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# Chapter 2:

## Electronic Introduction to Electronic

Communications Systems Communications
Chapter 3: Part 1:
Amplitude Modulation (AM) and Amplitude Modulation Theory
Single-Sideband (SSB) Modulation

## Amplitude Modulation (AM) AM Wave Equation

A system of modulation wherein the Let vc = Vcsin(ct) vm
amplitude of the carrier is made proportional vm = Vmsin(mt) A
to the instantaneous amplitude of the Vc

modulating voltage.
Modulation index
Also called coefficient of modulation, the measure Vm
of how much the information signal modulates High-frequency carrier signal, vc Since m
Vc
(changes) the amplitude of the carrier signal.
Let A amplitude of the modulated wave
Mathematically
V
m m A = Vc + vm
Vc (Lower-frequency) information = Vc + Vmsin(mt)
(modulating) signal, vm = Vc + mVcsin(mt)
= Vc{1 + msin(mt)}

1
AM Wave Equation AM Wave Equation
v = Asin()
= Vc{1 + msin(mt)}sin(ct) vm
Vmax
but sin(a)sin(b) = [cos(a b) cos(a + b)] Vc
Vmin

therefore:

## carrier lower sideband (LSB) upper sideband (USB) Vmax Vmin

Vmax Vc Vm Vc Vmax
2 Vmax Vmin
BW = 2m Vc Vmax Vm
2Vc 2Vmax Vmax Vmin m
Vmax Vmin
Vmax Vmin Vmax Vmin
Vm Vc
2 2
c - m c c + m

2 2

AM Wave Equation 1

0
1

## modulating signal. m = 0.8 m = 1.0

We can also see that the value of m cannot exceed 1.
The maximum amplitude for the modulating signal
2 2

1 1

modulation).
0 0

-1 -1

## Overmodulation causes distortions in the AM wave 3

m = 1.2 3 m = 1.5
and introduces harmonic distortion.
Mathematical modelling of overmodulation

2
Power Relations in an AM wave Modulation by Several Sine Waves
V2 2 2 2
From: P and Pt P1 P2
From: Vt V1 V2 V3
R
2 2 2 2 2 2
2
VCARR VLSB VUSB
2 2
Vt V V2 V3 V V2 V3
We have Pt (rms) 1 1 2
R R R VC VC VC

PC
VCARR
2
V
C
2 2

VC
2
PSB
VSB
2
mV 2
C
2

R
m 2VC
2

2
m 2 VC
V1
2
V V
2 2

R R 2R R 2 8R 4 2R 2
22 3 2
VC VC VC

VC
2
m 2 VC
2
m 2 VC
2
m2 m2 m2 m2
Pt PC PC PC PC 1
2R 4 2R 4 2R 4 4 4 4
2 2 2
mt m1 m2 m2
m2
Pt PC 1
2

## Modulation by Several Sine Waves Current Calculations

m2
Since: Pt PC 1 Pt m 2
2 2
2
Pt I R I
Since: 1 But t t
PC 2 PC I C 2 R I C 2
m2 m2
PC PC PC PSB PSB PC
2 2
It
2
m2
Therefore: 1
IC
2
2
PSBT PSB1 PSB 2 PSB 3
2 m2
I t I C 1
2
2 2 2 2
m m m m 2
PC T PC 1 PC 2 PC 3
2 2 2 2
m2
2 2 2 2 It IC 1
mT m1 m2 m3 2

3
Amplitude Modulation Problems Amplitude Modulation Problems
Example 1: A 400-watt carrier is modulated to Example 3: An antenna current of 8 A is
a depth of 65 percent. Calculate the total measured when only the carrier is sent, but
power in the modulated wave. increases to 8.93 A when the carrier is
Answer: 484.5 watts modulated by a single sine wave. Find the
Example 2: A transmitter radiates 50 kW percent modulation. What is the antenna
when the modulation percentage is 90. How current when the modulation index
much of this is the carrier power? changes to 0.85?

## Amplitude Modulation Problems AM Modulating Circuits

Example 4: The antenna current of an AM Modulating Levels
broadcast transmitter, modulated to a depth of The location in the transmitter where modulation
45 percent by a single sine wave is 11 A. It occurs determines whether the circuit is a low- or a
high-level transmitter.
increases to 12.5 A as a result of simultaneous
Low-level modulation
modulation by another sine wave. What is the Modulation takes place prior to the output element of
new modulation index due to the second the final stage of the transmitter, i.e. prior to the plate
(collector/drain) of the output vacuum tube (transistor).
wave?
High-level modulation
Answer: mT = 0.9188 Modulation takes place in final element of the final
stage where the carrier is at its maximum amplitude.

4
AM Modulating Circuits AM Modulating Circuits
An advantage of low-level modulation is that less Low-level AM modulators
modulating signal power is required to achieve a Vcc

## high percentage of modulation. With no modulating signal,

In high-level modulators, a much higher amplitude R1
Rc
C2 the circuit operates as a linear
modulating signal is required, and the final Cc Class-A amplifier, and the
modulating signal amplifier must supply all the RF IN Q1 RL
carrier is amplified by the
sideband power, which could be as much as 33% quiescent voltage gain.
of the total transmit power. R2 Re Ce

## When a modulating signal is

A disadvantage of low-level modulation is that all T1
applied at the cathode
amplifiers after the modulator stage must be linear AF IN
(emitter), the circuit operates
amplifiers, and thus is very inefficient for high non-linearly and signal
power (transmission) applications. Emitter-modulated Class-A amplifier multiplication occurs.

## AM Modulating Circuits AM Modulating Circuits

Low-level AM modulators Low-level AM modulators
This produces a waveform where the carrier is
superimposed on the modulating signal
(amplitude-modulated carrier).
The waveform contains the carrier, the upper and
lower sidebands, as well as the modulating
frequency.
The coupling capacitor C2 removes the modulating
a) Grid-modulated Class-C amplifier b) Grid voltage vs. Plate current waveforms
signal frequency component from the AM
waveform (HPF), producing a symmetrical AM.

5
AM Modulating Circuits AM Modulating Circuits
Low-level AM modulators Low-level AM modulators
The amplifier is operated as a Class-C amplifier,
which produces a set of amplitude-modulated
pulses at the output (plate).
The pulses are applied to a tank circuit, with a
resonant frequency identical to the carriers
frequency.
These pulses would produce damped oscillations,
producing a complete sine wave with the amplitude a) Current pulses applied to tuned circuit b) Tuned circuit AM voltage

## AM Modulating Circuits AM Modulating Circuits

Class-C Amplifiers and RF Amplifiers Medium-Power AM Modulator
Class-C amplifiers are amplifiers Early medium- and high-power AM transmitters
biased well beyond cutoff, so that the were limited to using vacuum tubes. However,
plate- or collector-current flows less
than 180 of each signal cycle. nowadays solid-state transmitters are available
This provides the highest efficiency, capable of producing output powers as high as
but with very high input-to-output several kilowatts.
nonlinearity.
Class-C amplifiers are commonly Medium-power AM modulators have the
used in RF amplifier circuits, making modulation take place at the collector. Therefore,
use of relatively high-Q resonant
output tank circuits to restore if this is the final amplifier before the antenna,
complete sine-wave cycles essential. this is a high-level modulator.

6
AM Modulating Circuits AM Modulating Circuits
Medium-Power AM Modulator Medium-Power AM Modulator
Vcc

## The peak output voltage of the

final amplifier Q2 is varied
R1
(modulated) by the
C1 Modulator transconductance of Q1, which is
AF IN Q1
amplifier controlled by the input signal at its
(Class-A) base (AF).
R2
R4
C3 The output at the collector of Q2
AM OU
OUT are amplitude-modulated pulses
C2
(since Q2 is biased as Class-C) and
Q2
RF IN C4 L1 are fed to a tank circuit that
Final amplifier R3 Output produces the symmetrical AM a) Plate-modulated equivalent
(Class-C) tank circuit output (via the flywheel effect).

## Transistor series AM modulator b) Practical Circuit

Chapter 2: Introduction
Taking into consideration the AM wave
Introduction to Electronic equation
Communications v = Vcsinct + mVccos(ct mt) mVccos(ct + mt)

## Part 2: We can deduce the following:

Single-Sideband Modulation Theory 1. The carrier supplies on information. Only the
amplitude of the sidebands vary with respect to the
modulating voltage.
2. Both sidebands are image of the other, being affected
by mVc. Therefore there is redundancy.

7
Introduction Introduction
However, A3E (double sideband, full carrier) Example: Calculate the percentage power
is still in use due to the following reasons: saving when the carrier and one of the
1. Simplicity in modulating and demodulating sidebands are suppressed in an AM wave
equipment. modulated to a depth of
2. Practical receivers and transmitters due to the
fact of radical conversion of equipment.
a) 100%
Advantages of single-sideband modulation b) 50%
1. Power savings b) 94.444%
2. Reduced bandwidth

## Single-Sideband Systems Single-Sideband Systems

Single-Sideband Full Carrier (SSBFC) Single-Sideband Reduced Carrier (SSBRC)
A form of AM wherein the carrier is transmitted A form of AM in which one sideband is totally
at full power but only one of the sidebands is removed and the carrier voltage is reduced to
transmitted. approximately 10% of its unmodulated
amplitude.
Single-Sideband Suppressed Carrier (SSBSC) To produce SSBRC, the carrier is initially
A form of AM wherein the carrier is suppressed suppressed to get an SSBSC signal and then
(not totally removed) and one of the sidebands reinserted at a reduced amplitude.
removed. The reinserted carrier serves as a pilot carrier
for demodulation purposes.

8
Single-Sideband Systems Single-Sideband Systems
Independent Sideband (ISB) Vestigial Sideband (VSB)
ISB is a form of multiplexing in which a single A form of AM in which the carrier and one
carrier is independently modulated by two complete sideband are transmitted, but only part
different modulating signals. of the second sideband (vestige) is transmitted.
One sideband (i.e. USB) is modulated by one
signal and the other sideband modulated by a
different (independent) signal.
In essence, ISB systems consists of two
independent SSB systems and combined to form
a double-sideband signal.

## Effect of a Non-linear Resistance on Effect of a Non-linear Resistance on

The relationship between voltage and current in a linear In a non-linear resistance, the current is still
resistance is proportional to some extent to the applied voltage,
but not as directly as before.
i bv where: b = conductance
When the transistor begins to saturate, its characteristics
In a transistor, the collector current is the result of the are not anymore linear.
voltage at the base and a DC component when Instead, the current now becomes proportional to the
operated at Class-A square, cube, and higher powers of voltage.

## i a bv where: a = DC component of the

i a bv cv2 dv3 ...
collector current
b = transconductance of This is due to the effect of avalanche current
the transistor
v = voltage at the base
multiplication.

9
Effect of a Non-linear Resistance on Effect of a Non-linear Resistance on
In a FET, when two voltages are applied to the gate: i a bv1 sin t bv 2 sin t
i a b(v1 v2 ) c(v1 v2 ) 2
12 cv1 (1 cos 2 t ) 12 cv 2 (1 cos 2 t )
2 2

2 2
i a b(v1 v2 ) c(v1 v2 2v1v2 ) cv1v 2 [cos( )t cos( )t ]
Let the two voltages be sinusoidal
v1 V1 sin t v2 V2 sin t i a bv1 sin t bv 2 sin t
12 cv1 12 cv1 cos 2 t 12 cv 2 12 cv 2 cos 2 t
2 2 2 2
i a b ( v1 sin t v 2 sin t ) c ( v1 sin 2 t v 2 sin 2 t 2 v1v 2 sin t sin t )
2 2

## But: sin t sin t 1

2
cos( )t cos( )t cv1v 2 cos( )t cv1v 2 cos( )t
sin t
2 1
2 1 cos 2 t

## Effect of a Non-linear Resistance on

2 2 Given the AM wave equation
i a 12 c ( v1 v 2 ) DC component
v AM (t ) [1 m sin( 2f m t )][Vc sin( 2f c t )]
bv1 sin t Carrier
modulating signal carrier signal
bv 2 sin t Modulating voltage
If we remove the constant component from
12 c ( v1 cos 2 t v 2 cos 2 t )
2 2 Carrier and Modulation
harmonics the modulating signal, then
cv1v 2 cos( )t Lower sideband
v AM (t ) [m sin(2f mt )][Vc sin(2f c t )]
cv1v 2 cos( )t Upper sideband
mVc mVc
cos[2 ( f c f m )t ] cos[2 ( f c f m )t ]
2 2

10
Carrier Suppression The Balanced Modulator
We can see that if the constant component is A balanced modulator is a device that
removed prior to performing multiplication, suppresses the carrier component in a
the carrier component is removed and we are modulated signal.
left with the product components (LSB and The balanced modulator uses the non-linear
USB). resistance property of active devices.
The device that suppresses the carrier is called The output of a balanced modulator is a
a balanced modulator. double-sideband, suppressed carrier (DSBSC)
signal.

## The Balanced Modulator The Balanced Modulator

Diode Balanced Modulator Push-Pull FET Balanced Modulator
D
v1 + v2
T1
S
RF RF

AF OUT AF OUT

+
S

v1 - v2
T2
D

11
The Balanced Modulator The Balanced Modulator
Push-Pull FET Balanced Modulator Push-Pull FET Balanced Modulator
The drain current of the two FETs are: iT 2bVm sin(m )t 4cVc sin(c )t Vm sin(m )t
iD1 a b(v1 v2 ) c(v1 v2 ) 2bVm sin(m )t 4cVcVm 12 cos(c m )t cos(c m )t
2

## The output voltage is proportional to the output

iD2 a b(v1 v2 ) c(v1 v2 ) 2 current. Let the constant of proportionality be
vO iT
The primary current across the output transformer
would be the difference of the two. vO 2bVm sin(m )t 2cVcVm cos(c m )t cos(c m )t
Q 2 cV mV c
iT iD1 iD2 2bv2 4cv1v2 Let: P 2 bV m

## Let: v1 V c sin( c ) t v 2 V m sin( m ) t vO P sin(m )t Q cos(c m )t Q cos(c m )t

mod. signal lower sideband upper sideband

## Suppression of the Unwanted Sideband Suppression of the Unwanted Sideband

To suppress the unwanted sideband, we can Filter System
use either of three methods: Simplest of the three.
Filter System Usually uses an LC, crystal, ceramic, or
Phase-shift Method mechanical filter.
The Third Method The filter removes (heavily attenuates) the
unwanted sideband.

12
Suppression of the Unwanted Sideband Suppression of the Unwanted Sideband
Filter System Filter System
DSBSC SSBSC SSBSC DSBSC SSBSC SSBRC SSBSC
BW = fm BW = 2fm BW = fm BW = fm BW = 5 kHz BW = 10 kHz BW = 5 kHz BW = 5 kHz BW = 210 kHz BW = 5 kHz

0 fm fc1 fm fc1 fc1 + fm fc1 fc1 + fm fc1 fc2 fc2 + fm 0 5k 95k 100k 105k 100k 105k 100k 105k 1.895M 1.9M 2M 2.1M 2.105M 2.1M 2.105M

## SIDEBAND BALANCED SIDEBAND SIDEBAND

AF IN BUFFER BM SSB OUT AF IN BUFFER BM 1 SUMMER BM 2 SSB OUT
FILTER MIXER FILTER FILTER

## BUFFER BUFFER BUFFER BUFFER

LF CARRIER CARRIER MF CARRIER
LF CARRIER RF CARRIER
XTAL XTAL XTAL XTAL
OSC 1 OSC 2 OSC 1 OSC 2

Block Diagram of a Filter System Block Diagram of a Double Conversion Filter System

## Suppression of the Unwanted Sideband Suppression of the Unwanted Sideband

Filter System Filter System
Single-sideband filters Single-sideband filters
SSB systems require very selective networks for Example: Determine the quality factor necessary for a
limiting both the signal and noise frequency spectra. single-sideband filter with a 1 MHz carrier frequency,
The Q factor of an SSB filter depends on the carrier 80 dB of sideband suppression, and 200 kHz of
frequency, the frequency separation between sideband separation.
sidebands, and the desired attenuation level of the Answer: 125
unwanted sideband.
where: Q = quality factor
fc 1 S fc = carrier frequency, Hz
Q log S = sideband suppression, dB
4f 20 f = sideband separation, Hz

13
Suppression of the Unwanted Sideband Suppression of the Unwanted Sideband
Filter System Filter System
Crystal filters Crystal filters
A crystal lattice filter is commonly used in SSB systems. In effect, the crystal bridge works as a bandpass filter
It uses two matched crystal pairs (X1 and X2, X3 and X4) with a very high Q factor. Output
(dB)
connected between two tuned input and output X1

0
transformers T1 and T2. T1 T2

X3 X4

## the lower cutoff frequency, and X3 and X4 are connected

in parallel and work at the upper cutoff frequency. X2

fL fH
a) Crystal lattice filter b) Typical frequency response curve

## Suppression of the Unwanted Sideband Suppression of the Unwanted Sideband

Filter System Filter System
Disadvantages of the filter system To overcome these frequency limitations, we do
High Q at high frequencies is near impossible sideband suppression at a lower carrier frequency
fR (much lower than the transmission frequency),
from: Q then use a balanced mixer afterwards to raise the
BW
Frequency limitations frequency to a desired transmitting frequency.
LC filters about 100 kHz, bulky A balanced mixer is much like a frequency
Mechanical filters about 500 kHz shifter, shifting the input signals frequency to the
Ceramic filters about 1 MHz to 20 MHz given RF frequency.

14
Suppression of the Unwanted Sideband Suppression of the Unwanted Sideband
Phase-shift Method Phase-shift Method
BM1 ADDER: v1 v2 2 cos[(c t mt ) 90)]
AF IN Since the first terms are 180 out-of-phase
C + 90
ADDER SSB OUT The phase shift method can generate SSB at any
RF IN
carrier frequency.
m + 90 BM2
However, it requires a very complex phase-shift
For BM1: v1 cos[(c t 90) mt ] cos[(c t 90) mt ] network to maintain the phase relationships.
cos[(c t mt ) 90] cos[(ct mt ) 90] Both BMs must provide exactly the same output
For BM2: v2 cos[c t (mt 90)] cos[c t (mt 90)] to cancel out the sideband.
cos[(c t mt ) 90] cos[(c t mt ) 90]

## Suppression of the Unwanted Sideband Suppression of the Unwanted Sideband

The Third Method The Third Method
Developed by Warren Weaver, and is sometimes
referred to as The Weaver Method. BM1 LPF BM2

## Developed as a means to retain the advantages of

the phase-shift method to generate SSB at any 90 90

AF

## phase-shift network required to operate over a CARRIER

(1650 Hz)
RF
CARRIER
wide range of audio frequencies.
BM3 BM4
It was in direct competition with the filter
LPF

method, however it is complex. Block diagram of the Weaver Method

15
Suppression of the Unwanted Sideband Suppression of the Unwanted Sideband
Systems Comparison Example: An AF phase-shift networks
All systems provide more or less the same results response at 500 Hz is only 88. How much of
Filter Method the unwanted sideband will be present at the