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Membuat analisa potensi energi dan model sistem panas
bumi berdasarkan:

Kajian geologi menyelidiki sistem vulkanis, struktur geologi, umur

batuan, jenis dan tipe batuan ubahan dalam kaitannya dengan sistem
panas bumi
Kajian geokimia menyelidiki tipe dan tingkat maturasi air, asal mula air
panas, model hidrologi dan sistem fluidanya
Kajian geofisika menyelidiki parameter fisis batuan dan struktur bawah
permukaan sistem panas bumi
Kajian teknik reservoir menyelidiki sifat fisis dari batuan dan fluida serta
perpindahan fluida dari reservoir
Survey Geokimia
Nama & Jenis

Manifestasi Panasbumi
di Permukaan ?
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Tactics: Data Basics
Too much data rarely the problem
Wrong data can be a problem
Thorough and disciplined record-keeping
Location, location, location
Maps of results and synthesis of data at common scale
Contours drawn by hand (not by computer)
Quality control
During data gathering/generation
During data analysis
Data management
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Fumarole sampling at Mount Baker's summit
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Alat/metode untuk memprediksi temperatur reservoir

Media yang digunakan :

ion-ion atau senyawa yang larut dalam
air (solute geothermometer)
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Solute geothermometer

Penentuan temperatur reservoir dengan

kelarutan mineral silika (silica


pertukaran ion-ion alkali dan alkali

tanah (Na-K; Na-K-Ca; Na-K-Mg)
Kriteria-kriteria sampel mata air yang
dapat dipakai pada geothermometer

1.Mata air harus memiliki kecepatan aliran air

yang tinggi yaitu >1 L/sec

2.Temperatur mata air harus mendidih atau

hampir mendidih ( kira-kira >90 C)

3.pH mendekati netral

Solute Geothermometer:

Konsentrasi elemen-elemen dikontrol oleh

temperatur pada saat reaksi mineral dengan fluida.

Jumlah elemen berlimpah dan reaksi yang seketika.

Reaksi mencapai kesetimbangan di dalam reservoir

Tidak terjadi re-equilibration dalam perjalanannya

menuju permukaan aliran cepat

Tidak terjadi mixing dan dilution

Liquid Dominated System
1. Jumlahkan konsentrasi klorida (ppm), sulfat (ppm) dan
bikarbonat (ppm)

= Cl + SO4 + HCO3

2. Hitunglah proporsi relatif dari masing-masing komponen

jumlah diatas dalam persen

% Cl = (Cl / ) 100

% SO4 = (SO4 / ) 100

% HCO3 = (HCO3 / ) 100

3. Plot pada ternari diagram, yang paling sesuai untuk

perhitungan geothermometer; yang paling mendekati puncak titik
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Na-K-Ca dan Na-K-Mg
Na-K-Ca Geothermometer
Ca adalah ion yang terikut dalam kesetimbangan
feldspar,berperan dalam pertukaran dengan mineral-mineral
lempung, memiliki kontrol yang cukup besar dalam
perhitungan Na/K geothermometer.

Na-K-Mg geothermometer
Gabungan metode Na/K dan K-Mg.
Na/K mewakili proses kesetimbangan reaksi di dalam
reservoir yang bersifat lambat,
K-Mg mewakili proses kesetimbangan yang cepat pada
daerah yang mendekati permukaan.
Dapat digunakan untuk mengevaluasi di dalam reservoir
maupun di level dekat permukaan.
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Na-K-Mg Ternary Diagram

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T<300 kelarutan
silika meningkat
meningkatnya suhu

T>300 kelarutan
silika menurun
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Persamaan Geothermometer Silika
250 C <T<330 C .(1)

T< 250C ....................(eq.2)

untuk air di dalam reservoir/ tidak ada uap air yang

dilepaskan (no steam loss) kondisi laboratorium

T< 250C ....................(eq.3)

kondisi (steam loss) ~ konsentrasi silica meningkat tetapi

tidak kehilangan atau menambah panas (adiabatic)
air dari sumur pemboran, mata air panas
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Exploration Geochemistry

Christopher W. Klein
GeothermEx, Inc.
5221 Central Ave. Suite 201
Richmond, CA 94804
1. Scope and Objectives of Exploration
2. The System Types: why Geochemistry?
3. Importance of an Integrated Approach
4. Choosing Tools: Strategy
5. Tactics: Data Basics
6. Water Tools
7. Gas Tools
8. Solids Tools
9. Chemical Equilibrium Thermodynamics
10. New Developments
11. Data Management
12. Further Information
1. Scope and Objectives
of Exploration
Given how poorly we understand so many
geothermal systems, exploration
encompasses almost all data gathering
At the least:
Reconnaissance emphasis
Pre-feasibility studies here

Feasibility studies
Step-outs and field expansion during
Depends a lot on who is paying.
Volcanic - magmatic 2. The System
Andesitic / Island Arc
Basaltic / Oceanic Ridge - Types: why
Silicic / Continental (Calderas) Geochemistry?
Deep Sedimentary Trough /
Spreading Center
Continental Heat-Flow Basic Manifestations:
Basin and Range (Extension/
high regional H-F)
Background H-F Waters - springs, wells
Chemical/Phase Type
Liquid-dominated Gases - fumaroles, springs, wells
Steam-dominated Hydrothermal Alteration
Altered meteoric water
Altered seawater
3. Importance of
an Integrated Approach
Dont limit the geochemical point-of-view
to one discipline if others may be relevant
Conclusions must be reasonable in light of
other data and information:
Well data
4. Choosing Tools: Strategy
Commercial viewpoint:
Try to avoid discovering what you already
know, or more than you need to know.
Does the proposed study have a reasonable
chance of assisting a project decision
(resource assessment / drilling / finance / etc.)
in a way that other information could not?
5. Tactics: Data Basics
Too much data rarely the problem
Wrong data can be a problem
Thorough and disciplined record-keeping
Location, location, location
Maps of results and synthesis of data at common scale
Contours drawn by hand (not by computer)
Quality control
During data gathering/generation
During data analysis
Data management

The H2O itself:

Phases (liquid / vapor)
Whats in it: solutes / gases
Isotope Ratio % Natural Reference Common
(R) abundance Standard Precision of
H2O Analysis
2H 2H/1H 0.015 VSMOW D 1.0 o/oo
18O 18O/16O
0.204 VSMOW 18O 0.1 o/oo

D or 18O = 1000 * (Rsample Rstd)/Rstd (permil or o/oo)

Seawater D = 0 o/oo and 18O = 0 o/oo
D or 18O < 0 = lighter
D or 18O < 0 = heavier
H216O is about 10% lighter than H218O, and chemically more reactive
Radioisotopes of Water
Isotope Half-life Decay Principal
(yrs) mode Sources
3H 12.43 - Cosmogenic
Tritium (yields 3He) Weapons
1 Tritium Unit (TU) = 1 atom 3H per 1018 atoms 1H
Before 1953: atmospheric TU ~3-5
By 1963: atmosphere at several 1000 TU
European atmosphere now <10 TU
Groundwater: >30 TU implies recharge in 1960s; <1 TU implies older
Solutes: Major Anions
Chloride seawater Cl Bicarbonate
19,350 mg/kg
~50 to ~20,000 mg/kg <1 to several 1000
(to ~200,000 mg/kg in
hypersaline brines) (for most purposes,
effectively the same as
Sources: traces of Na-K-Cl in alkalinity)
volcanic rocks (seawater origins),
Sources: reactions of
connate seawater in sedimentary
dissolved CO2 from
rocks, halite deposits
atmosphere and/or in
Sulfate geothermal/volcanic
steam, with silicate
~10 to ~1500 mg/kg minerals in rocks, with
carbonate minerals
(to ~100,000 mg/kg in acid (limestone)
volcanic steam condensates
Sources: oxidized sulfide
minerals and H2S, sulfate
mineral deposits (gypsum,
Extremes of volcanic and steam Approximate range among non-volcanic
heated are acidic (no HCO3) geothermal systems (higher SO4 exist)
Solutes: Major Anions and Cations

3 component


Synthesis of 2
Results: 1 2
origins on a map
Tri-linear diagrams can be made
using any three components

Schoeller (spider) diagrams

can illustrate entire analyses

Log (concentration)

Species (Na, K, Ca, etc.)

Giggenbach (1991)
Mixing diagrams can
be constructed
comparing dissolved
species to enthalpy

Chloride ion is best for

this, because it does not
participate in chemical
Other conservative or
nearly conservative
species (aqueous
B, Li, Rb, Cs, Br, the
stable isotopes of water.
Chemical comparison of
reaction times
Geothermometers (Henley and others, 1984)

Rely upon chemical

species (solutes, gases,
isotopes) reaching a state
of reaction equilibrium in
the reservoir, then leaving
the reservoir and
appearing at
before significant re-
equilibration can occur.
e.g. reactions that control
pH, Carbonate deposition
Silica Geothermometers
Data from geothermal
wells in Nevada

Quartz Problem
Silica: Salinity Effects - 1
Silica: Salinity Effects - 2
Cation Geothermometers - 1
Na/K - Ion exchange in alkali feldspars
(common in volcanic rocks) causes Na/K to
decrease as T increases.
Simple plots of K vs Na can be
a guide to relative source
Considered applicable only at
Clay mineral interference at
<200C can yield temperatures
that are too high.
Various calibrations available
(Fournier, Giggenbach,
Truesdell, Arnorsson)
Cation Geothermometers - 2
Na-K-Ca Developed and calibrated by Fournier
and Truesdell (1973).
Empirical, but based on a theoretical consideration of
likely silicate reactions, to incorporate the influence of
calcium-bearing minerals (feldspars, epidote, calcite)
Considered more acceptable than Na/K over 100-300C
High Pco2 at low temperature yields poor results due to
high Ca. Pco2 correction can be applied.
Eqn has two forms: the correct one needs to be applied
(depends on TC, Ca, Na)
Other versions available: Benjamin and others, 1983; illite form
of Ballantyne and Moore, 1990)
Cation Geothermometers - 3
Lower-T waters and shallow-cooled
reservoir zones: if Mg >~1 ppm.
Na-K-Ca-Mg : Applies correction to Na-K-
Ca. Developed and calibrated by Fournier and Potter

K-Mg : Developed by Giggenbach, alternate

calibrations by Fournier, Arnorsson
Effects of
Reservoir Cooling:
Silica, Na/K and

All wells are within a

single geothermal
field in Nevada, USA
Effects of
K-Mg and
Na/K geo-
Calibrations by
Fournier, Arnorsson
Other Aqueous Geothermometers
Sulfate-Water Oxygen Isotope: re-equilibrates
very slowly with cooling, may be very accurate if
SO4 not added/removed (mixing,
Anhydrite equilibrium (CaSO4): Accuracy
depends upon thermodynamic data for the
equilibrium reaction.
K-Mg-Ca (Giggenbach): simultaneous T
dependence of K2/Ca and K2/Mg (reactions involving
feldspars, mica, Ca-Al-silicate, calcite, CO2, chlorite)
Na/Li and other ion ratios: rarely used.
Mathematical Mixing Models
Example: Nevis, W.I., 55C submarine spring: Cl at
16,400 mg/kg (thermal water contaminated by seawater).

Process: remove
seawater to the
point where the Chemical Temperature (C) 175C
contains 1 mg/kg
of Mg.
Result: thermal Cl
at ~11,000 mg/kg,
converging at
Fraction seawater in sample
Other Water Parameters
(Less Widely Used)
To distinguish provenance
Isotopes of C, S, B, Cl
Rare earth elements, Y
Isotope geothermometers (gaswater,
18O : H2O CO2
2H : H2 H2O, H2 CH4, H2O CH4

13C : CO2 CH4, CO2 HCO3

34S : SO4 H2S

7. Gas Tools
Advantages at volcanic systems:
more fumaroles/seeps than springs
fumaroles usually above reservoir (short
pathway to surface)
minor to insignificant in outflow zones and in
non-volcanic settings
chemistry more complex than water
greater difficulty and expense to sample
Significant Gas Components
Relatively more soluble in water:
NH3, H2S, CO2
Relatively less soluble:
CH4, H2, N2, Ar, He, (other noble gases)
Higher T systems: significant CO2, CH4, H2
Lower T systems: dominated by N2
Volcanic/magmatic: SO2, HCl, HF
Measurable O2 indicates contamination by air
from shallow source or during sampling.
As with solutes
in water, any
three gas
components can
be combined in
a tri-linear
An alternate view
puts He (which
comes from
radioactive decay
in the earths crust)
at this apex.
can be useful to show
boiling trends
Gas Geothermometry - 1
determined for studied areas (e.g. Iceland)
best fits of data to source temperature
Theoretical / thermodynamic
based on chemical reactions, some with
minerals, assuming equilibrium
Major ambiguity - whether gases sampled
originate from reservoir steam, boiling of liquid,
or both.
Gas Geothermometry - 2
Giggenbach Gas Ratio
Grids: thermodynamic
basis, with simplifying
Example: H2/Ar vs. CO2/Ar
H2/Ar vs. T
CH4/CO2 vs. CO/CO2
CO/CO2 vs H2/Ar
Other Gas Parameters
3He/4He magmatic (high) vs. crustal (low)
(3He = mantle source; 4He = decay of U, Th, Ar)

40Ar/36Ar atmospheric (low) vs. magmatic


Noble gas ratios (various)

Stable isotopes of steam condensate
8. Solids Tools
Hydrothermal Alteration Maps
Can outline extent of reservoir
Fluid type(s) responsible
Temperature(s) of alteration
Limitation: may indicate paleo-conditions only
Fluid Inclusion Analysis
Leakage Detection Surveys (faults/fractures)
Soil gas: Hg, Rn, CO2
Soil: ammonia, Sb, As, B, Hg, Gamma
Evidence of reservoir cap rock (clay minerals)
May assist resistivity survey interpretation
9. Chemical Equilibrium
Calculate simultaneous chemical reaction
states in a large suite of dissolved and
solid species
Requires good data (esp. pH, alkalinity /
bicarbonate, Al)
Useful for geothermometry, mixing,
precipitation and dissolution of solids
Some thermodynamic data are uncertain
Available codes differ in capabilities
10. New Developments
Software and Equipment
Database software
Graphing software
In the field: GPS
High Performance/Pressure Liquid Chromatography:
better anion data, esp. SO4
More common/refined use of AA for SiO2
Biggest Downer: increased difficulty of shipping
samples, esp. gases
11. Data Management
Convenient for smaller amounts of data
Lead to sloppy/inconsistent formatting
Limited input/edit forms screen capability
Calculations may contain hidden errors
Graphing can suffer from inadequate format control
Better for data sets with >25~40 analyses
Enforce discipline in formatting
Unlimited input/edit forms screen capability
Calculations are external to the data
Use separate graphing package
12. Further Information
Arnrsson, S., 2000. Isotopic and Chemical Techniques in Geothermal Exploration, Development
and Use: Sampling Methods, Data Handling, Interpretation. International Atomic Energy Agency,
Bethke, C.M., 1996. Geochemical Reaction Modeling, Concepts and Applications. Oxford
University Press, New York, Oxford.
DAmore, F. (Co-ordinator), 1991. Applications of Geochemistry in Geothermal Reservoir
Development. Series of Technical Guides on the Use of Geothermal Energy. UNITAR/UNDP
Centre on Small Energy Resources, Rome Italy.
Ellis, A.J. and W.A.J. Mahon, 1977. Chemistry and Geothermal Systems. Academic Press.
Henley, R.W., Truesdell, A.H. and Barton, P.B., 1984. Fluid-Mineral Equilibria in Hydrothermal
Systems; Reviews in Economic Geology, Vol. 1, Society of Economic Geologists, Univ. Texas, El
Paso, TX
Hem, J.D., 1989. Study and Interpretation of the Chemical Characteristics of Natural Water.
United States Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2254.
Nicholson, K., 1993. Geothermal Fluids: Chemistry and Exploration Techniques. Springer-
The Encyclopedia of Water: Environmental Isotopes in Hydrology (at