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University of Mindanao

In Partial Fulfillment

Of the Requirements for

Bmath 311: Business Calculus, 10:00-11:00 am (2nd Term)

By:

Siegfred Zace M. Hayo

March 2017

1

Table of Contents

Straight Line Pages 03 05

2

Straight Line

1. Find the equation of a straight line that has y-intercept 4 and is perpendicular to straight line joining (2,

-3) and (4, 2).

Solution:

Since the required straight line is perpendicular to the line joining P (2, -3) and Q (4, 2).

Therefore,

m Slope of PQ = -1

Therefore, b = 4

2x + 5y - 20 = 0

2. Find the co-ordinates of, the middle point of the portion of the line 5x + y = 10 intercepted between the x

and y-axes.

Solution:

The intercept form of the given equation of the straight line is,

5x + y = 10

Therefore, it is evident that the given straight line intersects the x-axis at P (2, 0) and the y-axis at Q

(0, 10).

Therefore, the required co-ordinates of the middle point of the portion of the given line intercepted

between the co-ordinate axes = the co-ordinates of the middle point of the line-segment PQ

3

3. Find the area of the triangle formed by the axes of co-ordinates and the straight line 5x + 7y = 35.

Solution:

5x + 7y = 35

Therefore, it is evident that the given straight line intersects the x-axis at P (7, 0) and the y-axis at Q

(0, 5).

Therefore, the area of the triangle formed by the axes of co-ordinates and the given line = area of the

right-angled OPQ

4. Prove that the points (5, 1), (1, -1) and (11, 4) are collinear. Also find the equation of

the straight line on which these points lie.

Solution:

Let the given points be P (5, 1), Q (1, -1) and R (11, 4). Then the equation of the line passing through P

and Q is

Clearly, the point R (11, 4) satisfies the equation x - 2y - 3 = 0. Hence the given points lie on the same

straight line, whose equation is x - 2y - 3 = 0.

4

5. The line y = 2x + 4 has slope m = 2 and y intercept b = 4

Solution:

We do not need to set up a table of values to sketch this line. Starting at the y-intercept (y = 4), we

sketch our line by going up 2 units for each unit we go to the right (since the slope is in this example).

2x + 4 = 0

X = 2

We notice that this is a function. That is, each value of x that we have gives one corresponding value

of y.

5

Demand and Supply

D = 100 - 6P, S = 28 + 3P

where P is the price of computers, what is the quantity of computers bought and sold at equilibrium.

----

Answer: We know that the equilibrium quantity will be where supply meets, or equals, demand. So

first we'll set supply equal to demand:

100 - 6P = 28 + 3P

72 = 9P

which simplifies to P = 8.

Now we know the equilibrium price, we can solve for the equilibrium quantity by simplying substituting

P = 8 into the supply or the demand equation. I'll substitute it into the supply equation:

S = 28 + 3*8 = 28 + 24 = 52.

3000/wk when the unit price is $ 485. For each decrease in unit price of $ 20

below $ 485, the quantity demanded increases by 250 units. The suppliers

will not market any DVD players if the unit price is $ 300 or lower. But at

a unit price of $ 525, they are willing to make available 2500 units in the

market. The supply equation is also known to be linear.

2. Find the supply equation.

3. Find the equilibrium quantity and price.

6

Question 3: Use (4, 4200) and (9, 10200) to find m

y = 1200x + b

4200 = 1200 4 + b

4200 = 4800 + b

4200 - 4800 = b

-600 = b

y = 1200x + -600

s = 1200p + -600

7

The equilibrium point is the price at which the supply is equal to the demand

6 = 2p2 + -p

2p2 + -p - 6 = 0

(p - 2) (2p + 3) = 0

p = 2 and p = -3/2

Question 4: An apartment complex has 250 apartments to rent. If they rent x apartments then their

monthly profit, in dollars, is given by,

How many apartments should they rent in order to maximize their profit?

Solution

All that were really being asked to do here is to maximize the profit subject to the constraint

that x must be in the range .

First, well need the derivative and the critical point(s) that fall in the range

.

8

Since the profit function is continuous and we have an interval with finite bounds we can find the

maximum value by simply plugging in the only critical point that we have (which nicely enough in the

range of acceptable answers) and the end points of the range.

So, it looks like they will generate the most profit if they only rent out 200 of the apartments instead of

all 250 of them.

Question 5: The production costs per week for producing x widgets is given by,

(b) What is the rate of change of the cost at

Solution

(a) We cant just compute as that is the cost of producing 301 widgets while we are looking

for the actual cost of producing the 301st widget. In other words, what were looking for here is,

(b) In this part all we need to do is get the derivative and then compute .

9

Limits & Continuity

PROBLEM 1:

Solution:

PROBLEM 2:

Solution :

Problem 3:

Solution: = =0.

that the resulting fraction approaches 0.)

i.) f(1) = 2

10

The limit

= 3 (1) - 5

= -2 ,

i.e.,

ii.) .

But

iii.) ,

= (-2)2 + 2(-2)

=4-4

=0.

= (-2)3 - 6(-2)

= -8 + 12

=4.

11

Since the left- and right-hand limits are not equal, ,

and condition ii.) is not satisfied. Thus, function f is NOT continuous at x=-2 .

12

Differential Calculus

Problem 1:

Problem 2:

Problem 3:

13

Problem 4:

Problem 5:

14

Differential Calculus: Application in

Business

Problem 1: The demand equation for a certain product is p = 61/2x

dollars.

Solution:

The graph of R(x) is a parabola that opens downward. (See Fig. 6.) It has a horizontal

tangent precisely at those x for which R (x) = 0that is, for those x at which marginal

total revenue of 18 dollars.

Washington, D.C. One tour, priced at $7 per person, had an average demand of about

1000 customers per week. When the price was lowered to $6, the weekly demand

jumped to about 1200 customers. Assuming that the demand equation is linear, find

the tour price that should be charged per person to maximize the total revenue each

week.

and let p be the price of a tour ticket. Then (x, p) = (1000, 7) and (x, p) = (1200, 6)

15

From equation (1), we obtain the revenue function:

The maximum

revenue occurs when the marginal revenue is zero, that is, when x = 1200. The price

corresponding to this number of customers is found from demand equation (2):

Thus, the price of $6 is most likely to bring the greatest revenue per week.

p = 100 .01x and the cost function is C(x) = 50x + 10,000. Find the value of x

that maximizes the profit and determine the corresponding price and total profit for

this level of production.

Solution:

The graph of this function is a parabola that opens downward. Its highest point will be where the curve

has zero slope, that is, where the marginal profit

P(x) is zero. Now,

16

Finally, we return to the demand equation to find the highest price that can be charged

per unit to sell all 2500 units:

Thus, to maximize the profit, produce 2500 units and sell them at $75 per unit. The

profit will be $52,500.

Problem 4: Rework Problem 3 under the condition that the government has imposed an excise

tax of $10 per unit.

Solution:

For each unit sold, the manufacturer will have to pay $10 to the government. In other

words, 10x dollars are added to the cost of producing and selling x units. The cost

function is now

The graph of P(x) is still a parabola that opens downward, and the highest point is

where P(x) = 0, that is, where x = 2000. The corresponding profit is

From the demand equation, p = 100 .01x, we find the price that corresponds to

x = 2000:

To maximize profit, produce 2000 units and sell them at $80 per unit. The profit will

be $30,000.

Notice in Example 5 that the optimal price is raised from $75 to $80. If the

monopolist wishes to maximize profits, he or she should pass only half the $10 tax on

to the customer. The monopolist cannot avoid the fact that profits will be substantially

17

lowered by the imposition of the tax. This is one reason why industries lobby against

taxation.

function R(x). In a free-enterprise economy the firm will set production x in such a

way as to maximize the profit function

We have seen that if P(x) has a maximum at x = a, then P(a) = 0. In other words,

since P(x) = R(x) C(x),

Thus, profit is maximized at a production level for which marginal revenue equals

marginal cost.

C(x) = (106 )x3 .003x2 + 5x + 1000 dollars.

(a) Describe the behavior of the marginal cost.

(b) Sketch the graph of C(x).

Solution:

able to graph C(x). The marginal cost function y = (3 10 6 )x2 .006x + 5 has as

its graph a parabola that opens upward. Since y = C(x) = .000006(x 1000), we

see that the parabola has a horizontal tangent at x = 1000. So the minimum value of

C(x) occurs at x = 1000. The corresponding y-coordinate is

18

Integral Calculus

Problem 1:

Solution:

So, on some level, the problem here is the x that is in front of the exponential. If that wasnt there we

could do the integral. Notice as well that in doing integration by parts anything that we choose

for u will be differentiated. So, it seems that choosing will be a good choice since

upon differentiating the x will drop out.

Now that weve chosen u we know that dv will be everything else that remains. So, here are the

choices for u and dv as well as du and v.

Once we have done the last integral in the problem we will add in the constant of integration to get our

final answer.

Problem 2:

Solution:

All we are being asked to do here is undo a differentiation and if you recall the basic differentiation

rules for polynomials this shouldnt be too difficult. As we saw in the notes for this section all we really

need to do is increase the exponent by one (so upon differentiation we get the correct exponent) and

then fix up the coefficient to make sure that we will get the correct coefficient upon differentiation.

19

Here is the answer for this part.

Dont forget the +c! Remember that the original function may have had a constant on it and the +c

is there to remind us of that.

Also dont forget that you can easily check your answer by differentiating your answer and making

sure that the result is the same as the integrand.

Problem 3:

Solution:

All we are being asked to do here is undo a differentiation and if you recall the basic differentiation

rules for polynomials this shouldnt be too difficult. As we saw in the notes for this section all we really

need to do is increase the exponent by one (so upon differentiation we get the correct exponent) and

then fix up the coefficient to make sure that we will get the correct coefficient upon differentiation.

Dont forget the +c! Remember that the original function may have had a constant on it and the +c

is there to remind us of that.

20

Problem 4:

Solution:

Recall that we dont need to add the +c in the definite integral case as it will just cancel in the next

step.

Well leave the basic arithmetic to you to verify and only show the results of the evaluation. Make

sure that you evaluate the upper limit first and then subtract off the evaluation at the lower limit.

Problem 5:

Solution:

The width of each subinterval will be,

From this it looks like the right end point, and hence , of the general subinterval is,

21

The summation in the definition of the definite integral is then,

Finally, we can use the definition of the definite integral to determine the value of the integral.

22

Integral Calculus: Application in

Business

Problem 1: A bank pays 2% interest on its certificate of deposit accounts, but charges a $20 annual

fee. If you initially invest $3,000, how much will you have after 10 years?

We can separate this equation by multiply by dt and dividing by the entire expression on the right:

Integrating the left side of this equation requires substitution. Let u=0.02B20, so du=0.02dB.Making

the substitution,

Together, this gives us the general solution to the differential equation (we're also combining the C's

in this step):

23

Finally, we can substitute our initial value of B=3000 when t=0 to solve for the constant A:

This gives us the equation for the account balance after t years:

To find the balance after 10 years, we can evaluate this equation at t=10:

Problem 2: A population grows by 8% each year. If the current population is 5,000, find an equation

for the population after t years.

Solution:

24

Problem 3: At a certain factory, the marginal cost is 3(q - 4)^2 dollars per unit when the level of

production is q units. By how much will the total manufacturing cost increase if the

level of production is raised from 6 units to 10 units?

Solution:

Problem 4: Suppose that t years from now, one investment will be generating profit at the rate of

P1(t) = 50 + t^2 hundred dollars per year, while a second investment will be generating

profit at the rate of P2 (t) = 200 + 5t hundred dollars per year.

(a) For how many years does the rate of profitability of the second investment exceed

that of the first?

(b) Compute the net excess profit for the time period determined in part (a). Interpret

the net excess profit as an area.

Solution:

25

Problem 5: Suppose that when it is t years old, a particular industrial machine generates revenue

at the rate R(t) = 5,000 - 20t^2 dollars per year and that operating and servicing

costs related to the machine accumulate at the rate C(t) = 2,000 + 10t^2 dollars per

year.

(a) How many years pass before the profitability of the machine begins to decline?

(b) Compute the net earnings generated by the machine over the time period determined

in part (a).

Solution:

26

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