineventorconditionthat,ifitoccurs,hasapositiveornegativeeffectononeormore
projectobjectives.Seealsoissue,opportunity,andthreat.

RiskAcceptance.Ariskresponsestrategywherebytheprojectteamdecidestoacknowledgetheriskand
nottakeanyactionunlesstheriskoccurs.Seealsoriskavoidance,riskenhancement,riskexploiting,risk
mitigation,risksharing,andrisktransference.

RiskAppetite.Thedegreeofuncertaintyanorganizationorindividualiswillingtoacceptinanticipation
ofareward.Seealsoriskthresholdandrisktolerance.

RiskAvoidance.Ariskresponsestrategywherebytheprojectteamactstoeliminatethethreatorprotect
theprojectfromitsimpact.Seealsoriskacceptance,riskenhancement,riskexploiting,riskmitigation,risk
sharing,andrisktransference.

Risk Breakdown Structure. A hierarchical representation of potential sources of risk. See also
organizationalbreakdownstructure,resourcebreakdownstructure,andworkbreakdownstructure(WBS).

RiskCategory.Agroupofpotentialcausesofrisk.

RiskEnhancement.Ariskresponsestrategywherebytheprojectteamactstoincreasetheprobabilityof
occurrence or impact of an opportunity. See also risk acceptance, risk avoidance, risk exploiting, risk
mitigation,risksharing,andrisktransference.

RiskExploiting.Ariskresponsestrategywherebytheprojectteamactstoensurethatanopportunity
occurs.Seealsoriskacceptance,riskavoidance,riskenhancement,riskmitigation,risksharing,andrisk
transference.


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RiskExposure.Anaggregatemeasureofthepotentialimpactofallrisksatanygivenpointintimeina
project,program,orportfolio.

Risk Management Plan. A component of the project, program, or portfolio management plan that
describeshowriskmanagementactivitieswillbestructuredandperformed.Seealsoprojectmanagement
plan.

RiskMitigation.Ariskresponsestrategywherebytheprojectteamactstodecreasetheprobabilityof
occurrence or impact of a threat. See also risk acceptance, risk avoidance, risk enhancement, risk
exploiting,risksharing,andrisktransference.

Risk Owner. The person responsible for monitoring the risk and for selecting and implementing an
appropriateriskresponsestrategy.

RiskRegister.Arepositoryinwhichoutputsofriskmanagementprocessesarerecorded.

RiskSharing.Ariskresponsestrategywherebytheprojectteamallocatesownershipofanopportunityto
athirdpartywhoisbestabletocapturethebenefitofthatopportunity.Seealsoriskacceptance,risk
avoidance,riskenhancement,riskexploiting,riskmitigation,andrisktransference.

RiskThreshold.Themeasureofacceptablevariationaroundanobjectivethatreflectstheriskappetiteof
theorganizationandstakeholders.Seealsoriskappetiteandrisktolerance.

Risk Tolerance. [deprecated] The degree of uncertainty that an organization or individual is willing to
withstand.Seealsoriskappetiteandriskthreshold.

RiskTransference.Ariskresponsestrategywherebytheprojectteamshiftstheimpactofathreattoa
third party, together with ownership of the response. See also risk acceptance, risk avoidance, risk
enhancement,riskexploiting,riskmitigation,andrisksharing.

RollingWavePlanning.Aniterativeplanningtechniqueinwhichtheworktobeaccomplishedinthenear
termisplannedindetail,whiletheworkinthefutureisplannedatahigherlevel.

ScheduleBaseline.Theapprovedversionofaschedulemodelthatcanbechangedusingformalchange
control procedures and is used as the basis for comparison to actual results. See also baseline, cost
baseline,performancemeasurementbaseline,andscopebaseline.

ScheduleCompression.Atechniqueusedtoshortenthescheduledurationwithoutreducingtheproject
scope.Seealsocrashingandfasttracking.

ScheduleManagementPlan.Acomponentoftheprojectorprogrammanagementplanthatestablishes
thecriteriaandtheactivitiesfordeveloping,monitoring,andcontrollingtheschedule.Seealsoproject
managementplan.

ScheduleModel.Arepresentationoftheplanforexecutingtheprojectsactivities,includingdurations,
dependencies, and other planning information, used to produce a project schedule along with other
schedulingartifacts.Seealsoschedulemodelanalysis.


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ScheduleModelAnalysis.Aprocessusedtoinvestigateoranalyzetheoutputoftheschedulemodelin
ordertooptimizetheschedule.Seealsoschedulemodel.

ScheduleNetworkAnalysis.Atechniquetoidentifyearlyandlatestartdates,aswellasearlyandlate
finishdates,fortheuncompletedportionsofprojectactivities.Seealsoearlyfinishdate,earlystartdate,
latefinishdate,andlatestartdate.

SchedulePerformanceIndex (SPI).A measureofscheduleefficiencyexpressedas theratioofearned


valuetoplannedvalue.Seealsocostperformanceindex(CPI).

ScheduleVariance(SV).Ameasureofscheduleperformanceexpressedasthedifferencebetweenthe
earnedvalueandtheplannedvalue.Seealsocostvariance(CV).

ScopeBaseline.Theapprovedversionofascopestatement,workbreakdownstructure(WBS),andits
associatedWBSdictionarythatcanbechangedusingformalchangecontrolproceduresandisusedasthe
basis for comparison to actual results. See also baseline, cost baseline, performance measurement
baseline,andschedulebaseline.

ScopeCreep.Theuncontrolledexpansiontoproductorprojectscopewithoutadjustmentstotime,cost,
andresources.

ScopeManagementPlan.Acomponentoftheprojectorprogrammanagementplanthatdescribeshow
thescopewillbedefined,developed,monitored,controlled,andvalidated.Seealsoprojectmanagement
plan.

SCurve Analysis. A technique used to indicate performance trends by using a graph that displays
cumulativecostsoveraspecifictimeperiod.

SecondaryRisk.Ariskthatarisesasadirectresultofimplementingariskresponse.Seealsoresidualrisk.

Sponsor. An individual or a group that provides resources and support for the project, program, or
portfolio,andisaccountableforenablingsuccess.Seealsostakeholder.

Staffing ManagementPlan.A componentof theresourcemanagement plan that describeswhenand


howteammemberswillbeacquiredandhowlongtheywillbeneeded.Seealsoresourcemanagement
plan.

Stakeholder.Anindividual,group,ororganizationthatmayaffect,beaffectedby,orperceiveitselftobe
affectedbyadecision,activity,oroutcomeofaproject,program,orportfolio.Seealsosponsor.

StakeholderEngagementPlan.Acomponentoftheprojectorprogrammanagementplanthatidentifies
the strategies and actions required to promote productive involvement of stakeholders in project or
programdecisionmakingandexecution.Seealsoprojectmanagementplan.

StarttoFinish.Alogicalrelationshipinwhichasuccessoractivitycannotfinishuntilapredecessoractivity
hasstarted.Seealsofinishtofinish,finishtostart,starttostart,andlogicalrelationship.

StarttoStart.Alogicalrelationshipinwhichasuccessoractivitycannotstartuntilapredecessoractivity
hasstarted.Seealsofinishtofinish,finishtostart,starttofinish,andlogicalrelationship.


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PMILexiconofProjectManagementTermsVersion3.2

SuccessorActivity.Adependentactivitythatlogicallycomesafteranotheractivityinaschedule.Seealso
predecessoractivityandsummaryactivity.

SummaryActivity.Agroupofrelatedscheduleactivitiesaggregatedanddisplayedasasingleactivity.See
alsopredecessoractivityandsuccessoractivity.

Threat. A risk that would have a negative effect on one or more project objectives. See also issue,
opportunity,andrisk.

ThreePointEstimating.Atechniqueusedtoestimatecostordurationbyapplyinganaverageorweighted
averageofoptimistic,pessimistic,andmostlikelyestimateswhenthereisuncertaintywiththeindividual
activity estimates. See also analogous estimating, bottomup estimating, parametric estimating, and
programevaluationandreviewtechnique(PERT).

ToCompletePerformanceIndex(TCPI).Ameasureofthecostperformancethatisachievedwiththe
remainingresourcesinordertomeetaspecifiedmanagementgoal,expressedastheratioofthecostto
finish the outstanding work to the remaining budget. See also actual cost (AC), budget at completion
(BAC),earnedvalue(EV),andestimateatcompletion(EAC).

TotalFloat.Theamountoftimethatascheduleactivitycanbedelayedorextendedfromitsearlystart
datewithoutdelayingtheprojectfinishdateorviolatingascheduleconstraint.Seealsofreefloat,critical
path,nearcriticalactivity,andnearcriticalpath.

TriggerCondition.Aneventorsituationthatindicatesthatariskisabouttooccur.

VarianceAnalysis.Atechniquefordeterminingthecauseanddegreeofdifferencebetweenthebaseline
andactualperformance.Seealsocostvariance(CV),schedulevariance(SV),andvarianceatcompletion.

VarianceatCompletion(VAC).Aprojectionoftheamountofbudgetdeficitorsurplus,expressedasthe
difference between the budget at completion and the estimate at completion. See also budget at
completion(BAC),costvariance(CV),estimateatcompletion(EAC),andvarianceanalysis.

WBS Dictionary. A document that provides detailed deliverable, activity, and scheduling information
abouteachcomponentintheworkbreakdownstructure.Seealsoworkbreakdownstructure(WBS).

WeightedMilestoneMethod.Amethodofestimatingearnedvalueinwhichthebudgetvalueofawork
packageisdividedintomeasurablesegments,eachendingwithamilestonethatisassignedaweighted
budgetvalue.Seealsofixedformulamethod.

WhatIfScenarioAnalysis.Theprocessofevaluatingscenariosinordertopredicttheireffectonproject
objectives.

Workaround.Animmediateandtemporaryresponsetoanissueforwhichapriorresponsehadnotbeen
plannedorwasnoteffective.Seealsoriskmitigation.

WorkBreakdownStructure(WBS).Ahierarchicaldecompositionofthetotalscopeofworktobecarried
outbytheprojectteamtoaccomplishtheprojectobjectivesandcreatetherequireddeliverables.See
alsoorganizationalbreakdownstructure,resourcebreakdownstructure,riskbreakdownstructure,and
WBSdictionary.


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WorkPackage.Theworkdefinedatthelowestleveloftheworkbreakdownstructureforwhichcostand
durationareestimatedandmanaged.


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