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K V Manikanta
Assistant professor,
Dept of Civil Engineering.
1.1 NEED FOR PROTECTED WATER SUPPLY Protected water supply means the supply of
water that is treated to remove the impurities and made safe to public health. Water may be
polluted by physical and bacterial agents. Water is also good carrier of disease causing
germs. The causes of outbreak of epidemics are traced to pollute water and poor sanitation
hospital are continued to be flooded with the sick due to ignorance about health continues to
be profound. However during the last few decades, improvements in the public health
protection by supplying safe water and sanitation to all the people in the developing
countries. In 1977, united nations declare to launch a movement known as HEALTH FOR
ALL BY THE YEAR 2000 A.D. India is also a signatory to that conference. The working
group appointed by the planning commission while suggesting strategies for achieving the
above goal emphasized that potable water from protected water supply should be made
available to the entire population. Pure and whole some water is to be supplied to the
community alone can bring down the morbidity rates

The objectives of the community water supply system are

1. to provide whole some water to the consumers for drinking purpose.

2. to supply adequate quantity to meet at least the minimum needs of the individuals

3. to make adequate provisions for emergencies like fire fighting, festivals, meeting etc

4. to make provision for future demands due to increase in population, increase in standard of
living, storage and conveyance


Absolutely pure water is never found in nature and which contains only two parts of hydrogen
and one part of oxygen by volume. But the water found in nature contains number of impurities
in varying amounts. The rainwater which is originally pure, also absorbs various gases, dust and
other impurities while filling. This water when moves on the ground further carries silt, organic
and inorganic impurities. The removal of the turbidity, odour and smell is considered as good
and removal of dissolved substances is considered as chemically pure. But removal of
substances like calcium, magnesium Iron, Zinc etc completely is not good for health. These
minerals are required for tissue growth and some act as propylatic in preventing diseases.
Therefore wholesome water is defined as the water which containing the minerals in small
quantities at requisite levels and free from harmful impurities Chemically pure water is also
corrosive but not whole some water. The water that is fit for drinking safe and agreeable is called
potable water. The following are the requirements of wholesome water.
1. It should be free from bacteria

2. It should be colourless and sparkling

3. It should be tasty, odour free and cool

4. It should be free from objectionable matter

5. It should not carrode pipes

6. It should have dissolved oxygen and free from carbonic acid so that it may remain fresh.

VARIOUS TYPES OF WATER DEMANDS While designing the water supply scheme for a
town or city, it is necessary to determine the total quantity of a water required for various
purposes by the city. As a matter of fact the first duty of the engineer is to determine the water
demand of the town and then to find suitable water sources from where the demand can be met.
But as there are so many factors involved in demand of water, it is not possible to accurately
determine the actual demand. Certain empirical formulae and thumb rules are employed in
determining the water demand, which is very near to the actual demand. Following are the
various types of water demands of a city or town: i. Domestic water demand ii. Industrial
demand iii. Institution and commercial demand iv. Demand for public use v. Five demand vi.
Loses and wastes

DOMESTIC WATER DEMAND The quantity of water required in the houses for drinking,
bathing, cooking, washing etc is called domestic water demand and mainly depends upon the
habits, social status, climatic conditions and customs of the people. As per IS: 1172-1963, under
normal conditions, the domestic consumption of water in India is about 135 litres/day/capita. But
in developed countries this figure may be 350 litres/day/capita because of use of air coolers, air
conditioners, maintenance of lawns, automatic household appliances

INDUSTRIAL DEMAND The water required in the industries mainly depends on the type of
industries, which are existing in the city. The water required by factories, paper mills, Cloth
mills, Cotton mills, Breweries, Sugar refineries etc. comes under industrial use. The quantity of
water demand for industrial purpose is around 20 to 25% of the total demand of the city.

INSTITUTION AND COMMERCIAL DEMAND Universities, Institution, commercial

buildings and commercial centers including office buildings, warehouses, stores, hotels,
shopping centers, health centers, schools, temple, cinema houses, railway and bus stations etc
comes under this category.

DEMAND FOR PUBLIC USE Quantity of water required for public utility purposes such as
for washing and sprinkling on roads, cleaning of sewers, watering of public parks, gardens,
public fountains etc comes under public demand. To meet the water demand for public use,
provision of 5% of the total consumption is made designing the water works for a city.
FIRE DEMAND Fire may take place due to faulty electric wires by short circuiting, fire
catching materials, explosions, bad intension of criminal people or any other unforeseen
mishappenings. If fires are not properly controlled and extinguished in minimum possible time,
they lead to serious damage and may burn cities. All the big cities have full fire-fighting squads.
As during the fire breakdown large quantity of water is required for throwing it over the fire to
extinguish it, therefore provision is made in the water work to supply sufficient quantity of water
or keep as reserve in the water mains for this purpose. In the cities fire hydrants are provided on
the water mains at 100 to 150 m apart for fire demand. The quantity of water required for fire
fighting is generally calculated by using different empirical formulae. For Indian conditions
kuichings formula gives satisfactory results.

Q=3182 p

Where Q is quantity of water required in litres/min P is population of town or city in


FACTORS AFFECTING PER CAPITA DEMAND The following are the main factors
affecting for capita demand of the city or town.

a) Climatic conditions : The quantity of water required in hotter and dry places is more than cold
countries because of the use of air coolers, air conditioners, sprinkling of water in lawns,
gardens, courtyards, washing of rooms, more washing of clothes and bathing etc. But in very
cold countries sometimes the quantity of water required may be more due to wastage, because at
such places the people often keep their taps open and water continuously flows for fear of
freezing of water in the taps and use of hot water for keeping the rooms warm.

b) Size of community : Water demand is more with increase of size fo town because more water
is required in street washing, running of sewers, maintenance of parks and gardens.

c) Living standard of the people : The per capita demand of the town increases with the standard
of living of the people because of the use of air conditioners, room coolers, maintenance of
lawns, use of flush, latrines and automatic home appliances etc.

d) Industrial and commercial activities : As the quantity of water required in certain industries is
much more than domestic demand, their presence in the town will enormously increase per
capita demand of the town. As a matter of the fact the water required by the industries has no
direct link with the population of the town.

e) Pressure in the distribution system: The rate of water consumption increase in the pressure of
the building and even with the required pressure at the farthest point, the consumption of water
will automatically increase. This increase in the quantity is firstly due to use of water freely by
the people as compared when they get it scarcely and more water loss due to leakage, wastage
and thefts etc.
f) System of sanitation: Per capita demand of the towns having water carriage system will be
more than the town where this system is not being used.

g) Cost of water: The cost of water directly affects its demand. If the cost of water is more, less
quantity of water will be used by the people as compared when the cost is low

VARIATIONS IN DEMAND The per capita demand of town is the average consumption of
water for a year. In practice it has been seen that this demand doesnot remain uniform throughout
the year but it various from season to season, even hour to hour.

SEASONAL VARIATIONS The water demand varies from season to season. In summer the
water demand is maximum, because the people will use more water in bathing, cooling, lawn
watering and street sprinkling. This demand will becomes minimum in winter because less water
will be used in bathing and there will be no lawn watering. The variations may be upto 15% of
the average demand of the year

DAILY VARIATIONS This variation depends on the general habits of people, climatic
conditions and character of city as industrial, commercial or residential. More water demand will
be on Sundays and holidays due to more comfortable bathing, washing etc as compared to other
working days. The maximum daily consumption is usually taken as 180% of the average

HOURLY VARIATIONS On Sundays and other holidays the peak hours may be about 8
A.M. due to late awakening where as it may be 6 A.M. to 10 A.M. and 4 P.M. to 8 P.M. and
minimum flow may be between 12P.M. to 4P.M. when most of the people are sleeping. But
in highly industrial city where both day and night shifts are working, the consumption in
night may be more. The maximum consumption may be rise upto 200% that of average daily
demand. The determination of this hourly variations is most necessary, because on its basis
the rate of pumping will be adjusted to meet up the demand in all hours.
DESIGN PERIOD The complete water supply project includes huge and costly
constructions such as dams, reservoirs, treatment works and network of distribution
pipelines. These all works cannot be replaced easily or capacities increased conveniently for
future expansions. While designing and constructing these works, they should have sufficient
capacity to meet future demand of the town for number of years. The number of years for
which the designs of the water works have been done is known as design period. Mostly
water works are designed for design period of 22-30 years, which is fairly good period. 2.6
water required by a town or a city per day shall be 270 multiplied with the total population in
period is fixed the next step is to determine the population of a town or city population of a
town depends upon the factors like births, deaths, migration and annexation. The future
development of the town mostly depends upon trade expansion, development industries, and
surrounding country, discoveries of mines, construction of railway stations etc may produce
sharp rises, slow growth, stationary conditions or even decrease the population. For the
prediction of population, it is better to study the development of other similar towns, which
have developed under the same circumstances, because the development of the predicted
town will be more or less on the same lines. The following are the standard methods by
which the forecasting population is done. i. Arithmetical increase method ii. Geometrical
increase method iii. Incremental increase method iv. Simple graph method v. Decrease rate
of growth method vi. Comparative graph method vii. The master plan method

Quality of water
Absolutely pure water is never found in nature and contains number of impurities in
varying amounts. The rainwater which is originally pure, also absorbs various gases, dust and
other impurities while falling. This water when moves on the ground further carries salt,
organic and inorganic impurities. So this water before supplying to the public should be
treated and purified for the safety of public health, economy and protection of various
industrial process, it is most essential for the water work engineer to thoroughly check
analyse and do the treatment of the raw water obtained the sources, before its distribution.
The water supplied to the public should be strictly according to the standards laid down from
time to time. 4.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF WATER For the purpose of classification, the
impurities present in water may be divided into the following three categories.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS The following are the physical characteristics

1. Turbidity
2. Colour and temperature
3. Taste and odour

TURBIDITY Turbidity is caused due to presence of suspended and colloidal matter in the
water. The character and amount of turbidity depends upon the type of soil over which the
water has moved ground waters are less turbed than the surface water. Turbidity is a measure
of resistance of water to the passage of light through it. Turbidity is expressed as NTU
(Nephelometric Turbidity Units) or PPM (parts per million) or Milligrams per litre (mg/l).
Turbidity is measured by 1) Turbidity rod or Tape 2) Jacksons Turbidimeter 3) Balis
Turbidimeter The Sample to be tested is poured into a test tube and placed in the meter and
units of turbidity is read directly on the scale by a needle or by digital display. Drinking
water should not have turbidity more than 10 N.T.U. This test is useful in determining the
detension time in settling for raw water and to dosage of coagulants required to remove
COLOUR AND TEMPERATURE Colour in water is usually due to organic matter in
colloidal condition but some times it is also due to mineral and dissolved organic impurities.
The colour produced by one milligram of platinum in a litre of water has been fixed as the
unit of colour. The permissible colour for domestic water is 20ppm on platinum cobalt scale.
The colour in water is not harmful but objectionable. Temperature of water is measured by
means of ordinary thermometers. The temperature of surface water is generally at
atmospheric temperature, while that of ground water may be more or less than atmospheric
temperature. The most desirable temperature for public supply between 4.4C to 10C. The
temperature above 35C are unfit for public supply, because it is not palatable.

HARDNESS OF WATER It is a property of water, which prevents the lathering of the soap.
Hardness is of two types. 1. Temporary hardness: It is caused due to the presence of
carbonates and sulphates of calcium and magnesium. It is removed by boiling. 2. Permanent
hardness: It is caused due to the presence of chlorides and nitrates of calcium and
magnesium. It is removed by zeolite method. Hardness is usually expressed in gm/litre or
p.p.m. of calcium carbonate in water. Hardness of water is determined by EDTA method. For
potable water hardness ranges from 5 to 8 degrees.

BIO-CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND If the water is contaminated with sewage, the

demand of oxygen by organic matter in sewage is known as biochemical oxygen demand.
The aerobic action continues till the oxygen is present in sewege. As the oxygen exhausts the
anerobic action begins due to which foul smell starts coming. Therefore indirectly the
decomposable matters require oxygen, which is used by the organisms. The aerobic
decomposition of organic matters is done in two stages. The carbonaceous matters are first
oxidized and the oxidation of nitrogeneous matters takes place in the latter stage.


for the presence of bacteria is important for the water supply engineer from the viewpoint of
public health. The bacteria may be harmless to mankind or harmful to mankind. The former
category is known as non-pathogenic bacteria and the later category is known as pathogenic
bacteria. Many of the bacteria Water Supply Engineering - 36 - found in water are derived
from air, soil and vegetation. Some of these are able to multiply and continue their existence
while the remaining die out in due course of time. The selective medium that promote the
growth of particular bacteria and inbuilt the growth of other organisms is used in the lab to
detect the presence of the required bacteria, usually coliform bacteria. For bacteriological
analysis the following tests are done.
(a) PLANT COUNT TEST In this method total number of bacteria presents in a millitre of
water is counted. 1 ml of sample water is diluted in 99ml of sterilized water and 1ml of
dilute water is mixed with 10ml of agar of gelatine. This mixture is then kept in incubator
at 37C for 24 hours or 20C for 48 hours. After the sample will be taken out from the
incubator and colonies of bacteria are counted by means of microscope. Drinking water
should not have more than 10 coliforms/100ml.
(b) M.P.N. TEST (MOST PROBABLE NUMBER) The detection of bacteria by mixing
different dilutions of a sample of water with fructose broth and keeping it in the incubator
at 37C for 48hours. The presence of acid or carbon-dioxide gas in the test tube will
indicate the presence of B-coli. After this the standard statistical tables (Maccardys) are
reffered and the MOST PROBABLE NUMBER (MPN) of B-coli per 100ml of water
are determined. For drinking water, the M.P.N. should not be more than 2.

WATER BORNE DISEASES World health organization has observes that 80% of
communicable diseases that are transmitted through water. The diseases like cholera,
gastroenteritis, typhoid, amoebia, diarrhoea, polio, hepatitis (Jaundice), Leptospirosis,
Dracontiasis are caused by bacteria. Excess of fluorides present in water [ above 1.5 mg/litre]
cause diseases like dental flurosis, sketetal flurosis. This is a permanent irresible disease that
weakens the bone structure. The patient becomes immobile and bedridden. Excess of nitrates
in water causes Mathaemoglobinaemia or blue baby symptoms in infants. It effects the
hemoglobin in the blood and reduces its capacity to transport oxygen to the cells. Nitrates in
water are caused by industrial effluents, agricultural runoff. Toxic ions of chromium, lead,
arsenic and pesticides in water cause diseases affecting the kidney, liver and high blood
pressure, paralysis, cancer etc. These toxic substances are due to industrial effluents reaching
the surface and ground water sources.
Water available in various sources contains various types of impurities and cannot be directly
used by the public for various purposes, before removing the impurities. For potability water
should be free from unpleasant tastes, odours and must have sparkling appearance. The water
must be free from disease-spreading germs. The amount and type of treatment process will
depend on the quality of raw water and the standards of quality of raw water and the
standards of quality to be required after treatment as per the table No. The surface sources
generally contains large amount of impurities therefore they requires sedimentation, filtration
and chlorination as treatment. If the water contains algae or other micro organisms, pre
chlorination has to be done tastes and odours , dissolved gases like CO2, H2S are removed
by aeration. During the flood season , the turbidity of the surface water may be high and
flocculation may become necessary to remove turbidity. Ground water which are usually
clear may require only disinfection and chemical treatment for the removal of pathogens,
Iron removal, Softening etc. Sometimes ground water contains dissolved gases like hydrogen
sulphide (H2S) carbon dioxide (CO2), which gives very bad odour and requires its removal
by aeration.
The following points should be kept in mind while giving layout of any treatment plant. 1.
The W.T.P. should be located as near to the town so as to avoid the contamination. 2. All the
units of plant should be located in order of sequence and flow from one unit to other by
gravity. 3. All the units are arranged in such a way that minimum area is required so as to
reduce the cost of construction. 4. Sufficient area should be reserved for the future expansion
5. Staff quarters and office should be provided near the treatment plants so that the operators
can watch the plants easily. 6. The site of treatment plant should be very neat and give very
good asthetic appearance.
SCREENING Screens are fixed in the intake works or at the entrance of treatment plant so
as to remove the floating matters as leaves, dead animals etc.
SEDIMENTATION It is the process in which the suspended solids are made to settle by
gravity under still water conditions is called plain sedimentation.

PLAIN SEDIMENTATION By plain sedimentation the following are the advantages.

1. Plain sedimentation lightens the load on the subsequent process.
2. The operation of subsequent purification process can be controlled in better way.
3. The cost of cleaning the chemical coagulation basins is reduced.
4. No chemical is lost with sludge discharged from the plain settling basin.
5. Less quantity of chemicals are required in the subsequent treatment processes.
The amount of matter removed by sedimentation tank depends upon the factors.
1. Velocity of flow
2. size and shape of particles
3. Viscosity of water

DESIGN ASPECTS OF SEDIMENTATION TANKS The design aspects of sedimentary

tanks are
1. Velocity of flow
2. Capacity of tank
3. Inlet and outlet arrangements
4. Shapes of tanks
5. Miscellaneous considerations.

(1) Velocity of flow: The velocity of flow of water in sedimentation tanks should be
sufficient enough to cause the hydraulic subsidence of suspended impurities. It should remain
uniform throughout the tank and it is generally not allowed to exceed 150mm to 300mm per

(2) Capacity of tank: capacity of tank is calculated by i) detension period ii) Overflow rate

INLET AND OUTLET ARRANGEMENTS The inlet is a device, which is provided to

distribute the water inside a tank, and the outlet is a device, which is meant to collect
outgoing water. These arrangements should be properly designed and located in a such a way
that they do not form any obstruction or cause any disturbance to the flowing water.

SHAPES OF TANKS Following are the three shapes of settling tank. (i) Rectangular tanks
with horizontal flow (ii) Circular tanks with radial or spiral flow (iii) Hopper bottom tanks
with vertical flow
SEDIMENTATION AIDED WITH COAGULATION When water contains fine clay and
colloidal impurities which are electrically charged are continually in motion and never settle
down due to gravitational force. Certain chemicals are added to the water so as to remove
such impurities which are not removed by plain sedimentation. The chemical form insoluble,
gelatinous, flocculent precipitate absorbs and entagle very fine suspended matter and
colloidal impurities during its formation and descent through water. These coagulants further
have an advantage of removing colour, odour and taste from the water. Turbidity of water
reduced upto 5-10 ppm and bacteria removes upto 65%.
Coagulants are chosen depending upon the PH of water. Alum or Aluminium sulphate is
normally used in all treatment plants because of the low cost and ease of storage as solid
crystals over long periods. The dosage of coagulants, which should be added to the water,
depends upon kind of coagulant, turbidity of water, colour of water, PH of water, temperature
of water and temperature of water and mixing & flocculation time. The optimum dose of
coagulant required for a water treatment plant is determined by a Jar test

FILTRATION The process of passing the water through beds of sand or other granular
materials is known as filtration. For removing bacteria, colour, taste, odours and producing
clear and sparkling water, filters are used by sand filtration 95 to 98% suspended impurities
are removed.

THEORY OF FILTRATION The following are the mechanisms of filtration

1. Mechanical straining Mechanical straining of suspended particles in the sand pores.
2. Sedimentation Absorption of colloidal and dissolved inorganic matter in the surface of
sand grains in a thin film
3. Electrolytic action The electrolytic charges on the surface of the sand particles, which
opposite to that of charges of the impurities are responsible for binding them to sand
4. Biological Action Biological action due to the development of a film of microorganisms
layer on the top of filter media, which absorb organic impurities. Filtration is carries out in
three types of filters
1. Slow sand filter
2. Rapid sand filter Gravity filters
3. Pressure filter

SLOW SAND FILTER Slow sand filters are best suited for the filtration of water for small
towns. The sand used for the filtration is specified by the effective size and uniformity
coefficient . The effective size, D10, which is the sieve in millimeters that permits 10% sand
by weight to pass. The uniformity coefficient is calculated by the ratio of D60 and D10.
RAPID SAND FILTER Rapid sand filter are replacing the slow sand filters because of high
rate of filtration ranging from 100 to 150m3 /m2 /day and small area of filter required. The
main features of rapid sand filter are as follows.
OPERATION The water from coagulation sedimentation tank enters the filter unit
through inlet pipe and uniformily distributed on the whole sand bed. Water after passing
through the sand bed is collected through the under drainage system in the filtered water
well. The outlet chamber in this filter is also equipped with filter rate controller. In the
beginning the loss of head is very small. But as the bed gets clogged, the loss of head
increases and the rate of filtration becomes very low. Therefore the filter bed requires its
First the value A is closed and the water is drained out from the filter leaving a few
centimeter depth of water on the top of sand bed. Keeping all values closed the compressed
air is passed through the separate pipe system for 2-3 minutes, which agitates the sand bed
and stirrer it well causing the loosening of dirt, clay etc. inside the sand bed. Now value C
and B are opened gradually, the wash water tank, rises through the laterals, the strainers
gravel and sand bed. Due to back flow of water the sand expands and all the impurities are
carried away with the wash water to the drains through the channels, which are kept for this

PRESSURE FILTER Pressure filter is type of rapid sand filter in a closed water tight
cylinder through which the water passes through the sand bed under pressure. All the
operations of the filter is similar to rapid gravity filter, expect that the coagulated water is
directly applied to the filter without mixing and flocculation. These filters are used for
industrial plants but these are not economical on large scale. Pressure filters may be vertical
pressure filter and horizontal pressure filter. Backwash is carried by reversing the flow with
values. The rate of flow is 120 to 300m3 /m2 /day.

METHODS OF DISINFECTION Disinfection of water by different physical and chemical


1. BOILING : Boil the water for 15 to 20 minutes and kills the disease causing bacteria.
This process is applicable for individual homes.
2. ULTRA-VIOLET RAYS: Water is allowed to pass about 10cm thickness by
ultraviolet rays. This process is very costly and not used at water works. Suitable for
3. ULTRASONIC RAYS: Suitable for institutions.

1. CHLORINATION : Using chlorine gas or chlorine compounds.
2. BROMINE AND IODINE : It is expensive and leaves taste and odour.
3. POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE: This method is used for disinfection of dug well
water, pond water or private source of water.
4. OZONE : Very expensive process, leaves no taste, odour or residual.
5. EXCESS LIME TREATMENT: Needs long detension time for time interval and large
lime sludges to be treated.

CHLORINATION Chlorination is the addition of chlorine to kill the bacteria Chlorination is

very widely adopted in all developing countries for treatment of water for public supply.
Chlorine is available in gas, liquid or solid form (bleaching powder)

1. Chlorine is manufactured easily by electrolytes of common salts (NaCl)
2. It is powerful oxidant and can penetrate the cell wall of organism and its contents.
3. Dosage can be controlled precisely
4. can be easily detected by simple orthotolidine test
5. Doesnot form harmful constituents on reaction with organics of inorganics in water
6. leaves required residue in water to neutralise recontamination later.


1. Chlorine gas or liquid is highly corrosive and Lithal to Inhale. Hence it is to be stored
carefully in sealed container at a distance.
2. If the water contains phenolic compounds, there is a reaction with chlorine can result in
cancer causing substances.


When chlorine is applied in water some of it is consumed in killing the pathogens, some react
organs & inorganic substances and the balance is detected as Residual Chlorine. The
difference between the quantity applied per litre and the residual is called Chlorine
Demand. Polluted waters excert more chlorine demand. If water is pre-treated by
sedimentation and aeration, chlorine demand may be reduced. Normally residual chlorine of
0.2 mg/litre is required.


Plain chlorination is the process of addition of chlorine only when the surface water with no
other treatment is required. The water of lakes and springs is pure and can be used after plain
chlorination. A rate of 0.8 mg/lit/hour at 15N/cm2 pressure is the normal dosage so as to
maintain in a resided chlorine of 0.2 mg/lit.

(B) SUPER CHLORINATION Super chlorination is defined as administration of a dose

considerably in excess of that necessary for the adequate bacterial purification of water.
About 10 to 15 mg/lit is applied with a contact time of 10 to 30 minutes under the
circumstances such as during epidemic breakout water is to be dechlorinated before supply to
the distribution system.

DECHLORINATION Removal of excess chlorine resulting from super chlorination in part

or completely is called Dechlorination. Excess chlorine in water gives pungent smell and
corrode the pipe lines. Hence excess chlorine is to be removed before supply. Physical
methods like aeration, heating and absorption on charcoal may be adopted. Chemical
methods like sulphur dioxide (SO2) , Sodium Bi-sulphate (NaHSO3), Sodium
Thiosulphate(Na2S2O8) are used.

POINTS OF CHLORINATION Chlorine applied at various stages of treatment and

distribution accordingly they are known as pre, post and Re-chlorination.
a) PRE-CHLORINATION Chlorine applied prior to the sedimentation and filtration process
is known as Prechlorination. This is practiced when the water is heavily polluted and to
remove taste, odour, colour and growth of algae on treatment units. Pre-chlorination
improves coagulation and post chlorination dosage may be reduced.

b) POST CHLORINATION When the chlorine is added in the water after all the treatment is
known as Postchlorination.

c) RE-CHLORINATION In long distribution systems, chlorine residual may fall tendering

the water unsafe. Application of excess chlorine to compensate for this may lead to
unpleasant smell to consumers at the points nearer to treatment point in such cases chlorine is
applied again that is rechlorinated at intermediate points generally at service reservoirs and
booster pumping stations.
GENERAL INTRODUCTION: After treatment, water is to be stored temporarily and
supplied to the consumers through the network of pipelines called distribution system. The
distribution system also includes pumps, reservoirs, pipe fittings, instruments for
measurement of pressures, flow leak detectors etc. The cost of distribution is about 40 to
70% of the total cost of the entire scheme. The efficiency of the system depends upon proper
planning, execution and maintenance. Ultimate air is to supply potable water to all the
consumers whenever required in sufficient quantity with required pressure with least lost and
without any leakage.


1. The should convey the treated water upto consumers with the same degree of purity
2. The system should be economical and easy to maintain and operate
3. The diameter of pipes should be designed to meet the fire demand
4. It should safe against any future pollution. As per as possible should not be laid below
sewer lines.
5. Water should be supplied without interruption even when repairs are undertaken
6. The system should be so designed that the supply should meet maximum hourly demand.
A peak factor 2.5 is recommended for the towns of population 0.5. to 2 lakhs. For larger
population a factor of 2.0 will be adequate.

LAYOUTS OF DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM: Generally in practice there are four different

systems of distribution which are used.
They are: 1. Dead End or Tree system 2. Grid Iron system 3. Circular or Ring system 4.
Radial system

SYSTEM OF DISTRIBUTION: For efficient distribution it is required that the water should
reach to every consumer with required rate of flow. Therefore, some pressure in pipeline is
necessary, which should force the water to reach at every place. Depending upon the methods
of distribution, the distribution system is classified as the follows: 1. Gravity system 2.
Pumping system 3. Dual system or combined gravity and pumping system

GRAVITY SYSTEM: When some ground sufficiently high above the city area is available ,
this can be best utilized for distribution system in maintaining pressure in water mains . This
method is also much suitable when the source of supply such as lake, river or impounding
reservoir is at sufficiently higher than city. The water flows in the mains due to gravitational
forces. As no pumping is required therefore it is the most reliable system for the distribution
of water
PUMPING SYSTEM: Constant pressure can be maintained in the system by direct pumping
into mains. Rate of flow cannot be varied easily according to demand unless number of
pumps are operated in addition to stand by ones. Supply can be effected during power failure
and breakdown of pumps. Hence diesel pumps also in addition to electrical pumps as stand
by to be maintained. During fires, the water can be pumped in required quantity by the stand
by units.

COMBINED PUMPING AND GRAVITY SYSTEM: This is also known as dual system.
The pump is connected to the mains as well as elevated reservoir. In the begining when
demand is small the water is stored in the elevated reservoir, but when demand increases the
rate of pumping , the flow in the distribution system comes from the both the pumping
station as well as elevated reservoir. As in this system water comes from two sources one
from reservoir and second from pumping station, it is called dual system. This system is
more reliable and economical, because it requires uniform rate of pumping but meets low as
well as maximum demand. The water stored in the elevated reservoir meets the requirements
of demand during breakdown of pumps and for fire fighting.

CONTINUOUS SYSTEM This is the best system and water is supplied for all 24 hours. This
system is possible when there is adequate quantity of water for supply. In this system sample
of water is always available for fire fighting and due to continuous circulation water always
remains fresh. In this system less diameter of pipes are required and rusting of pipes will be
less. Losses will be more if there are leakages in the system.

INTERMITTENT SYSTEM If plenty of water is not available, the supply of water is divided
into zones and each zone is supplied with water for fixed hours in a day or on alternate days.
As the water is supplied after intervals, it is called intermittent system. The system has
following disadvantages: 1. Pipelines are likely to rust faster due to alternate wetting and
drying. This increases the maintanance cost. 2. There is also pollution of water by ingress of
polluted water through leaks during non-flow periods. 3. More wastage of water due to the
tendency of the people to store more water than required quantity and to waste the excess to
collect fresh water each time. Inspite of number of disadvantages, this system is usually
adopted in most of the cities and towns of India. In this system water can be supplied in the
high level localities with adequate pressure by dividing the city in zones. The repair work can
be easily done in the non-supply hours.

PUMPS The function of pump is to left the water or any fluid to higher elevation or at higher
pressure. Pumps are driven by electricity ,diesiel or steam power. They are helpful in
pumping water from the sources, that is from intake to the treatment plant and from treatment
plant to the distribution system or service reservoir . In homes also pumps are used to pump
water to upper floors or to store water in tanks over the buildings.
PIPES AND REQUIREMENTS Pipes convey raw water from the source to the treatment
plants in the distribution system. Water is under pressure always and hence the pipe material
and the fixture should withstand stresses due to the internal pressure, vaccum pressure, when
the pipes are empty, water hammer when the values are closed and temperature stresses.
System of Sanitation

BACKGROUND For safe disposal of the sewage generated from a locality efficient
collection, conveyance, adequate treatment and proper disposal of treated sewage is
necessary. To achieve this, following conditions should be satisfied:
1. Sewage should not pollute the drinking water source, either surface or groundwater, or
water bodies that are used for bathing or recreational purposes.
2. The untreated sewage during conveyance should not be exposed so as to have access to
human being or animals and should not give unsightly appearances or odour nuisance, and
should not become a place for breeding flies.
3. It should not cause harm to public health and adversely affect the receiving environment.
The collection system is meant for collection of the sewage generated from individual houses
and transporting it to a common point where it can be treated as per the needs before
disposal. In olden days, waste generated from water closets was collected by conservancy
methods and other liquid waste was transported through open drain to finally join natural
drains. Since, the excreta was carried through carts, it was not hygienic method for
transportation to the disposal point. Now, collection and conveyance of sewage is done in
water carriage system, where it is transported in closed conduit using water as a medium.
TYPES OF SEWERAGE SYSTEM The sewerage system can be of following three types:
Combined system: In combined system along with domestic sewage, the run-off resulting
from storms is carried through the same conduit of sewerage system. In countries like India
where actual rainy days are very few, this system will face the problem of maintaining self
cleansing velocity in the sewers during dry season, as the sewage discharge may be far lower
as compared to the design discharge after including storm water. Separate System: In
separate system, separate conduits are used; one carrying sewage and other carrying storm
water run-off. The storm water collected can be directly discharged into the water body since
the run-off is not as foul as sewage and no treatment is generally provided. Whereas, the
sewage collected from the city is treated adequately before it is discharged into the water
body or used for irrigation to meet desired standards. Separate system is advantageous and
economical for big towns.

Partially separate system: In this system part of the storm water especially collected from
roofs and paved courtyards of the buildings is admitted in the same drain along with sewage
from residences and institutions, etc. The storm water from the other places is collected
separately using separate storm water conduits.
Advantages and disadvantages of combined system Advantages In an area where rainfall is
spread throughout a year, there is no need of flushing of sewers, as self cleansing velocity
will be developed due to more quantity because of addition of storm water. Only one set of
pipe will be required for house plumbing.
In congested areas it is easy to lay only one pipe rather than two pipes as required in other
Disadvantages Not suitable for the area with small period of rainfall in a year, because dry
weather flow will be small due to which self cleansing velocity may not develop in sewers,
resulting in silting. Large flow is required to be treated at sewage treatment plant before
disposal, hence resulting in higher capital and operating cost of the treatment plant. When
pumping is required this system is uneconomical.
During rains overflowing of sewers will spoil public hygiene.
Advantages and disadvantages of separate system Advantages As sewage flows in separate
pipe, hence the quantity to be treated at sewage treatment plant is small, resulting in economy
of treatment. This system may be less costly as only sanitary sewage is transported in closed
conduit and storm water can be collected and conveyed through open drains. When pumping
is required during disposal, this system is economical due to less flow.
Disadvantages Self cleansing velocity may not developed at certain locations in sewers
and hence flushing of sewers may be required.
This system requires laying two sets of pipe, which may be difficult in congested area.
This system will require maintenance of two sets of pipelines and hence maintenance
cost is more. Advantages and disadvantages of partially separate system Advantages
Economical and reasonable size sewers are required.
Work of house plumbing is reduced as rain water from roofs, sullage from bathrooms and
kitchen, etc. are combined with discharge from water closets. Flushing of sewers may not be
required as small portion of storm water is allowed to enter in sanitary sewage.
Disadvantages Increased cost of pumping as compared to separate system at treatment plants
and intermediate pumping station wherever required. In dry weather self-cleansing velocity
may not develop in the sewers.
CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE TYPE OF SYSTEM Following points are considered
before finalizing the type of collection system. The separate system requires laying of two
sets of conduits whereas in combined system only one bigger size conduit is required.
Laying of two separate conduits may be difficult in the congested streets. In combined
system sewers are liable for silting during non-monsoon season, hence they are required to
be laid at steeper gradients. Steeper gradients for the sewers may require more number of
pumping stations, particularly for flat terrain, which may make the system costly. Large
quantity of wastewater is required to be treated before discharge in case of combined
system. Hence, large capacity treatment plant is required. In separate system, only sewage is
treated before it is discharged into natural water body or used for irrigation. No treatment is
generally given to the rainwater collected before it is discharge in to natural water body. In
case of separate system pumping is only required for sewage. Pumping can be avoided for
storm water lines, as they are not very deep and normally laid along the natural slopes.
In combined system large capacity pumping station is required to safely handle the flow that
is likely to be generated during highest design storm considered. Based on site conditions the
economy of the system needs to be evaluated and selection is made accordingly.

PATTERNS OF COLLECTION SYSTEM The network of sewers consists of house

sewers discharging the sewage to laterals. The lateral discharges the sewage into branch
sewers or sub-mains and sub-mains discharge it into main sewer or trunk sewer. The trunk
sewer carries sewage to the common point where adequate treatment is given to the sewage
and then it is discharged. The patterns of collection system depend upon:
1. The topographical and hydrological features of the area.
2. The location and methods of treatment and disposal works.
3. The type of sewerage system employed, and
4. Extent of area to be served. Following patterns can be adopted for collection systems as
per the suitability (Birdie, 1990).

Quantity Estimation of Sewage

Introduction The sewage collected from the municipal area consists of wastewater generated
from the residences, commercial centers, recreational activities, institutions and industrial
wastewaters discharge into sewer network from the permissible industries located within the
city limits. Before designing the sewer, it is necessary to know the discharge i.e., quantity of
sewage, which will flow in it after completion of the project. Accurate estimation of sewage
discharge is necessary for hydraulic design of the sewers. Far lower estimation than reality
will soon lead to inadequate sewer size after commissioning of the scheme or the sewers may
not remain adequate for the entire design period. Similarly, very high discharge estimated
will lead to larger sewer size affecting economy of the sewerage scheme, and the lower
discharge actually flowing in the sewer may not meet the criteria of the self cleansing
velocity and hence leading to deposition in the sewers. Actual measurement of the discharge
is not possible if the sewers do not exist; and where the capacity of the existing sewers is
inadequate and need to be increased, still actual present discharge measurement may not be
accurate due to unaccounted overflow and leakages that might be occurring in the existing
system. Since sewers are design to serve for some more future years, engineering skills have
to be used to accurately estimate the sewage discharge.

Sources of Sanitary Sewage

1. Water supplied by water authority for domestic usage, after desired use it is discharged in
to sewers as sewage.
2. Water supplied to the various industries for various industrial processes by local authority.
Some quantity of this water after use in different industrial applications is discharged as
3. The water supplied to the various public places such as, schools, cinema theaters, hotels,
hospitals, and commercial complexes. Part of this water after desired use joins the sewers as
4. Water drawn from wells by individuals to fulfill domestic demand. After uses this water is
discharged in to sewers.
5. The water drawn for various purposes by industries, from individual water sources such as,
wells, tube wells, lake, river, etc. Fraction of this water is converted into wastewater in
different industrial processes or used for public utilities within the industry generating
wastewater. This is discharged in to sewers.
6. Infiltration of groundwater into sewers through leaky joints.
7. Entrance of rainwater in sewers during rainy season through faulty joints or cracks in
Dry Weather Flow is the flow that occurs in sewers in separate sewerage system or the flow
that occurs during dry seasons in combined system. This flow indicates the flow of sanitary
sewage. This depends upon the rate of water supply, type of area served, economic
conditions of the people, weather conditions and infiltration of groundwater in the sewers, if
sewers are laid below groundwater table.

Evaluation of Sewage Discharge Correct estimation of sewage discharge is necessary;

otherwise sewers may prove inadequate resulting in overflow or may prove too large in
diameter, which may make the system uneconomical and hydraulically inefficient. Hence,
before designing the sewerage system it is important to know the discharge / quantity of the
sewage, which will flow in it after completion of the project and at the end of design period.
Apart from accounted water supplied by water authority that will be converted to wastewater,
following quantities are considered while estimating the sewage quantity:
Addition due to unaccounted private water supplies People using water supply from
private wells, tube wells, etc. contribute to the wastewater generation more than the water
supplied by municipal authority. Similarly, certain industries utilize their own source of
water. Part of this water, after desired uses, is converted into wastewater and ultimately
discharged into sewers. This quantity can be estimated by actual field observations. b.
Addition due to infiltration This is additional quantity due to groundwater seepage in to
sewers through faulty joints or cracks formed in the pipes. The quantity of the water
depends upon the height of the water table above the sewer invert level. If water table is
well below the sewer invert level, the infiltration can occur only after rain when water is
moving down through soil. Quantity of the water entering in sewers depends upon the
permeability of the ground soil and it is very difficult to estimate. While estimating the
design discharge, following suggested discharge can be considered Storm water drainage
may also infiltrate into sewers. This inflow is difficult to calculate. Generally, no extra
provision is made for this quantity. This extra quantity can be taken care of by extra
empty space left at the top in the sewers, which are designed for running full at
maximum design discharge. c. Subtraction due to water losses The water loss, through
leakage in water distribution system and house connections, does not reach consumers
and hence, not appear as sewage. d. Subtraction due to water not entering the sewerage
system Certain amount of water is used for such purposes, which may not generate
sewage, e.g. boiler feed water, water sprinkled over the roads, streets, lawns, and gardens,
water consumed in industrial product, water used in air coolers, etc.
Variation in Sewage Flow Variation occurs in the flow of sewage over annual average
daily flow. Fluctuation in flow occurs from hour to hour and from season to season. The
typical hourly variation in the sewage flow is shown in the Figure. If the flow is gauged
near its origin, the peak flow will be quite pronounced. The peak will defer if the sewage
has to travel long distance. This is because of the time required in collecting sufficient
quantity of sewage required to fill the sewers and time required in travelling. As sewage
flow in sewer lines, more and more sewage is mixed in it due to continuous increase in
the area being served by the sewer line. This leads to reduction in the fluctuations in the
sewage flow and the lag period goes on increasing. The magnitude of variation in the
sewage quantity varies from place to place and it is very difficult to predict. For smaller
township this variation will be more pronounced due to lower length and travel time
before sewage reach to the main sewer and for large cities this variation will be less.
This chapter is concerned with liquid wastes as found at permanent locations. Although
field-type wastes are mentioned in this chapter, they are discussed in more detail in part
Australian Defence Force health staff should coordinate with the appropriate overseas or
domestic health authorities to ensure compliance with applicable health and
environmental regulations.
The wastewater discussed in this section is predominantly of domestic origin. Varying
amounts of industrial and laboratory wastewaters can be collected and treated with the
sanitary sewage. The primary purpose of the treatment of sewage is to prevent the
pollution of the receiving waters. Many techniques have been devised to accomplish this
aim for both small and large quantities of sewage.
In general, these processes are divided into three stages: preliminary (physical), primary
(physical) treatment and secondary (biological) treatment. Figure 21 provides a
schematic of a typical wastewater treatment plant. Minimally, wastewater should receive
primary (physical removal/settling) and secondary (biological) treatment, which can be
followed by disinfection before discharge. More advanced processes (advanced or
tertiary treatment) may be required for special wastes. When the effluent from secondary
treatment is unacceptable, a third level of treatment, tertiary treatment, can be employed.
There are many basic types of sewage treatment plants employing both primary and
secondary treatment stages that are in use today for treating large quantities of sewage.

The purpose of a sewage collection system is to remove wastewater from points of origin
to a treatment facility or place of disposal. The collection system consists of the sewers
(pipes and conduits) and plumbing necessary to convey sewage from the point(s) of
origin to the treatment system or place of disposal. It is necessary that the collection
system be designed so that the sewage will reach the treatment system as soon as possible
after entering the sewer. If the length of time in the sewers is too long, the sewage will be
anaerobic when it reaches the treatment facilities.
Sanitary sewage collection systems should be designed to remove domestic sewage only.
Surface drainage is excluded to avoid constructing large sewers and treating large
volumes of sewage diluted by rainwater during storms. Sewers which exclude surface
drainage are called sanitary sewers, and those which collect surface drainage in
combination with sanitary sewage are called combined sewers.
Except for force mains, sewers are laid to permit gravity flow of their contents. Unlike
water in a water distribution system, the contents of a sewer do not flow under pressure.
Usually the slope is such that a flow rate of 0.03 metre (m) per second or more is
maintained when the line is flowing half full to full. This is a self-cleansing velocity and
prevents solids from settling in the sewer pipes. To the maximum extent practical, sewers
are laid in straight lines. Corners and sharp bends slow the flow rate, permit clogging, and
make line cleaning difficult Pumping is necessary where the slope of the sewer does not
produce the required minimum velocity of 0.03 m or where sewage must be lifted to a
higher elevation. Sewage can be pumped from pumping stations through pressure lines
(force mains) regardless of their slope, or it can be raised to a higher elevation at
pumping stations (lift stations), so that gravity flow will again produce the required
velocity For gravity flow lines, sewer pipes of vitrified clay tile, concrete, cement-
asbestos, or bituminous-impregnated fibre may be used. For force mains and stream
crossings, cast iron or cement-asbestos pipes are used. Removing grease from sewage is
essential to the proper functioning of sewage systems. At fixed installations, grease is
collected by ceramic or cast iron grease interceptors installed at kitchens and other
facilities that generate grease and by concrete or brick grease traps outside the building.
Approximately 90 per cent of the grease will be removed from greasy wastes by properly
maintained grease interceptors and traps. Petrol and oil separators are installed in sewer
lines from garages and shops where petrol and oil might be accidentally spilled.
Separators are also installed under washing facilities to contain the oil in water. In areas
where large amounts of volatile material are produced as waste, some other method must
be provided. Volatile liquids accumulating in sewers can cause explosions and destroy
sewer lines or the treatment plant. A common type of treatment system used at military
installations where extensive water collection systems handle large quantities of sewage
is the trickling filter system The trickling filter system employs the following units: Bar
screens A grating of steel bars spaced about 24 cm on centres is placed at an angle to the
flow of sewage through an open channel. The raw influent first goes through a self-
cleaning screen and then into one end of a shallow and rather fast moving basin so that
sand and gravel can settle out. Often skimmers rotate around the surface of the basin to
remove oils that may have been flushed into the system. The screen removes coarse and
floating solids from the sewage. The screen must be cleaned regularly and the removed
solids must be burned, ground and digested, or buried. Many systems have a grinder
known as a comminutor used either with or instead of a bar screen for grinding large
particles which might clog the pumps.
Grit chamber A chamber in which the velocity of waste flow is reduced to a point where
the denser sand and other grit will settle out, but the organic solids will remain in
suspension The settled material is buried or used for fill.

Sewage oxidation ponds

Sewage oxidation ponds (lagoons) offer economical secondary sewage treatment with
relatively low initial cost. These ponds are 0.81.2 m in depth, and may be used singly, in
parallel, or in a series following primary treatment. Their use is particularly suited to
locations with available land and warm climates. Their ability to absorb shock loads and
ease of operation and maintenance make them desirable treatment units. Biological life in
ponds use the organic and mineral matter in the sewage for food to produce more stable
products. The products often stimulate abundant growth of algae and other vegetation.
Solution of oxygen from the atmosphere, and the ability of vegetation to produce oxygen
when exposed to sunlight, help maintain aerobic conditions. The lagoons will develop an
odour similar to freshwater ponds in wooded areas. Allowable loading can vary from
1252000 persons per hectare depending upon the location. Where complete treatment is
to be provided by ponding, the cells are known as raw sewage lagoons, with depths of 1
1.5 m and reduced loading.

BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND CONCEPT Sewage when fresh has a musty odour, a
grey colour, and contains both organic material and sufficient dissolved oxygen to support the
growth of aerobic bacteria. Aerobic bacteria, as do humans, need a food supply and a source of
free oxygen to survive. The food supply is furnished by the organic material in sewage, and the
free oxygen is available as dissolved oxygen (DO). The DO is depleted as the aerobic bacteria
attack the organic material contained in the sewage. Some of the DO can also be depleted
through chemical action. The sewage will become stale and then septic as DO is depleted.
Septic sewage contains no DO, and all bacterial action will be anaerobic. 2.49 The amount of
oxygen necessary for the stabilisation (decomposition) of organic material in sewage under
aerobic conditions is called BOD. It is an important indication of the amount of organic matter
present in the sewage. The BOD test is a measure of the oxygen requirements of bacteria and
other organisms as they feed upon and cause decomposition of organic matter. A high BOD will
result in water becoming anaerobic (depleted of oxygen). BOD is therefore a measure of the
organic load placed on the treatment facility. Industrial non-organic wastes can also deplete
oxygen in the water, and this is measured by the chemical oxygen demand (COD) test. 2.50
COD is a measure of the oxidisability of waste, expressed as the equivalent amount in oxygen of
a strong oxidizing agent consumed by the waste under fixed laboratory conditions. The
dichromate reflux method is preferred over other methods using other oxidants such as
potassium permanganate because of: a. its superior oxidising ability, b. applicability to a wide
range of wastes, and c. ease of use.


General. The purpose of sewage sampling and analysis is to ensure adequacy of sewage
treatment or to identify problem areas in its operation. Normally, health personnel will
not be equipped to analyse sewage samples, but they should know the purpose and
procedures of conventional sewage analysis procedures. 2.58 Sampling. Sampling is
conducted on the influent to a treatment system and the effluent after treatment. Sampling
is also conducted at intermediate points or between components of the entire treatment
system. There are two types of sampling techniques. a. Grab Sampling. This is a sample
of sewage taken at a designated time. It involves nothing more than collecting a
designated amount of sewage in a container at a specific point in the system. b.
Composite Sampling. In as much as the quantity and quality of sewage vary significantly
during a 24-hour period, a grab sample is not a good representation of the characteristics
of sewage. The composite is taken by mixing together samples that have been collected at
regular intervals (usually one-hour) over a 24-hour period. Because the quality and
quantity of sewage vary throughout this period, the samples should be proportional in
size approximately to the rate of flow at the time they are taken. The actual collection
technique for either grab or composite samples is to use a dipper or can at least five cm in
diameter to collect the sewage at mid depth in the sewer or conduit. Composite samples
can also be collected automatically. A number of types of automatic samplers are
available. Avoid excessive aeration of the composite sample and refrigerate the sample
until it can be analysed. Analysis should be conducted as soon as possible, because
sewage characteristics will vary with time.
is one of the greatest abuses of our natural water resources. All foreign material added to a
natural body of water is considered pollution. Overloading a natural body of water beyond its
reserve or recuperative capacities with raw sewage, improperly treated sewage, or industrial
wastes is a very serious matter. If the volume and velocity of the stream are not sufficient to
handle the quantity of effluent being discharged great environmental damage can occur.
Everybody of water has a limited capacity for receiving sewage and other organic wastes by
means of dilution. The full use of this capacity results in a loss of any reserve capacity and
produces nuisances or reduces the quality of the stream. These detriments are classified as
physical, chemical, and bacterial. The physical detriments include the offensive odours of
organic matter putrefaction; unsightliness of floating solids, oils, grease, scum, and debris; and
turbidity and colour caused by dissolved and suspended matter. The body of waters ability to
neutralise these effects is determined by its volume and velocity. For example, if a stream is
flowing swiftly, bulky deposits will not appear, and the larger solids are broken up and carried
downstream. However, debris and larger floating solids may still be a problem. Further dilution
of these offending wastes as they are carried downstream likewise reduces odour and
discolouration. Usually, these physical nuisances are not as important as the other types, and they
are prevented by primary sewage treatment. However, a stream may be heavily overloaded by
the effluent from a modern sewage treatment plant simply because the stream does not have the
biological ability to handle the amount of organic matter being discharged from the plant.
Chemical detriments to a body of water include the depletion of oxygen in the water by the
biochemical oxidation of organic matter. When total exhaustion of the dissolved oxygen occurs,
odours and destruction of plant and fish life result. Secondly, other chemicals primarily from
industrial wastes may be toxic, attack concrete structures, discolour the waters, destroy paints on
boats, and more important, render the water unsuitable as a source of water supply by making it
difficult or uneconomical to treat. For example, the discharge of phenols into a stream used as a
water supply will not be removed with normal treatment methods, and with chlorination the
water is rendered unpalatable by the formation of chlorophenols. The last type of detriment is the
microbial pollution caused by sewage effluent. A test for the most probable number of heat
tolerant coliform organisms is of significance, particularly when the body of water is used as a
source of water supply or as a bathing area, or if it passes over shellfish areas. A body of waters
capacity to cope with this type of pollution is a function of dilution and distance from the point
of discharge to the area of use. It has been found that most pathogenic bacteria die-off when
released from the gastrointestinal tract into the marine or aquatic environments. The numbers of
surviving bacteria tend to form a geometrical progression in time; that is, during an interval of
time, the bacteria are reduced by a constant proportion of the number existing at the beginning of
that interval. This phenomenon is called the geometric death rate. With each of the three types of
pollution mentioned, physical, chemical, and microbial , dilution in the stream volume is one
indication of the receiving capacity of the stream. Microbial and organic chemical pollutants,
however, are subject to other means of purification, and are the basis for what is known as self-
purification of streams. A polluted stream undergoing self-purification can be divided into four
zones: zone of degradation, zone of active decomposition, zone of recovery, and zone of cleaner
water.Within the zone of degradation is where the pollutant has recently been introduced. The
DO can be reduced to less than one-half of its original value; algae and fish life are declining;
water is turbid; sludge deposits are forming on the stream bed; and typical bottom worms,
together with sewage fungi, appear. In the zone of active decomposition, the DO can be reduced
to zero; fish life is absent; water is darker and greyish in colour; odours from putrefaction of
organic matter including hydrogen sulphide and methane gases are given off; a scum may appear
on the surface; and threadlike organisms of greyish, pink, and cream tints appear. Through the
zone of recovery the DO increases, the water is less turbid with reduced unpleasant odours given
off, algae reappear, fungi disappear, and some of the hardier fish such as carp appear. Entering
the zone of cleaner water, the DO approaches saturation, the natural stream conditions are
restored, and trout and other game fish appear. Although the physical appearance of the stream
and the animal and plant life observed are important factors in judging stream pollution, it should
be remembered that the indices (primarily pH, DO, BOD, SS, and nutrients) are the most
significant measures of stream pollution.

Noise pollution or noise disturbance is the disturbing or excessive noise that may harm the
activity or balance of human or animal life. The source of most outdoor noise worldwide is
mainly caused by machines and transportation systems, motor vehicles, aircraft,
and trains. Outdoor noise is summarized by the word environmental noise. Poor urban
planning may give rise to noise pollution, since side-by-side industrial and residential buildings
can result in noise pollution in the residential areas. Documented problems associated with urban
noise go back as far as Ancient Rome.
Indoor noise can be caused by machines, building activities, and music performances, especially
in some workplaces. Noise-induced hearing loss can be caused by outside (e.g. trains) or inside
(e.g. music) noise.

High noise levels can contribute to cardiovascular effects in humans and an increased incidence
of coronary artery disease.[4]In animals, noise can increase the risk of death by altering predator
or prey detection and avoidance, interfere with reproduction and navigation, and contribute to
permanent hearing loss.

The National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) are standards established by
the United States Environmental Protection Agency under authority of the Clean Air Act (42
U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) that apply for outdoor air throughout the country. Primary standards are
designed to protect human health, with an adequate margin of safety, including sensitive
populations such as children, the elderly, and individuals suffering from respiratory diseases.
Secondary standards are designed to protect public welfare from any known or anticipated
adverse effects of a pollutant. A district meeting a given standard is known as an "attainment
area" for that standard, and otherwise a "non-attainment area.

Humans can be adversely affected by exposure to air pollutants in ambient air. In response, the
European Union has developed an extensive body of legislation which establishes health based
standards and objectives for a number of pollutants in air. These standards and objectives are
summarised in the table below. These apply over differing periods of time because the observed
health impacts associated with the various pollutants occur over different exposure times.
European legislation on air quality is built on certain principles. The first of these is that the
Member States divide their territory into a number of zones and agglomerations. In these zones
and agglomerations, the Member States should undertake assessments of air pollution levels
using measurements and modelling and other empirical techniques. Where levels are elevated,
the Member States should prepare an air quality plan or programme to ensure compliance with
the limit value before the date when the limit value formally enters into force. In addition,
information on air quality should be disseminated to the public. See more under Implementation.
Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Three great ways YOU can eliminate
waste and protect your environment!

Waste, and how we choose to handle it, affects our world's

environmentthat's YOUR environment. The environment is
everything around you including the air, water, land, plants, and
man-made things. And since by now you probably know that you
need a healthy environment for your own health and happiness,
you can understand why effective waste management is so
important to YOU and everyone else. The waste we create has to
be carefully controlled to be sure that it does not harm your
environment and your health.