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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

SECTION 4

PILING

GENERAL

4.01 Definitions
In this Section, the following definitions are used:
(1) " Piling Contract " shall mean a foundation contract for which the scope of works
includes construction of foundation and does not include the construction of
superstructure.
(2) " Combined Piling and Building Contract " shall mean a contract for which the
scope of works includes the construction of both the foundation and the
superstructure.
(3) " Contractor's Design Piling Contract / Combined Piling and Building Contract "
shall mean a Piling Contract / Combined Piling and Building Contract for which
the scope of works includes design of piles and / or pile caps and / or footings;
(4) " Engineer's Design Piling Contract / Combined Piling and Building Contract "
shall mean a Piling Contract / Combined Piling and Building Contract for which
the scope of works does not include design of piles and / or pile caps and / or
footings and the design of such works is provided by SO;

4.02 Code of Practice for Foundations


In this Specification, the Code of Practice for Foundations shall mean the Code of
Practice for Foundations issued in October 2004 by the Buildings Department of the
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

DESIGN RESPONSIBILITY

Engineers Design
4.03
Piles, pile caps and footings are to be Engineers design.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

STANDARDS

4.04 Piling
Comply with the Code of Practice for Foundations and the relevant Building
Regulations of Hong Kong.

4.05 Pile Caps and Footings


Comply with the Concrete Work Section of this Specification in respect of all
materials and workmanship for footings, reinforced concrete pile caps and for
structural concrete above piles, unless otherwise specified.

4.06 Status of the Specification


Where this Specification includes provisions additional to, or more stringent than those
of the aforementioned British Standards, Code of Practice for Foundations or Building
Regulations, the provisions of this Specification shall prevail overall.

4.07 Other Sections


Comply with the relevant provisions of other Sections of this Specification and in
particular with the following:
(1) SECTION 3 Excavation;
(2) SECTION 5 Concrete Work;
(3) SECTION 6 Structural Steelwork;

4.08 Contractors Design


In the event of any conflict, contradiction or ambiguity between the Contractor's
design and this Specification, the provisions of this Specification will prevail.

PILE TYPES

4.09 General
(1) This Specification applies to pile types 1 to 6 as defined in clauses 4.10 to 4.15
below;
(2) Where relevant, this Specification applies equally to any other type of pile.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

4.10 Types 1 Piles


(1) Type 1a piles shall mean precast reinforced concrete piles complying with the
requirements stated in clause 5.4.3 of the Code of Practice for Foundations;
(2) Type 1b piles shall mean precast prestressed spun concrete piles complying with
the requirements stated in clause 5.4.4 of the Code of Practice for Foundations;
(3) Type 1c piles shall mean driven cast-in-place concrete piles complying with the
requirements stated in clause 5.4.5 of the Code of Practice for Foundations.

4.11 Type 2 Piles


Driven steel tube with detachable toe and precast concrete pile insert (steel tube to be
withdrawn).

4.12 Type 3 Piles


Large diameter bored cast insitu concrete piles:
(1) Cast with inserted precast concrete annuli; or
(2) Cast with left-in-place lining; or
(3) Cast with temporary lining.

4.13 Type 4 Piles


Driven steel piles of types and brands recognized by Buildings Department. Submit the
recognition documentation of the proposed piles issued by Buildings Department with
the tender.

4.14 Type 5 Piles


Minipiles, being defined as piles with a diameter (excluding casing) of not more than
400 mm and taking up vertical loads by one or more steel reinforcement bars encased
in grout. Derive the structural capacity of the piles solely from the steel reinforcement
bars.

4.15 Type 6 Piles


Socketed steel H-piles, being piles installed by inserting steel H-piles of types and
brands recognized by Buildings Department in pre-bored holes sunk into bedrock as
defined in clause 4.21 and subsequently grouting the pre-bored hole. Submit the
recognition documentation of the proposed piles issued by Buildings Department with
the tender.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

4.16 Alternative Types of Pile for


Contractors Design Piling Contract / Combined Piling and Building Contract
Where the Contractor proposes a type of pile other than the types specified in clauses
4.10 to 4.15, he must submit, with his tender, the testing regime and the acceptance
standard of the quality of the piles for Approval.

SITE INVESTIGATION

4.17 Preliminary Investigations


(1) Tenderers may make preliminary investigations or sink test piles as they require
and at their own cost. Arrangements for access to the Site can be made, on
application to SO, at least seven days in advance;
(2) Tenderers may only carry out site investigation during the period as advised by
SO upon request.

4.18 Existing Borehole Information

Certain logs of exploratory boreholes made on Site and reports of laboratory soil test
results are available for inspection by appointment at SO's office during normal
working hours. Copies of the drillhole logs and reports may also be made available to
tenderers who have previously applied to SO in writing and subject to payment of a
charge for photocopying. Such information as is contained in the drillhole logs and
reports is given in good faith and without prejudice to the Contractor's liabilities under
the Contract.

4.19 Contractors Responsibility


The onus is on the Contractor to satisfy himself as to the nature of the Site sub-soil
conditions and to make any site investigation to obtain all information which may
affect the proposed piles.

4.20 Additional Investigations


(1) The Contractor may make such other site investigations during the Contract as he
deems necessary and at his own expense.
(2) SO may order such other site investigation during the Contract as he deems
necessary.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

4.21 Definition of Bedrock


(1) In this Specification, " bedrock " is defined as:
(a) Rock mass of at least 5 m thick measured downwards from the pile base for
Types 1, 2, 3 and 4 piles;
(b) Rock mass of at least 5 m thick or of thickness not less than the designed
length of the rock socket, whichever is the greater, measured downwards
from the rockhead of the specified category of rock for Type 5 and 6 piles.
(2) The ' rock mass ' used in Sub-clause (1) shall refer to the following category of
rock:
(a) For Types 1, 2, 3 and 4 piles: Rock not inferior to category 1(d) rock as
described in Table 2.1 of the Code of Practice for Foundations;
(b) For Types 5 and 6 piles: Category 1(a), 1(b) or 1(c) rock as described in
Table 2.1 of the Code of Practice for Foundations.
(3) The Uniaxial Compressive Strength (UCS) and point load index strength stated in
Table 2.1 of the Code of Practice for Foundations shall be determined by the
following tests:
(a) Uniaxial Compressive Strength (UCS): ASTM Designation: D2938 - 95
Standard Test Method for Unconfined Compression Strength of Intact Rock
Core Specimens;
(b) Point Load Tests: ISRM " Suggested Method for Determining Point Load
Strength " 1985 Edition.
(4) Refer to clauses 3.56 and 3.57 for definition of " bedrock " for footings;
(5) In this Specification, the definition of " total core recovery " shall follow Notes (4)
of Table 2.1 of the Code of Practice for Foundations.

4.22 Works required to be carried out by a RSC(GIFW) under the Contract


(1) All works required to be carried out by a RSC (GIFW) under the CoPSS, including
the sampling and testing founding levels to pile Types 3, 5 and 6 as described in
clauses 4.204 to 4.207 inclusive and confirmatory core testing of founding strata
of Type 3 piles as described in clauses 4.261 to 4.265 inclusive, shall be
considered as ground investigation works under the contract;
(2) Comply with the requirements of Specification Section 1 on Ground Investigation
Works for all works stated in Sub-clause (1) of this Clause.

4.23 Backfilling of Drillholes


(1) Unless otherwise instructed by SO or unless the method or materials of backfilling
of drillholes is specifically stated in other parts of the Specification, fill all drillholes
with granular material (or with 4 : 1 cement bentonite grout where Instructed)
and compact to the original density of the ground or a higher density;
(2) Fill in and compact any subsequent depression of the ground;
(3) Do not fill drillholes without SO's permission.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

APPROVED CONTRACTORS AND SUBCONTRACTORS

4.24 Approved Contractors for Piling Works (for Piling Contract)


(1)
(a) Contractor must be on the following Category of Housing Authority List of
Piling Contractors:
(i) Type 1, 2, & 4 Piles - Percussive Piles Category;
(ii) Type 3 Pile - Large Diameter Bored Piles Category;
(iii) Any acceptable pile types other than Type 1, 2, 3 & 4 Piles - Large
Diameter Bored Piles Category or Percussive Piles Category.
(b) In the event that more than one type of piles are used in the Contract, the
Contractor must be on the appropriate Categories of Housing Authority List of
Piling Contractors for all the pile types used.
(2) In the event that the Contractor employ a Piling Sub-contractor to carry out the
following piling activities, select the Piling Sub-contractor from the list given in
Sub-clause (3) below:
(a) Pile driving of Type 1, 2, & 4 Piles;
(b) Excavation and concreting of Type 3 Pile;
(c) Construction of any acceptable pile types other than Type 1, 2, 3 & 4 Piles;
(d) Foundation design.
(3) The Piling Sub-contractor must be on the following list:
(a) Appropriate Category of Housing Authority List of Piling Contractors; or
(b) Buildings Department List of Registered Specialist Contractors (Foundation).
(4) Piling Sub-contractor for pile types other than Type 3 not on the lists in Sub-
clause (3) above may be considered and subject to SO's approval.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

4.25 Approved Contractors for Piling Works


(for Combined Piling and Building Contract)
(1) The Contractor must employ a Piling Sub-contractor to carry out the following
piling activities unless the Contractor is on the relevant Category of the Housing
Authority List of Piling Contractors and takes up the role of Piling Sub-contractor
in carrying out the respective piling activities:
(a) Pile driving of Type 1, 2, & 4 Piles;
(b) Excavation and concreting of Type 3 Pile;
(c) Construction of any acceptable pile types other than Type 1, 2, 3 & 4 Piles;
(d) Foundation design.
(2) Requirements on Piling Sub-contractor:
(a) The Piling Sub-contractor must be on the following Category of the Housing
Authority List of Piling Contractors:
(i) Type 1, 2, & 4 Piles - Percussive Piles Category;
(ii) Type 3 Pile - Large Diameter Bored Piles Category;
(iii) Any acceptable pile types other than Type 1, 2, 3 & 4 Piles - Large
Diameter Bored Piles Category or Percussive Piles Category.
(b) In the event that more than one type of piles are used in the Contract, the
Piling Sub-contractor must be on the appropriate Categories of Housing
Authority List of Piling Contractors for all the pile types used.
(3) In the event that the Piling Sub-contractor employ a Piling Sub-sub-contractor to
carry out the piling activities stated in Sub-clauses (1)(a) to (1)(d) above, the
Piling Sub-sub-contractor must be on the following list:
(a) Appropriate Category of Housing Authority List of Piling Contractors; or
(b) Buildings Department List of Registered Specialist Contractors (Foundation).
(4) Piling Sub-sub-contractor for pile types other than Type 3 not on the lists in Sub-
clause (3) above may be considered and subject to SO's approval.

4.26 Sub-Contractor for Construction of Footing


(for Building Contract with Footing Construction)
(1) In the event that the Contractor employs sub-contractor to carry out construction
of footings, the sub-contractor must be on the following list:
(a) Buildings Department List of Registered General Building Contractors; or
(b) Buildings Department List of Registered Specialist Contractors (Foundation).
(2) In this Specification, construction of footing shall mean construction of spread
and / or raft footing and include fixing of starter bars, if any.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

4.27 Definition of Piling Subcontractor


(1) In this Specification, Piling Subcontractor shall mean the subcontractor employed
by the Contractor for the following piling activities:
(a) Pile driving of Type 1, 2, & 4 Piles; and / or
(b) Excavation and / or concreting of Type 3 Pile; and / or
(c) Construction of any acceptable pile types other than Type 1, 2, 3 & 4 Piles;
and / or
(d) Foundation design.
(2) Such contract between the Contractor and the Piling Subcontractor shall be
termed the Piling Subcontract.

4.28 Definition of Piling Subcontractor


(for Combined Piling and Building Contract only)
(1) In this Specification, Piling Sub-subcontractor shall mean the subcontractor
employed by the Piling Subcontractor for the following piling activities:
(a) Pile driving of Type 1, 2, & 4 Piles; and / or
(b) Excavation and / or concreting of Type 3 Pile; and / or
(c) Construction of any acceptable pile types other than Type 1, 2, 3 & 4 Piles;
and / or
(d) Foundation design.
(2) Such contract between the Piling Subcontractor and the Piling Sub-subcontractor
shall be termed the Piling Sub-subcontract.

4.29 Restriction on Piling Subcontract

The number of Piling Subcontractor shall be limited to one per each type of piles
unless otherwise approved by SO.

4.30 Restriction on Piling Subcontractor

(for Combined Piling and Building Contract only)

The number of Piling Sub-subcontractor shall be limited to one per each type of piles
unless otherwise approved by SO.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

4.31 Information on Piling Subcontract (for Piling Contract only)

Submit with the tender the following information:

(1) Letter of intent from the proposed Piling Subcontractor whom the tenderer
intends to employ for the Contract should the tenderer be awarded the
Contract, indicating his willingness to carry out the proposed Piling Subcontract.
(2) The names of the directors or sole proprietor and site representatives of the
proposed Piling Subcontractor;
(3) The piling activity and the scope of the proposed Piling Subcontract;
(4) The minimum numbers of self owned piling plants and directly employed piling
plant operators to be provided by the tenderer;
(5) The minimum numbers of self owned piling plants and directly employed piling
plant operators to be provided by the proposed Piling Subcontractor.

4.32 Information on Piling Subcontractor

(for Combined Piling and Building Contract only)

Submit with the tender the following information:

(1) Letter of intent from the proposed Piling Sub-subcontractor whom the proposed
Piling Subcontractor intends to employ for the subcontract should the proposed
Piling Subcontractor be awarded the subcontract, indicating his willingness to
carry out the proposed Piling Sub-subcontract.
(2) The names of the directors or sole proprietor and site representatives of the
proposed Piling Sub-subcontractor;
(3) The piling activity and the scope of the proposed Piling Sub-subcontract;
(4) The minimum numbers of self owned piling plants and directly employed piling
plant operators to be provided by the proposed Piling Subcontractor;
(5) The minimum numbers of self owned piling plants and directly employed piling
plant operators to be provided by the proposed Piling Sub-subcontractor.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

4.33 Conditions on Piling Subcontract (for Piling Contract only)

Incorporate the following conditions into the Piling Sub-contract:

(1) The piling activity and the scope of the Piling Sub-contract;
(2) The Piling Sub-contractor is not allowed to sublet the following piling activities:
(a) Pile driving of Type 1, 2, & 4 Piles; and / or
(b) Excavation and / or concreting of Type 3 Pile; and / or
(C) Construction of any acceptable pile types other than Type 1, 2, 3 & 4 Piles;
and / or
(d) Foundation design.
(3) For the types of plants listed below which are required to be used on Site, the
Piling Sub-contractor shall deploy and use only his self-owned plants save when
necessary, he may use Contractor's self-owned plants deployed in accordance
with clause 4.113:
(a) Crawler crane;
(b) Oscillator or rotator;
(c) Reverse circulation drill (RCD);
(d) Pile driving hammer;
(e) Pile driving rig.
(4) The Piling Sub-contractor shall comply with the following in deploying self-
owned plants listed in Sub-clauses (3)(a) to (3)(e) above:
(a) Self-owned plants of the Piling Sub-contractor shall mean plants owned by
the Piling Sub-contractor or by the Piling Sub-contractor's parent, sister or
subsidiary company for the exclusive use of the Piling Sub-contractor;
(b) All the plants deployed to Site shall be in good working conditions;
(c) Deploy at least one number of self-owned plant that are required to be
used on Site;
(d) Submit documents to prove his ownership of the plants and, if applicable,
the relationship between the Piling Sub-contractor and the Piling Sub-
contractor's parent, sister or subsidiary company;
(e) Submit document to confirm no further subletting of his part of the works.
(5) The Contractor shall supply piling materials, which form whole or part of
permanent works, to the Piling Sub-contractor;
(6) A probity clause shall be included in the Piling Sub-contract such that:

" If the Piling Sub-contractor or any of his agents or employees are found to have
offered or given advantage, gratuity, bonus, discount, bribe or loan of any sort to any
agent or employee of the Contractor, Hong Kong Housing Authority or Housing
Department, the Contractor shall at liberty forthwith terminate the employment of the
Piling Sub-contractor under the Piling Subcontract. The Contractor, Hong Kong
Housing Authority or Housing Department shall hold the Piling Sub-contractor liable
for any loss or damage which the Contractor, Hong Kong Housing Authority or
Housing Department may thereby sustain. "

- GS 2013 / S4 / Page 10 of 78 -
SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

4.34 Conditions on Piling Subcontract

(for Combined Piling and Building Contract only)

Incorporate the following conditions into the Piling Sub-contract:

(1) The piling activity and the scope of the Piling Sub-contract;
(2) The Piling Sub-contractor is not allowed to sublet the following piling activities to
more than one Piling Sub-subcontractor:
(a) Pile driving of Type 1, 2, & 4 Piles; and / or
(b) Excavation and / or concreting of Type 3 Pile; and / or
(c) Construction of any acceptable pile types other than Type 1, 2, 3 & 4 Piles;
and / or
(d) Foundation design.
(3) For the types of plants listed below which are required to be used on Site, the
Piling Sub-contractor shall deploy at least one number of self-owned plant for
each type of the plants, unless otherwise allowed by SO:
(a) Crawler crane;
(b) Oscillator or rotator;
(c) Reverse circulation drill (RCD);
(d) Pile driving hammer;
(e) Pile driving rig.
(4) The Piling Sub-contractor shall comply with the following in deploying self-
owned plants listed in Sub-clauses (3)(a) to (3)(e) above:
(a) Self-owned plants of the Piling Sub-contractor shall mean plants owned by
the Piling Sub-contractor or by the Piling Sub-contractor's parent, sister or
subsidiary company for the exclusive use of the Piling Sub-contractor;
(b) All the plants deployed to Site shall be in good working conditions;
(c) Submit documents to prove the plant ownership and, if applicable, the
relationship between the Piling Sub-contractor and the Piling Sub-
contractor's parent, sister or subsidiary company;
(d) For piling works undertaken by Piling Sub-subcontractor, deployment of
self-owned plants of the Piling Sub-subcontractor to Site shall comply with
the requirements stated in clause 4.35;
(e) The self-owned plants deployed to Site according to Sub-clauses (3)(a) to
(3)(e) may be used by the Piling Sub-subcontractor when necessary.
(5) A probity clause shall be included in the Piling Subcontract such that:

" If the Piling Sub-contractor or any of his agents or employees are found to have
offered or given advantage, gratuity, bonus, discount, bribe or loan of any sort to any
agent or employee of the Contractor, Hong Kong Housing Authority or Housing
Department, the Contractor shall at liberty forthwith terminate the employment of the
Piling Sub-contractor under the Piling Subcontract. The Contractor, Hong Kong
Housing Authority or Housing Department shall hold the Piling Sub-contractor liable
for any loss or damage which the Contractor, Hong Kong Housing Authority or
Housing Department may thereby sustain. "

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

4.35 Conditions on Piling Sub-subcontract

(for Combined Piling and Building Contract only)

Incorporate the following conditions into the Piling Sub-subcontract:

(1) The piling activity and the scope of the Piling Sub-subcontract;
(2) The Piling Sub-subcontractor is not allowed to sublet the following piling
activities:
(a) Pile driving of Type 1, 2, & 4 Piles; and / or
(b) Excavation and / or concreting of Type 3 Pile; and / or
(c) Construction of any acceptable pile types other than Type 1, 2, 3 & 4 Piles;
and / or
(d) Foundation design.
(3) For the types of plants listed below which are required to be used on Site, the
Piling Sub-subcontractor shall deploy and use only his self-owned plants save
when necessary, he may use the Piling Sub-contractor's self-owned plants
deployed in accordance with clause 4.34:
(a) Crawler crane;
(b) Oscillator or rotator;
(c) Reverse circulation drill (RCD);
(d) Pile driving hammer;
(e) Pile driving rig.
(4) The Piling Sub-subcontractor shall comply with the following in deploying self-
owned plants listed in Sub-clauses (3)(a) to (3)(e) above:
(a) Self-owned plants of the Piling Sub-subcontractor shall mean plants owned
by the Piling Sub-subcontractor or by the Piling Sub-subcontractor's parent,
sister or subsidiary company for the exclusive use of the Piling Sub-
subcontractor;
(b) All the plants deployed to Site shall be in good working conditions;
(c) Deploy at least one number of self-owned plant that are required to be
used on Site;
(d) Submit documents to prove his ownership of the plants and, if applicable,
the relationship between the Piling Sub-subcontractor and the Piling Sub-
subcontractor's parent, sister or subsidiary company;
(e) Submit document to confirm no further subletting of his part of the works.
(5) The Piling Sub-contractor shall supply piling materials, which form whole or part
of permanent works, to the Piling Sub-subcontractor;

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

(6) A probity clause shall be included in the Piling Sub-subcontract such that:

" If the Piling Sub-subcontractor or any of his agents or employees are found to have
offered or given advantage, gratuity, bonus, discount, bribe or loan of any sort to any
agent or employee of the Piling Sub-contractor, the Contractor, Hong Kong Housing
Authority or Housing Department, the Piling Sub-contractor shall at liberty forthwith
terminate the employment of the Piling Sub-subcontractor under the Piling Sub-
subcontract. The Piling Sub-contractor, the Contractor, Hong Kong Housing Authority
or Housing Department shall hold the Piling Sub-subcontractor liable for any loss or
damage which the Piling Sub-contractor, the Contractor, Hong Kong Housing
Authority or Housing Department may thereby sustain."

4.36 Submission of Contract Documents of Piling Subcontract


(1) Before execution of the Piling Sub-contract works, submit to SO a written
confirmation signed by the Contractor and the Piling Sub-contractor confirming
that the conditions stated in clause 4.33 or 4.34, as appropriate, have been
included into the Piling Sub-contract;
(2) In the event that the Contractor takes up the role of Piling Sub-contractor as
allowed in clause 4.25 for Combined Piling and Building Contract, submit to SO a
written confirmation signed by the Contractor confirming that he shall take up
the role of Piling Sub-contractor and act as if he is the Piling Sub-contractor in
addition to his capacity.

4.37 Submission of Contract Documents of Piling Sub-subcontract

(for Combined Piling and Building Contract only)

Before execution of the Piling Sub-subcontract works, submit to SO a written


confirmation signed by the Piling Sub-contractor and the Piling Sub-subcontractor
confirming that the conditions stated in clause 4.35 have been included into the Piling
Sub-subcontract.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

DESIGN

GENERAL

4.38 General

Not used

4.39 Acceptable Types


Not used

4.40 Acceptance of the Design

Not used

4.41 Design Certifying Consultant

Not used

INFORMATION TO BE SUPPLIED WITH TENDER

4.42 Submissions

Not used

4.43 Additional Requirements for Types 5 and 6 Piles

Not used

DESIGN SUBMISSIONS

4.44 Submissions of Piling and / or Footing Design at Contract Commencement

Not used

4.45 Submissions of Amendment of Piling and / or Footing Design

Not used

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

DESIGN PARAMETERS

4.46 Design Load

Not used

4.47 Types of Pile in one Cap

Not used

4.48 Pile Spacing

Not used

4.49 Stress in Steel for Piling Design

Not used

4.50 Stress in Concrete for Piling Design

Not used

4.51 Wind Effect

Not used

4.52 Resistance to Sliding, Uplift, Overturning and Buoyancy

Not used

4.53 Safe Load Carrying Capacity

Not used

4.54 Group Reduction Factor

Not used

4.55 Piles found on Bedrock

Not used

4.56 Casting Thickness

Not used

4.57 Bond Strength in Types 5 and 6 Piles

Not used

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

SETTLEMENT ANALYSIS

4.58 Requirements

Not used

4.59 Block Settlement and Differential Settlement


Not used

4.60 Scope of Calculations

Not used
4.61 Basis of Analysis

Not used
4.62 Schedule

Not used

4.63 Elasticity Modulus

Not used

4.64 Submission (Actual Conditions of Installation)

Not used

RESISTANCE TO HORIZONTAL FORCES

4.65 General

Not used

4.66 Types 5 Piles

Not used

4.67 Horizontal Resistance by Piles Caps only

Not used

4.68 Horizontal Resistance by Piles only with Pile Tops fixed against Rotation

Not used

4.69 Horizontal Resistance by Piles only


with Flexible Pile Caps or Hinged End Conditions

Not used

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

Horizontal Resistance by Piles and Piles Caps together


4.70
Not used

4.71 Horizontal Resistance by Rock Socket


Not used

NEGATIVE SKIN FRICTION

4.72 General
Not used

4.73 Basic Formula


Not used

4.74 Average Soil Properties


Not used

4.75 Grouping Effect


Not used

4.76 Reduction of Negative Skin Friction


Not used

PILE CAP DESIGN

4.77 Standards
Not used

4.78 Submissions (Construction of Pile Cap is not part of the Contract)


Not used

4.79 Submissions (Construction of Pile Cap is part of the Contract)


Not used

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

MATERIALS

GENERAL

4.80 Information to be supplied with Tender


Submit information of major materials proposed to be used in the piling works with the
tender.

4.81 Samples
Test representative samples of all materials being incorporated into the permanent
works to show compliance with this Specification.

4.82 Test Certificates


On Site delivery verification:
(1) Submit to SO the manufacturer's test certificates for each batch of piles delivered
to Site;
(2) Where piles Types 1(a), 1(b) and / or 2 are used in this Contract, and when the
piles are not cast on the Site, submit the manufacturer's certificate signed by the
manufacturer's engineer who should hold the qualification of MICE or MIStructE
or MHKIE for each delivery of piles to Site stating:
(a) That the piles have been manufactured in accordance with the manufacturer's
standards Approved by the Authority;
(b) That the piles are satisfactory for the purpose intended;
(c) What mix proportion and admixtures have been used in the concrete;
(d) The results of all cube and core tests.
(3) Where piles Types 4 and / or 6 are used in this Contract, submit the test
certificates endorsed by the manufacturer for each delivery of steel H-piles to Site
stating the results of chemical composition analysis, tensile tests and impact tests
in accordance with the requirements of BS EN 10025 : Part 1-6 : 2004.

4.83 Quality Assurance


Carry out and conduct the production of pile Types 1a, 1b and Type 2 and / or
Approved special proprietary types of piles under an Approved quality assurance
scheme. The scheme must be inspected and certified by an independent engineer who
should also hold the qualification as MHKIE, MICE or MIStructE.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

STEEL PILES

4.84 H Piles and Plates


Quality requirements:
(1) Complying with BS EN 10025 : Part 1-6 : 2004; and
(2) Use steel H-piles of types and brands recognized by Buildings Department.
Material properties shall comply with the requirements stated in the recognition
documentation issued by Buildings Department. Each section shall contain
manufacturer's identification marked on it by means of engraving or similar
techniques approved by SO.

4.85 Steel Pipe Piles


Quality requirements:
Complying with BS 3601 : 1987 or BS 6323 : Parts 1 and 2 : 1982, except as
regards the requirements of hydraulic pressure tests.

PERMANENT CASTINGS

4.86 Type 5 Piles


(1) Material: Grade S275 to BS EN 10025 Part 1-6 : 2004;
(2) Minimum thickness: 4.5 mm;
(3) Internal diameter: not less than the finished pile diameter shown or scheduled on
the Drawings;
(4) Free from:
(a) Significant distortion and of uniform cross-section throughout the whole
length;
(b) Internal projections which might prevent the proper formation of the piles.

PILE SHOES

4.87 General
(1) Submit full details of pile shoes together with the tender as directed by SO;
(2) Take all necessary precautions including, where appropriate, or as directed by
SO, the provision of specially designed pile shoes to protect the ends of the piles
during driving.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

4.88 Types 1A and 1B Piles


Provide flat or pointed co-axial shoes and:
(1) Steel pile shoes: manufactured from steel complying with Grade S275 to BS EN
10025 : 2004;
(2) Cast steel pile shoes: manufactured from steel complying with BS 3100 : 1991,
grade A;
(3) Cast steel pile shoes: manufactured from chill hardened iron, as used for making
grey iron castings, complying with BS 1452 : 1996, grade 150 and free from
major blow holes and other surface defects.

4.89 Straps and Fastenings for Cast Pile Shoes for Types 1A and 1B Piles
Manufactured from steel complying with Grade S275 to BS EN 10025 : 2004, cast
into the point of the shoe to form an integral part of the shoe.

4.90 Type 1C Piles


(1) Manufactured from durable materials Approved by SO and capable of
withstanding driving stresses without damage;
(2) Designed to provide a watertight joint with permanent casings.

4.91 Type 4 Piles


Fit piles with Approved toe protection. The protection must be adequate to resist the
driving stress.

GROUT AND CONCRETE

4.92 Grout
Consisting of ordinary Portland cement and water and:
(1) Containing sand, PFA and admixtures only when Approved;
(2) With a minimum cementitious content of 600 kg / m;
(3) When used to fill core holes, having a minimum characteristic compressive
strength at 28 days of not less than the specified grade strength of the concrete
surrounding the core hole;
(4) With a maximum amount of bleeding of 2 % in the first 3 hours and not
exceeding 4 % in total. The water must be reabsorbed by the grout during the
24 hours after mixing;
(5) With a maximum free expansion of 10 % at the nominal temperature;
(6) With any Approved admixtures being chloride-free;
(7) With a maximum total chloride content, expressed as a percentage relationship
between the chloride ion and the cementitious content by mass in the grout, of
0.1 %.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

4.93 Grout for Types 5 and 6 Piles


In addition to the requirements of clause 4.92 above, ensure that grout for Types 5
and 6 piles complies with the following:
(1) Water used in the grout must be clean and fresh with a temperature not
exceeding 30C nor less than 5C;
(2) Additives and admixtures complying with BS 5075 : 1982 and only used with
the prior agreement of SO;
(3) Non-shrink and having a minimum characteristic compressive strength of 30 N /
mm at 28 days.

4.94 Filling to Steel Pipe Piles


Fill for:
(1) The uppermost 3 m from cut off level: concrete grade 10 / 20;
(2) The remainder: Approved decomposed rock fill.

4.95 Concrete for Pile Caps and Footings


(1) For Contractor's Design Piling Contract / Combined Piling and Building Contract:
use Grade 30 / 20;
(2) For Engineer's Design Piling Contract / Combined Piling and Building Contract:
concrete grade is specified in Drawings;
(3) Maximum free water / cement ratio allowed: as clause 5.65;
(4) Inclusion of PFA as partial cement replacement: as clauses 5.65 and 5.67.

ANCILLARY MATERIALS

4.96 Paint for Steel Piles and Steel or Cast Iron Components
Approved proprietary epoxy based paint.

4.97 Welding Electrodes


As Specification Section 6.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

4.98 Reinforcement Couplers for Type 5 Piles


Complying with the following:
(1) Of proprietary type to be approved by SO;
(2) For tension joints:
(a) Cold swaged or threaded type;
(b) Capable of developing a tensile strength dependent on the parent bar:
(i) Grade 250: exceeding 287.5 N / mm2;
(ii) Grade 460 (hot rolled): exceeding 529 N / mm2;
(iii) Grade 460 (cold worked): exceeding 506 N / mm2.
(c) When a test is made of a representative gauge length assembly comprising
parent bar of the size, grade and profile to be used and a coupler of the
precise type to be used, the permanent elongation after loading to 60 % of
the characteristic strength of the parent bar shall not exceed 0.1 mm;
(d) Comprising seamless steel tubes fitted with protective plastic caps.
(3) For compression joints:
(a) Wedge locking or bolted sleeve type;
(b) Capable of developing the full compressive strength of the parent bar;
(4) For tension and compression joints:
(a) Cold swaged or threaded type;
(b) Capable of developing the full tensile and compressive strength of the parent
bar as mentioned respectively in Sub-clauses 2(b) and 3(b).
(5) Submit for Approval proposal for testing of the couplers including testing
laboratory, sampling rate and testing standards. Carry out the tests according to
the Approved proposal at Contractors own expense.

4.99 Earth Filling


General Fill Material and Special Fill Material as Specification Section 3.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

WORKMANSHIP

GENERAL

4.100 Requirements of the Contract


Construct the Works in a manner such as to satisfy the requirements of the Contract.
In the event of any failure to comply with this requirement, rectify as necessary, until
the requirements of this Specification are met.

4.101 Requirements of the Contractors Design


For Contractor's design piling contract / combined piling and building contract, the
Specification for design applies equally to construction. In the event of any failure to
comply with this requirement, redesign and construct as necessary, until the
requirements of this Specification are met.

4.102 Delivery, Handling and Storage of Piles


Carry out delivery, handling and lifting with due care and to Approval. Stack piles
neatly, off the ground.

PROTECTION

4.103 Coating Steel Piles and Components


Protect all steel piles from cut off level to a level as directed by SO and all steel and
cast iron components in contact with soil of all other types of pile from corrosion by
coating with at least two coats of an Approved coal tar epoxy paint. Apply the paint to
a sufficient thickness to be suitable for resistance to damage during the driving process
and be durable without deteriorating in the substrata environment. Prepare steel or
metal surfaces and apply paint in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

ACCURACY AND TOLERANCES

4.104 General
(1) Carefully set out the foundations, locate the piles in the correct positions and
spacing and install the piles either plumb positions or to exact inclinations all in
accordance with Drawings;
(2) For manufacturing and installation tolerances, refer to clause 1.87.

4.105 Excessive Deviation


In the event of any pile varying from its correct position by more than either of the
permitted tolerances for out of plumb and eccentricity, SO may, if he deems it
necessary, require the Contractor, to drive an additional pile or piles or to provide
beams or other such works as are necessary to make good this or any other deviation.

PLANT AND EQUIPMENT

4.106 Approval
Obtain Approval for plant and equipment before use.

4.107 Submissions
Submit full details of plant, driving rig and hammer proposed to be used, with the
tender.

4.108 Pile Hammer


(1) Use a steel pile hammer capable of driving the pile to the required depth without
overstressing or damage. For driven piles, ensure the weight of the hammer is at
least half that of the pile and sufficient to achieve the required efficiency;
(2) Where hydraulic hammers are used, submit technical details of both the hammer
mechanism and instrumentation system. All hydraulic hammers should have on-
board instrumentation capable of reporting the following data both for individual
blows and for variable-sized groups of blows: -
(a) Hammer model and serial no. (header only);
(b) Time and date (header only);
(c) Blow number;
(d) Blow-rate;
(e) Impact energy;
(f) Stroke height (single-acting only).

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

4.109 Followers
Where followers are used, make allowance for a reduction of the efficiency of the pile
hammers and the followers when calculating the driving resistance.

4.110 Verification of Efficiency


Verify the efficiency of the pile hammers and the followers by calculation and insitu
demonstration.

4.111 Vibration Control


(1) Measure the peak particle velocity arising from piling and rock excavation
machines and processes for foundation work;
(2) Provide Approved equipment for measuring peak particle velocity for the
exclusive use of SO's representative and provide any necessary attendance
during the course of the Contract;
(3) Unless otherwise directed by SO, comply with the requirements regarding peak
particle velocity stated in Appendix A of PNAP APP-137 and clause 7.2.5 of the
Code of Practice for Foundations.

4.112 Excessive Vibration


Where the peak particle velocity is found to exceed the limits given in clause 4.111
above, stop the machines or piling operations immediately:
(1) Do not recommence work so suspended until effective means, or replacement
machines, have been employed to reduce the peak particle velocity to within the
acceptable limits;
(2) Bear the cost of any stoppage under the terms of this Clause and complete the
Works without any consequent extension of time.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

4.113 Deployment of Self-owned Piling Plants for Piling Contract


(1) For the types of plants listed below which are required to be used on Site, deploy
at least one number of self-owned plant for each type of the plants, unless
otherwise allowed by SO:
(a) Crawler crane;
(b) Oscillator or rotator;
(c) Reverse circulation drill (RCD);
(d) Pile driving hammer;
(e) Pile driving rig.
(2) Comply with the following in deploying self-owned plants listed in Sub-clauses
(1)(a) to (1)(e) above:
(a) Self-owned plants shall mean plants owned by the Contractor or by the
Contractor's parent, sister or subsidiary company for the exclusive use of the
Contractor;
(b) All the plants deployed to Site shall be in good working conditions;
(c) Submit documents to prove the ownership of the plants and, if applicable, the
relationship between the Contractor and the Contractor's parent, sister or
subsidiary company;
(d) The self-owned plants deployed to Site in accordance with Sub-clauses (1)(a)
to (1)(e) may be used by the Piling Sub-contractor when necessary.
(3) For piling works undertaken by Piling Sub-contractor, deployment of self-owned
plants of the Piling Sub-contractor to Site shall comply with the requirements
stated in clause 4.33.

4.114 Deployment of Self-owned Piling Plants


for Combined Piling and Building Contract
For piling works undertaken by Piling Sub-contractor, deployment of self-owned plants
of the Piling Sub-contractor to Site shall comply with the requirements stated in clause
4.34.

4.115 Prevention of Damage to existing Structures and Services


(1) The position of existing utilities shall be determined and underground utilities
adjacent to the piling and footing construction works shall be exposed or
otherwise accurately located before any piling and excavation works start.
(2) All necessary measure shall be taken to minimize the settlement of the ground and
adjacent structures and utilities and to prevent the formation of cavities in the
ground resulting from the piling works. Measurements of noise level, vibration,
ground movement and groundwater level shall be carried out throughout the
works.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

DRIVING

4.116 Length of Driven Piles


Drive to a minimum net length below cut off level of 4500 mm.

4.117 Proximity to Cast Insitu Piles


Do not carry out driving within 3m radius of any cast insitu pile within 48 hours of its
being concreted.

4.118 Driving Stresses for Steel Piles


Do not exceed calculated driving stresses of 0.9 yield stress unless Approved.

4.119 Temporary Bracing for Driven Piles


Provide such temporary bracings as may be required during construction that are
capable of keeping each pile accurately in its correct position. The method of bracing
must be acceptable to SO and must not be removed without prior Approval.

4.120 Bitumen Slip Layer for Driven Piles


Choose from either of the following methods and submit, with the tender, details of
the method it is intended to adopt:
(1) Case driven piles with bitumen slip layer for the depth over which the bitumen
slip layer is to be provided; or
(2) Excavate the ground within the depth over which the bitumen slip layer is to be
provided prior to piling, and return and well ram the excavated material to a
density not less than that of the surrounding soil on completion of the piling.

4.121 Proprietary Piles with Protective Coating


Proprietary pile types incorporating a protective coating without the requirement of
casing or excavation, may be accepted subject to demonstration of the coating's
effectiveness under site conditions and to spot checks on site.

4.122 Driving Piles designed not to rest on Bedrock


(for Contractors Design Piling Contract / Combined Piling and Building Contract)
Drive each pile to such layer or level as may be determined by a pile driving formula or
static formula as clause 4.53, whichever is the deeper, proposed by the Contractor and
Approved by SO.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

4.123 Driving Piles designed not to rest on Bedrock


(for Engineers Design Piling Contract / Combined Piling and Building Contract)
Drive each pile to the level as may be determined by the following, whichever is the
deeper, and adopt an installation method that will ensure the required embedded
length is achieved:
(1) Designed pile lengths as indicated on the Drawings;
(2) An Approved pile driving formula to withstand the maximum working load with an
Approved factor of safety.
4.124 Driving Piles designed to rest on Bedrock
Drive piles designed without allowance for group reduction factor and based on
founding on bedrock as defined in clause 4.21 to refusal or to a final set not less than
10 blows per 10 mm with a hammer capacity adequate to allow twice of the safe load
carrying capacity of the piles to be developed. Propose a pile hammer with details of
the hammer, hammer efficiency and hammer capacity to be used, support the
proposed hammer efficiency and hammer capacity by pile driving analyser tests and
obtain approval from SO before pile driving commences. For Type 4 piles designed to
rest on bedrock, comply with clause 5.4.11 of the Code of Practice for Foundations and
carry out test driving on at least two numbers of piles selected by SO prior to
commencement of pile installation.
4.125 Founding Level of Driven Piles
For foundation designed to rest on bedrock, carry all foundations down to the insitu
decomposed rock or bedrock as defined in clause 4.21, and do not allow founding on
boulders.
4.126 Penetration of Driven Piles
In addition to the requirements specified elsewhere in this Specification, ensure
penetration of driven piles into insitu decomposed rock is adequate to allow the pile to
develop twice the safe load carrying capacity stipulated in clause 4.53.
4.127 Final Sets of Driven Piles
Use either of the following methods to drive the piles to final sets:
(1) Use hydraulic hammers to drive the piles to final sets according to the modified
Hiley formula stated in clause 4.53;
(2) Use drop hammers or other Approved types of hammers to drive the piles to final
sets according to an Approved driving formula.

INSTALLATION OF TYPE 3 PILES

4.128 Bell-Out
(1) Form bell-out, if any, using an expandable drill bit mounted onto a reverse
circulation drill rig or other means approved by SO.
(2) Ensure that the size of the bell-out tools is checked and calibrated on ground in
the presence of SO before construction of the bell-out.
(3) For Contractors Design Piling Contract / Combined Piling and Building Contract,
size of bell-out shall comply with clause 5.4.7 of the Code of Practice for
Foundations.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

INSTALLATION OF TYPES 5 AND 6 PILES

4.129 General
Install piles without the use of bentonite slurry or other drilling muds.

4.130 Trial Piles


(1) Install one vertical trial pile:
(a) At a location agreed by SO before the installation of any pile;
(b) To demonstrate that the Contractor's proposed installation method will give
piles complying with this Specification; and
(c) To carry out loading test according to the load testing requirements for
working piles as and when Instructed.
(2) Subject to SO's approval, a working pile may be selected as the trial pile.

4.131 Inclination of Piles


Check the inclination of piles, during installation, at every pile location. Arrange for a
number of piles, as directed by SO, to be checked by the use of an inclinometer or
other Approved method before grouting and record the inclinations and orientations of
the holes.

4.132 Change in Sub-soil Conditions


If, during the installation of the piles, the sub-soil conditions prove to be different from
those in the submitted design, or if such a situation is suspected, notify SO and submit
proposals to cope with the revealed sub-soil conditions.

4.133 Prebored Hole and Cover for Type 6 Piles


Ensure that the prebored hole shall be large enough to enable the installation of the
steel H-pile and to allow a minimum cover of 40 mm to the steel H-pile (except at the
base). Before inserting the steel H-pile in the prebored hole, ensure that the hole shall
be cleaned and free from debris and soil.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

FOUNDING OF BORED PILES

4.134 Founding of Type 3 Piles


(1) Comply with the following requirements for Contractor's Design Piling Contract /
Combined Piling and Building Contract:
(a) Excavate to form foundation for Type 3 piles so that the pile bases are
socketed into bedrock as previously described in clause 4.21 and the socket
depth shall comply with Note (3) of Table 2.1 of the Code of Practice for
Foundations, or such other depths specified by SO;
(b) If the centre to centre spacing of two adjacent Type 3 piles is less than 2.5
times the diameter of the larger pile base and the difference in founding
levels of these two piles is greater than the clear distance between their
bases on plan, justify to SO's satisfaction by an elastic analysis that:
(i) The compressive stress in the longer pile, including any additional stress
induced by the shorter pile and / or any additional stress induced by any
unfavorable ground conditions, will not exceed the limiting value set in
clause 4.50; and
(ii) The bearing stress on the founding material supporting the longer pile,
including any additional stress induced by the shorter pile and / or any
additional stress induced by any unfavorable ground conditions, will not
exceed the safe load carrying capacity set in clause 4.53;
(iii) When Instructed, carry out additional ground investigation works to justify
the subsurface conditions assumed in his analysis to SO's satisfaction at no
additional cost and time.
(c) Notwithstanding the requirements of Sub-clause (b) above, comply also the
requirements stated in the last paragraph of clause 5.4.7 of the Code of
Practice for Foundations, where steep bedrock profile is identified;
(2) Comply with the following requirements for Engineer's Design Piling Contract /
Combined Piling and Building Contract:
Excavate to form foundation for Type 3 piles so that the pile bases are socketed
into bedrock as previously described in clause 4.21 and the socket depth shall
comply with Note (3) of Table 2.1 of the Code of Practice for Foundations, or
such other depths specified by SO.

4.135 Founding of Types 5 and 6 Piles


Found the rock socket in bedrock as clause 4.21.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

4.136 Proving Bedrock


(1) See clause 4.205 for Type 3 piles; and
(2) See clauses 4.206 and 4.208 for Types 5 and 6 piles.

UNDERGROUND OBSTRUCTIONS

4.137 Obstructions to Piles


(1) When underground obstructions are encountered at any depth during piling
operations, propose full details of the intended means of overcoming
underground obstructions (the " intended means ") for Approval prior to the
works being put in hand, which Approval shall not relieve the Contractor of the
responsibility for designing, constructing and completing the Works in accordance
with the Contract;
(2) The intended means shall not cause any adverse impact including, but not limited
to, considerations of lateral stability, safe load carrying capacity and / or
structural integrity, on the pile to be constructed and the piles already
constructed; and
(3) The Approved intended means shall be implemented and the obstructions shall
be overcome by the Contactor at his own risk in respect of cost and time
including the cost and time necessary to obtain Approval.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

4.138 Intended Means of Overcoming Underground Obstructions to Piles for


Contractors Design Piling Contract / Combined Piling and Building Contract
Subject to Approval, the intended means stated in clause 4.137 may include, but are
not limited to, the following:
(1) For Type 1, 2 and 4 piles,
(a) Re-design of piles and / or pile caps;
(b) Extraction and re-driving of piles;
(c) Abandonment of piles and provision of replacement piles; and / or
(d) Removal of underground obstructions by excavation and / or pre-boring
through the underground obstructions.
(2) For Type 3 piles,
(a) Re-design of piles and / or pile caps;
(b) Abandonment of piles and provision of replacement piles; and / or
(c) Removal of underground obstructions by excavation and / or chiselling.
(3) For Type 5 and 6 piles,
(a) Re-design of piles and / or pile caps;
(b) Abandonment of piles and provision of replacement piles; and/or
(c) Removal of underground obstructions by excavation and / or coring through
the underground obstructions.

4.139 Intended Means of Overcoming Underground Obstructions to Piles for


Engineers Design Piling Contract / Combined Piling and Building Contract
Subject to Approval, the intended means stated in clause 4.137 may include, but are
not limited to, the following:
(1) For Type 1, 2 and 4 piles,
(a) Extraction and re-driving of piles; and / or
(b) Removal of underground obstructions by excavation and / or pre-boring
through the underground obstructions.
(2) For Type 3 piles, removal of underground obstructions by excavation and / or
chiselling;
(3) For Type 5 and 6 piles, removal of underground obstructions by excavation and /
or coring through the underground obstructions.

4.140 Design Changes for Contractors Design Piling Contract / Combined Piling
and Building Contract
Where the intended means of overcoming obstructions involve any changes to the
design of the piles and pile caps accepted by the Employer at the date of acceptance
of the Tender, any reduction in cost as may have resulted from the changes shall be
subject to reduction in accordance with the provision of the Contract .

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

4.141 Excavation or Pre-Boring


Where underground obstructions are removed by excavation or pre-boring, cart away
the excavated materials and backfill the boreholes or voids with Special Fill Material or
other materials approved by SO, well compacted, all to Approval.

PILE SHAFT CASINGS

4.142 Linings to Insitu Piles


(1) For Contractor's Design Piling Contract / Combined Piling and Building Contract,
provide left-in-place steel linings wherever cast insitu piles are used and:
(a) Extend the lining from cut-off level down to a level as given by SO;
(b) Ensure that the length of the lining is adequate for the purpose;
(c) Increase the depth of the lining to suit actual site conditions, to prevent
necking and bear the cost of such lengthening;
(d) Ensure that the lining does not protrude above the cut-off level or down into
the bellout.
(2) For Engineer's Design Piling Contract / Combined Piling and Building Contract,
provide left-in-place steel linings as shown in the Drawings wherever cast insitu
piles are used.

4.143 Pile Types 2 and 3


Until concreting or insertion of precast concrete units, case the pile shafts for Type 2
and 3 piles for their entire length above the inferred rockhead level of bedrock or for
such length acceptable to SO. Ensure casing is watertight and of sufficient strength to
withstand soil pressure. Obtain Approval for details of casing.

4.144 Type 5 Piles


Case pile shafts for their entire length except for that section in bedrock and ensure:
(1) Casings are joined, where necessary, with watertight joints;
(2) Casings are clean and free of any material adhering to them when first inserted
into the pile position;
(3) Dents in the casings do not exceed 5 mm in depression;
(4) The gap between the casing and soil is filled with grout or other Approved
material.

4.145 Temporary Casing for Type 6 Piles


(1) Ensure that temporary casing shall be lowered at the same time when the hole is
made and that the casing must be seating on rock head or top of rock socket
before the rock socket hole is formed;
(2) Ensure also that the temporary casing shall be free from distortion, internal
projection and hardened grout.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

GROUTING TYPES 2 AND 3 PILES

4.146 Pressure Grouting


Where pressure grouting is required for the type of piling system proposed for this
Contract, submit proposals for and details of the grouting with the tender.

4.147 Base of Type 3 Piles


Grout the base of large diameter bored piles if soft material, debris, mud etc is found
between the bottom of the concrete and the bearing stratum by test and: Obtain
Approval for the proposal and details of the grouting.

GROUTING TYPES 5 AND 6 PILES

4.148 Batching
(1) Batch dry materials by weight;
(2) Measure the amount of water used by use of a calibrated flowmeter or a
measuring tank.

4.149 Use of Admixtures


State the use of admixtures prior to the commencement of trial piling and give
evidence that the admixtures:
(1) Will allow pumping to be carried out successfully;
(2) Will yield concrete or grout of the required strength and durability;
(3) Have been used successfully in previous practice.

4.150 Mixing and Sieving


(1) Mix grout by adding approximately two thirds of the cement to the water,
followed by the additive, if any, then followed by the remaining third of the
cement;
(2) Use a high speed colloidal grout mixer with a minimum speed of 1000 rpm and
mix for a sufficient time to produce a grout of uniform consistency;
(3) Obtain Approval for the use of any alternative mixing procedures;
(4) After mixing, keep the grout continuously agitated and, prior to injection, pass
the grout through a nominal 2.36 mm sieve;
(5) Use the grout as soon as possible after mixing and, in any case, within 30
minutes of the addition of cement unless special retarding agents are used.

4.151 Testing
Test after mixing and sieving and before injection as clause 4.211.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

4.152 Preparation
Before steel reinforcement and / or steel H-pile is inserted in the pre-bored hole, clean
the hole to ensure that it is free from debris and soil by a method approved by SO.

4.153 Injection
Obtain prior Approval for the method of placing the grout and:
(1) Use an injection pump of the positive displacement type;
(2) Measure the grout intake volume by a method agreed by SO. Calibrate the
measuring device and submit a calibration report to SO 7 days before trial mix of
grout is made;
(3) Fill the entire shaft, inside the casing, solidly with grout, without voids,
honeycombing or other defects; and
(4) Cast each pile in one continuous operation and under no circumstances leave a
pile partially grouted even if this involves working beyond normal hours and rates
are to allow for such circumstances.

CONCERTING

4.154 General
(1) Obtain Approval for the method of placing concrete;
(2) Ensure that the entire shaft is solidly filled with concrete without voids,
honeycombing or other defects.

4.155 Types 3 Piles


For Type 3 piles, concrete may be placed under water subject to Approval and on
submission of details. Clean the base of the excavation by using air lifting equipment
or other Approved method, all subject to Approval.

4.156 Continuity for Types 1c, 3 and 5 Piles


Cast each pile in one continuous operation. In no case will it be permissible for a pile
to be left partly concreted, even if this means working beyond normal working hours.

4.157 Reinforcement to Pile Types 1 and 2


Distribute reinforcement for pile types 1 and 2 uniformly. Ensure reinforcement is
sufficient to withstand handling and driving stresses without fracture or cracking of the
concrete.

4.158 Reinforcement to Type 5 Piles


Lengthen the reinforcement by staggering the couplers using Approved methods.
Separate each reinforcement bar by spacers at regular intervals.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

FINISHING OFF PILE HEADS

4.159 Cast Insitu Piles


Cast insitu piles to a level of 750 mm above cut off levels.

4.160 Cut Off Levels


The top of pile cap levels shown on tender Drawings are provisional and may be
altered if so required by SO. It follows that the cut off levels of piles may also be
varied. However, the extent of the variations will be limited to 1 metre of the levels
shown on the tender Drawings.

4.161 Cutting and Trimming


Excavate to expose, cut off and trim pile heads to the required levels, backfill with
General Filling Material and import Special Filling Material to make up voids, and
remove debris from Site.

4.162 Preliminary and Abandoned Piles


Excavate to expose, cut off and trim pile heads of any non-working preliminary piles to
2000 mm below finished ground level and of any abandoned piles to a level as given
by SO and backfill with General Filling Material, importing Special Filling Material to
make up voids, and remove debris from Site.

4.163 Dowel Bars


For concrete piles, provide dowel bars. Straighten dowel bars subsequent to trimming
pile head.

4.164 Cutting off Steel Piles


For steel piles, execute cutting by Approved means. In the event of damage being
done to the head of the pile, cut off the defective parts and make good the pile to the
satisfaction of SO.

4.165 Bearing Plates for Steel Piles


(1) Weld a bearing plate to the top of each steel pile, sufficient to transfer the
required load all to Approval;
(2) Ensure bearing plates are proportioned so that the imposed stresses do not
exceed the allowable stresses of stated in the Code of Practice for the Structural
Use of Steel 2005.

4.166 Alternative Load Transfer Details for Steel Piles


Obtain Approval for alternative load transfer details.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

4.167 Work at Completion


(where Construction of Pile Cap does not form part of the Contract)
At completion of the Works, where the method of working gives rise to changes in the
levels from those agreed at the commencement of the Works, level off the Site to
remove all high spots and fill in all hollows.

PILING RECORDS

4.168 General
Keep accurate and comprehensive records of each pile installed and submit daily a
copy of these records signed by the site representative, to SO, of each pile installation
to its final position.

4.169 Standard Form


Keep each record on standard forms as shown in Appendices III and IV to this Section
showing, as appropriate to pile type, the following:
(1) Pile reference number;
(2) Date pile driven or installed;
(3) Position of pile in the works and ground level at pile position;
(4) Type and size of hammer and stroke;
(5) Set throughout penetration of pile including the set for the last ten blows;
(6) Measurements of temporary compression in the pile;
(7) Details of any interruption in driving of the pile;
(8) Details of obstructions and delays;
(9) Level of tip of pile after completion of driving;
(10) Length of pile;
(11) Volume of concrete or grout placed in pile;
(12) Length and toe level of casing;
(13) Drilling rate and materials encountered;
(14) Inclination of pile as installed per metre depth of pile;
(15) Any other data requested by SO;
(16) Penetration of pile into bedrock.

4.170 Records of Temporary Compression for Driven Pile


Keep and submit to SO records of field measurements of temporary compression
during the driving of the piles to the final set stages by recording same on a card or
graph paper attached to the face of the pile.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

4.171 Submission of Record Plan


After completing all piling works of a block / structure or part of a block / structure as
agreed by SO, furnish to SO four copies of a piling record plan showing, as
appropriate, the position, identity number, length and final set of all the piles installed
for that block / structure or that part of the block / structure. The piling record plan
should not contain any amendments which have not been Approved. Submit four
copies of a record plan showing offset of piles, if any. In addition, submit electronic
copies of the record plans in a format as required by SO.

4.172 Founding Level Record


Provide a record of the founding level of the bedrock, for Approval.

REMEDIAL MEASURES

4.173 Piles designed to rest on Bedrock


for Contractors Design Piling Contract / Combined Piling and Building Contract
When piles originally designed in accordance with clause 4.55 do not satisfy the
founding conditions stated in that Clause or the workmanship requirement stated in
clause 4.124, the original design would be rejected. In this case, redesign the pile(s)
in the same pile cap already installed and to be installed, as piles not found on bedrock
in accordance with all the requirements for piles not found on bedrock.

4.174 Rising Piles (for Driven Pile)


(1) Measure the top level of each pile immediately after driving to such a layer or
level as is required;
(2) Carry out further levelling checks for pile rising as and when directed by SO;
(3) Re-drive piles which have risen for any reason, to the original level (or to such
other level as SO may determine) unless otherwise directed by SO.

4.175 Defective Piles


If in the opinion of SO, any pile is defective because of the pile having been
constructed or driven outside the specified tolerances or having been damaged during
driving or by the construction of another pile nearby or otherwise failing to conform to
this Specification:
(1) Pull out and replace the pile with a sound pile complying in all respects with the
requirements of this Specification;
(2) If the pile cannot be pulled out, carry out Approved remedial measures.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

SPLICING PILES

4.176 General
Where lengthening of a pile becomes necessary, or is directed by SO, carry it out by
the method directed or by any other Approved method. Do not resume the driving of
a lengthened pile without the permission of SO.

4.177 Strength of Spices


Whenever necessary to splice a pile, the strength of the pile at the splice must be no
less than the strength of pile at any normal section of the pile. Submit full details of
proposed splicing methods with the tender.

WELDING

4.178 Testing of Welders


As Specification Section 6.

4.179 Adverse Weather Conditions


Do not carry out welding under adverse weather conditions as determined by SO.

4.180 Welded Joints


Joint all piles by butt-welding in such a manner that the full strength of the original
section is developed and:
(1) Provide adequate facilities for supporting and aligning piles prior to welding;
(2) Ensure that the joints are waterproof in the case of pipe piles.

4.181 Tack Welds


Keep tack welds to a minimum.

4.182 Standards
Weld by electric arc welding:
(1) Comply with Specification Section 6 for welding Standards;
(2) Where grade S450 steel H-piles are used, ensure that welding procedures is
carried out on Site and Approved.

4.183 Preparation
Ensure the surface to be welded is free from all scale, grease, paint and rust and other
matter.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

4.184 Piles Shoes


Ensure welding is:
(1) Adequate to transmit the ultimate pile load and to prevent the detachment of the
points in the case of withdrawal to remove obstructions;
(2) In accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.

4.185 Finishing
After every run of weld, chip out slags, and thoroughly wire brush surfaces.

4.186 Defects
Make good any defects in a weld, such as distortion, spatter, cracks, undercut, slag
holes, unequal width of bead, irregular ripple etc to the satisfaction of SO.

4.187 Etched Sections


Submit etched sections to SO for examination when required.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

RECORDS AND CERTIFICATES

4.188 Report on Completion of Piling Works for


Contractors Design Piling Contract / Combined Piling and Building Contract
(1) In accordance with Specification Section 1 on Restrictions on Commencement of
Construction of Pile Caps, after all piles of a block or part of a structure as agreed
by SO have been installed, submit four copies of a report on completion of the
piling works for that block or that part of the structure. The report shall be
signed by the Authorized Signatory and the TCP Grade T4 as specified in the SP
for foundation works and include the following:
(a) Scope of the Works and foundations adopted;
(b) General description of the geology of the Site, including an assessment report
with rockhead contour plans as appropriate and at least one geological cross-
section of the ground beneath that block or that part of the structure
indicating the inferred soil layers' SPT - N values, bedrock and pile tip levels;
(c) Piling records as clauses 4.168 to 4.172 and 4.266;
(d) Schedule and summary of all pile test results excluding the proof tests
specified in clause 4.199;
(e) As-built piling design certified by the Design Certifying Consultant;
(f) If the soil parameters given in this Specification have been modified, details of
laboratory tests, instrumented pile tests and other load tests;
(g) Settlement analysis as clauses 4.58 to 4.64 certified by the Design Certifying
Consultant;
(h) Final ground investigation reports prepared by the Ground Investigation
Contractor;
(i) Authorized Signatory's certification confirming that the completed piling works
are satisfactory for the purpose intended and the piles, as installed, are
properly penetrated into insitu decomposed rock or onto bedrock as approved
by SO;
(j) Report of remedial work, if any;
(k) Any other relevant information; and
(l) Conclusion;
(2) After submitting the report specified in Sub-clause (1) above, request SO to select
piles for proof tests. The Contractor may, however, seek SO's agreement to
select piles for proof tests after submitting part of the report; in such an event,
submit the outstanding part of the report not later than the time of submitting
Form ICU14 as specified in Sub-clause (3) below. Allow SO at least 21 days to
select piles for proof tests in accordance with 4.199. If resubmission of the
report is required, allow SO another 21 days to select piles for proof tests after
resubmission;
(3) Upon satisfactory completion of the proof tests, complete and submit Form ICU14
and report of further remedial work, if any, to SO on block by block basis, unless
otherwise agreed by SO.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

Report on Completion of Piling Works for


4.189
Engineers Design Piling Contract / Combined Piling and Building Contract
(1) In accordance with Specification Section 1 on Restrictions on Commencement of
Construction of Pile Caps, after all piles of a block or part of a structure as agreed
by SO have been installed, submit four copies of a report on completion of piling
works for that block or that part of the structure. The report shall be signed by
the Authorized Signatory and the TCP Grade T4 as specified in the SP for
foundation works and include the following:
(a) Scope of the Works and foundations adopted;
(b) General description of the geology of the Site, including an assessment report
with rockhead contour plans as appropriate and at least one geological cross-
section of the ground beneath that block or that part of the structure
indicating the inferred soil layers' SPT - N values, bedrock and pile tip levels;
(c) Piling records as clauses 4.168 to 4.172 and 4.266;
(d) Schedule and summary of all pile test results excluding the proof tests
specified in clause 4.199;
(e) Final ground investigation reports prepared by the Ground Investigation
Contractor;
(f) Authorized Signatory's certification confirming that the completed piling works
are satisfactory for the purpose intended and the piles, as installed, are
properly penetrated into insitu decomposed rock or onto bedrock as approved
by SO;
(g) Report of remedial work, if any;
(h) Any other relevant information; and
(i) Conclusion;
(2) After submitting the report specified in Sub-clause (1) above, request SO to select
piles for proof tests. The Contractor may, however, seek SO's agreement to
select piles for proof tests after submitting part of the report; in such an event,
submit the outstanding part of the report not later than the time of submitting
Form ICU14 as specified in Sub-clause (3) below. Allow SO at least 21 days to
select piles for proof tests in accordance with 4.199. If resubmission of the
report is required, allow SO another 21 days to select piles for proof tests after
resubmission;
(3) Upon satisfactory completion of the proof tests, complete and submit Form ICU14
and report of further remedial work, if any, to SO on block by block basis, unless
otherwise agreed by SO.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

Certification
4.190
(1) Submit the following prior to serving notice in writing to SO on completion of the
Works in accordance with the General Conditions of Contract:
(a) Authorized Signatory's certification confirming that the completed job is
satisfactory for the purpose intended and the piles, as installed, properly
penetrate into insitu decomposed rock or onto bedrock as approved by SO;
(b) (i) For Contractor's Design Piling Contract / Combined Piling and Building
Contract, four copies of the as-built pile caps design and drawings based on
the as-built piling layout and/or four copies of the as-built footings design and
drawings; the as-built pile caps and / or footing design and drawings shall be
certified by the Design Certifying Consultant and shall not contain any
amendments which have not been Approved, or;
(ii) For Engineers Design Piling Contract / Combined Piling and Building
Contract, four copies of the as-built pile cap drawings based on the as-built
piling layout and / or four copies of the as-built footing drawings;
(c) Four copies of report listing the date of casting of concrete, the quality and
quantity of materials used and the excavation record of each pile cap and / or
footings;
(d) Four copies of final test reports on the pile caps and / or footings not carried
out by the Specialist Testing Contractors;
(e) Completed Form ICU 14; and
(f) Any other relevant information.
(2) Any submission not to the satisfaction of SO shall have to be re-submitted. Allow
35 days for each submission and re-submission for the checking of SO.

PILE CAPS AND FOOTINGS

4.191 General
Execute the work described in this Sub-section in accordance with the provisions of the
other relevant Sections in this Specification.

4.192 Approved Design for


Contractors Design Piling Contract / Combined Piling and Building Contract
Construct the pile caps and / or footings in accordance with the Approved, submitted
design.

4.193 Starter Bars


Apart from the design and execution of the pile caps and / or footings, provide and
execute starter bars shown on the Drawings.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

4.194 Backfilling Excavations


Backfill excavation with Suitable Material up to the top level of the pile caps and / or
footings and:
(1) Form and maintain the sides of the backfill adjacent to the pile caps and / or
footings to an angle of inclination of 45 from the horizontal or as given by the SO. In
the event that such angle of inclination could not be formed due to site constraints, propose
alternative angle of inclination or other backfilling method for SOs approval;
(2) Deposit surplus excavated Suitable Material on Site in stockpiles in Approved
locations;
(3) Remove Unsuitable Material from Site.

4.195 Increasing Concrete Strength


Where it is anticipated that the specified 28 day compressive strength test for
concrete of any pile caps cannot be completed within the Contract Period, SO will
consider any proposal to use a higher grade of concrete than that specified for the pile
caps concerned and an application for additional compressive strength tests of such
concrete to be made at less than 28 days, subject to the following:
(1) Assess the results of these cube tests and core tests in accordance with:
(a) Specification Section 5 for cubes;
(b) Specification Section 5 for cores; and
Do not make any adjustment to the measured strength in respect of the age of
the cubes and cores when tested;
(2) If the test results, assessed in accordance with Sub-clause (1) above for the
grade of concrete specified for the pile caps, comply with the Specification
requirements, the Contractor may notify SO the completion of the Works in
accordance with the General Conditions of Contract together with an undertaking
stating that:
" If the results of tests for compressive strength at 28 days, received after SO has
issued the certificate of completion, fail to comply with the Specification
requirements, the Contractor shall carry out further tests and / or remedial works,
all at the Contractor's expenses, and shall bear all expenses and loss of the
Employer due to failure of the tests. "

4.196 Founding and Proving Bedrock for Footings


Refer to clause 4.21 and Specification Section 3.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

TESTING

TESTING GENERALLY

4.197 Number and Disposition of Test Piles


The number and disposition of the piles to be tested will be as Instructed. Make
allowance for testing one preliminary pile early in the Contract to provide reasonable
assurance that the Specification is being met.

4.198 Required Minimum Number of Tests


(1) Unless otherwise specified, the required minimum number of tests in this Section
shall be calculated based on the testing frequency or sample size stated and the
total number of piles installed in the whole Site. In case the calculated number of
tests is not a whole number, any fraction of test shall be construed as one test;
(2) Request SO to select locations or piles for testing when all the piles have been
installed and are ready for testing;
(3) Upon agreement with SO, the Contractor may request SO to select locations or
piles for testing when a portion of the piles have been installed and are ready for
testing. In such an event, the required minimum number of tests for the portion
shall be calculated based on the testing frequency or sample size stated and the
total number of piles of that portion. In case the calculated number of tests is not
a whole number, any fraction of test shall be construed as one test. As a
consequence, the total number of tests carried out for all the portions may be
more than the required minimum number of tests for the whole Site. Bear all
additional costs and no extension of time is allowed.

4.199 Proof Test


(1) After receiving the report on completion of piling works as specified in clause
4.188 or 4.189, SO shall select piles for proof test accordingly;
(2) In this Specification, proof test shall mean:
(a) Loading test of working piles as specified in clauses 4.220 and 4.235 to 4.241
for Type 1, 2, 4, 5 and 6 piles;
(b) Core test as specified in clauses 4.242 to 4.246 for Type 1c piles and Type 3
piles.
(3) Notwithstanding the samples size specified in clause 4.220 for loading test and
clause 4.243 for core test, SO shall select at least 1 pile per block for each type of
proof test;
(4) Allow the Specialist Testing Contractor at least 7 working days to carry out each
proof test.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

PRELIMINARY DRIVEN PILES

4.200 Preliminary Piles Types 1,2 and 4 for


Contractors Design Piling Contract / Combined Piling and Building Contract
Before driving any pile, install at least one preliminary additional pile or as directed by
SO, for each of the proposed pile types to verify the proposed design methods and
parameters and as follows:
(1) Install the pile at a location outside the building structure and to a design depth,
all as Approved;
(2) Refer to clause 4.202 for details of instrumentation;
(3) Install a borehole adjacent to the preliminary pile and before it is driven to
determine the geotechnical conditions;
(4) Test the preliminary pile by Pile Driving Analyser with CAPWAP analysis after
installation to the Approval founding depth;
(5) Carry out a loading test on the preliminary pile as clauses 4.225 to 4.232,
immediately after driving to determine the ultimate side resistance and tip
resistance of the pile;
(6) Unless otherwise instructed by SO, the Contractor may choose to pitch the first
sections of working piles before the test result is known but in the case of a test
failure, the Contractor must revise the design parameters and submit them for
Approval. Any piles driven on the basis of the original proposal will be deemed to
be unacceptable;
(7) Carry out Approved remedial measures for such unacceptable piles including
extracting and disposing, off Site, of any abandoned piles, where necessary,
without any claim for extension of time;
(8) Install a preliminary pile for the revised Approved design, repeating the procedure
described above as necessary until a successful test result is achieved;
(9) No claim for an extension of time will be allowed in connection with the
provisions of this Clause;
(10) Trim down the preliminary pile to two metres below the finished ground level, or
as directed, after completion of the loading test.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

4.201 Preliminary Piles Types 1, 2 and 4 for


Engineers Design Piling Contract / Combined Piling and Building Contract
Before driving any pile, install a preliminary additional pile or as directed by SO, for
each pile type to verify the driveability and the design assumptions as follows:
(1) Install the pile at a location outside the building structure and to a design depth,
all as Approved;
(2) Refer to clause 4.202 for details of instrumentation;
(3) Install a borehole adjacent to the preliminary pile and before it is driven to
determine the geotechnical conditions;
(4) Test the preliminary pile by Pile Driving Analyser with CAPWAP analysis after
installation to the Approval founding depth;
(5) Carry out a loading test on the preliminary pile as clauses 4.225 to 4.232,
immediately after driving to determine the ultimate side resistance and tip
resistance of the pile;
(6) Unless otherwise instructed by SO, the Contractor may choose to pitch the first
sections of working piles before the test result is known. If any of the loading
tests fail, SO may order the installation of additional piles and the repetition of
the procedures specified in this Clause until a successful result is achieved.

4.202 Instrumentation
(1) Instrument the preliminary pile with calibrated strain gauges to determine the
distribution of side resistance in each major soil stratum down the pile and tip
resistance in the bearing stratum during the loading test;
(2) Propose, for the above purpose, the type, number and locations of strain gauges
to be installed in each preliminary pile as well as the method of installation and
protection of the strain gauges;
(3) Acceptance of the Contractor's proposal by SO shall not relieve the Contractor
from the responsibility for ensuring the proper installation of the strain gauges
and their satisfactory performance during load testing of the piles;
(4) Check the performance of the strain gauges installed in the preliminary pile
before and after installation of each segment of the pile into the ground, and
before and during load testing of the pile;
(5) The preliminary pile will be deemed unacceptable should there be more than 20
% of the required total number of installed strain gauges not functioning properly
during load testing of the pile;
(6) Install an additional preliminary pile as clause 4.200;
(7) No claim for an extension of time will be allowed in connection with the
provisions of this Clause;
(8) Take strain gauge reading at each incremental change of test load during the
load test;
(9) Present the strain gauge results by an Approved personal computer compatible
spreadsheet software in both tabular and pictorial forms agreed by SO;
(10) Submit two copies of the data stored on floppy diskettes to SO within one week
after completion of the loading test.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

4.203 Failure of Preliminary Piles


A preliminary pile is deemed to have failed the loading test when any of the following
conditions occur in loading stage 2 as defined in clause 4.227:
(1) The settlement of the pile head reaches the magnitude of settlement at failure as
defined in clause 4.233;
(2) The permanent settlement after removal of stage load 2 exceeds the permitted
value specified in clause 4.234.

SAMPLING AND TESTING FOUNDING LEVELS TO PILE TYPES 3,4,5 AND 6

4.204 Cores for Type 3 Piles


(1) Testing arrangements and testing samples:
(a) At every Type 3 pile location, take cores of minimum NX size to a minimum
depth of 5000 mm into bedrock below the proposed pile base before
commencement of excavation for the pile, when Instructed.
(2) Testing methods:
(a) Extract rock core samples from the core holes in the presence of SO or his
representative and provide records of bores for SO's inspection;
(b) When Instructed, carry out laboratory compression tests or field point load
tests on recovered cores to determine rock strength;
(c) Submit to SO ground investigation reports within 3 days after completion of
coring and not less than 10 days prior to the commencement of pile
excavation;
(d) Take further cores at any location as the Contractor deems necessary and at
his own expense as stated in clause 4.20;
(e) Keep the rock samples and a copy of the ground investigation reports in the
container store rooms;
(f) Backfill the drillholes with cement grout or Approved material.
(3) Test on bearing strata
(a) Carry out the uniaxial compressive strength test or equivalent point load
index test on the founding material for piles founded on Cat 1(c) or better
rock in accordance with the testing methods stated in Sub-clause (2)(b)
above. Perform a minimum of one such test on rock specimen obtained at
the location of each installed pile.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

4.205 Proving Bedrock Type 3 Piles


(1) Testing arrangements and testing samples:
(a) When Instructed, upon excavation for Type 3 pile reaching bedrock as
previously described in clause 4.21, take an NX size core for a depth of
5000 mm into the bedrock.
(2) Testing methods:
(a) Extract rock core samples from the core holes in the presence of SO or his
representative and provide records of bores for SO's inspection;
(b) When Instructed, carry out laboratory compression tests or field point load
tests on recovered cores to determine rock strength;
(c) Submit to SO ground investigation reports within 3 days after completion of
coring;
(d) Take further cores at any location as the Contractor deems necessary and at
his own expense as stated in clause 4.20.;
(e) Keep the rock samples and a copy of the ground investigation reports in the
container store rooms.

4.206 Proving Bedrock before Installation


(for Types 5 and 6 Piles and for Type 4 Pile Driven to Bedrock)
(1) Testing arrangements and testing methods:
(a) Before the commencement of piling, take cores of minimum NX size down to
at least 5 metres (or the designed rock socket length of the nearest pile,
whichever is the greater) deep into the bedrock below the rock head of the
specified grade of rock. Provide rock core samples and records of the bores
for SOs inspection. Backfill the drillholes with cement grout or Approved
material. Submit to SO ground investigation reports within 3 days after
completion of the coring.
(2) Testing samples:
(a) The number of drillholes required shall be such that the pile tip of every pile
shall be within 5 metres from a drillhole and there shall be at least a drillhole
at every pile cap location.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

4.207 Founding Level for Types 5 and 6 Piles and for Type 4 Pile Driven to Bedrock
(1) Testing arrangements:
(a) When Instructed, provide equipment for obtaining disturbed and undisturbed
soil and rock samples in accordance with BS 5930 : 1981 from ground in
the vicinity of the pile shaft during installation;
(2) Testing methods:
(a) When Instructed, carry out the following tests on Site or in the laboratory as
directed by SO:
(i) The standard penetration test in accordance with BS 1377 : 1975 (Test
19), modified by Geoguide 2 : Guide to Site Investigation , Hong Kong
Government, 1987;
(ii) Point load test in accordance with ISRM Suggested Method for
Determining Point Load Strength , International Journal of Rock
Mechanics, Mining Sciences & Geomechanics, 1985, Volume 22, No. 2,
Pages 51-60;
(iii) Uniaxial compression strength test in accordance with ASTM Designation:
D2938 - 86;
(b) When the drillhole reaches the rockhead, recover continuous rock cores to at
least the base level of the rock socket. Log all rock cores to ensure the
quality of the rock socket;
(c) Provide suitable containers for samples of soil and ground water, ensuring
that containers for cohesive material are airtight;
(d) Arrange for the testing of the samples in an Approved laboratory.
(3) Test on bearing strata for Types 5 and 6 Piles
(a) Carry out the uniaxial compressive strength test or equivalent point load
index test on the founding material for piles socketed in Cat 1(c) or better
rock in accordance with the testing methods stated in sub-clause (2)(a)(ii)
and (iii) above. Perform at least one such test on rock specimen taken
within 5 metres of each installed pile.

4.208 Proving Bedrock after Installation


(for Types 5 and 6 Piles and for Type 4 Pile Driven to Bedrock)
(1) Testing arrangements:
(a) After installation of the piles, SO will order a Specialist Testing Contractor to
take cores of minimum NX size in accordance with the requirements stated in
clause 7.4.3 of the Code of Practice for Foundations. The drillholes shall be in
the vicinity of the piles.
(b) Provide attendance on the Specialist Testing Contractor as specified in
Specification Section 1.
(2) Testing samples:
(a) The number of drillholes required shall be at least 2 or 1 % of the total
numbers of piles, whichever is the greater.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

TESTING GROUT FOR TYPES 3, 5 AND 6 PILES

4.209 Definition of Batch


(1) For the tests specified in clauses 4.210 and 4.211, a ' batch ' of grout is any
quantity of grout used for grouting in one continuous operation in one day;
(2) For the test specified in clause 4.212, a ' batch ' of grout is the quantity of grout
as stipulated in clause 1.2 of CS1 : 2010.

4.210 Test for Bleeding and Free Expansion


(1) Testing arrangements and testing samples:
(a) Provide one sample of grout from each batch not more than 30 minutes after
mixing and protect from changes in moisture content before tests are carried
out;
(2) Testing methods:
(a) Divide each sample into three specimens and place a portion of each
specimen in a covered cylinder with a diameter of 100 10 mm to a depth of
100 5 mm;
(b) Measure the amount of bleeding and free expansion by a scale fixed to the
outside of the cylinder;
(3) Non-compliance:
(a) If the result of any test for the amount of bleeding or free expansion of the
grout does not comply with the specified requirements, submit particulars of
proposed changes to the materials, grout mix or methods of production to SO
and carry out further grouting trials unless otherwise permitted by SO.

4.211 Flow Cone Efflux Test


(1) Testing samples:
(a) After mixing and sieving and prior to injection, take one sample from each
batch;
(2) Testing methods:
(a) Test the grout in accordance with ASTM C939-94 to determine the Flow
Cone Efflux time;
(3) Non-compliance:
(a) Except with SOs prior agreement for grout mixes containing additives and
admixtures, grout having an efflux time of less than 15 seconds will be
rejected.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

4.212 Test for Crushing Strength


(1) Testing samples:
(a) Provide one sample (Type 3 pile) from every 25 m or every 25 batches,
whichever is the smaller volume. At least one sample shall be provided from
grout produced on any one day;
(b) Provide one sample (Types 5 and 6 Piles) from every 10 m or every 10
batches, whichever is the smaller volume. At least one sample shall be
provided from grout produced on any one day;
(c) Each sample provided in Sub-clause (a) and (b) above shall not be taken at a
time more than one hour after the grout is mixed and shall be protected from
weather before test cubes are made.
(2) Testing methods:
(a) The DITC shall prepare two cubes of 100 mm size from each sample, cure
and test the cubes for crushing strength at 28 days in accordance with CS
1:2010;
(b) The average of the two crushing strengths shall be taken as the test result.
The criteria C1 and C2 shall be adopted as appropriate for assessing
compliance stipulated as clauses 5.191 and 5.193;
(c) The test result shall comply with the following requirements:
(i) Individual test results: comply with the strength determined from limits
given in Column A of the Table specified as clause 5.192;
(ii) Average strength determined from any group of four consecutive test
results: comply with the strength determined from limits given in Column
B of the Table specified as clause 5.192. Where there are less than four
available test results, treat the average of the first two or first three
consecutive test results in the same manner as groups of four consecutive
test results.

VISUAL INSPECTION

4.213 Requirement
When Instructed, open up for inspection any piles covered up as specified in the
following clauses in this sub-section.

4.214 Method
Excavate to expose piles for a minimum of 750 mm from face of the pile all round and:
(1) Plank and strut and shore all faces of the excavation and keep the excavation
free from water by pumping or baling;
(2) Wash surfaces of piles to be inspected clean of all silt, mud or other adhering
material;
(3) Deposit excavated material in temporary spoil heaps on Site;
(4) After inspection, fill in and well ram to the entire satisfaction of SO, around the
piles with Special Filling Material suitable for the piling system adopted. If
necessary, remove excavated Unsuitable Filling Material from site and make up
voids with Special Filling Material.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

4.215 Criteria for Failure


Piles that upon inspection are found to be honeycombed, necked or cracked are
deemed to be defective.

DESTRUCTIVE TESTS ON SAMPLES OF TYPES 4 AND 6 PILES

4.216 General
Testing arrangements:
Allow for providing additional piles for testing, making samples of steel plates and their
delivery.

4.217 Samples
Testing samples:
(1) SO will order approximately 1 % of the number of the steel piles delivered to Site
to be subjected to testing in accordance with this sub-section before driving;
(2) Take two samples from the steel plates at both ends of each of the chosen piles
for tensile testing;
(3) Tensile tests on steel samples will be carried out by Specialist Testing Contractor.

4.218 Non-Compliance
In the event that the tensile test results fail to comply with this Specification, all piles
delivered on the same date will be deemed unacceptable and must be removed from
the Site.

4.219 Premature Installation


Where piles are installed before test results are known, submit, for Approval, proposals
for remedying any unacceptable piles already installed.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

LOADING TESTS GENERALLY

4.220 Requirement for Testing


(1) Test the preliminary pile(s) in accordance with this sub-section but do not test
pile(s) before the concrete and / or grout has attained sufficient strength to
withstand the test loads;
(2) Loading tests for working piles of Type 1, 2, 4, 5 or 6 Piles:
(a) Unless otherwise specified by SO, the sampling rate for loading tests shall be
in accordance with the following table:
Type of Category of pile Sampling rate for
loading test loading tests
(i) Compression Pile designed to take compression 1 % of or 1 number
Test only. from the total number
of piles under both
Pile designed to take reversed categories, whichever is
tension and compression with the greater
tensile load resistance less than
50 % of the compressive load
resistance.
(ii) Tension Test Pile designed to take tension only. 2 % of or 1 number
from the total number
Pile designed to take reversed of piles under both
tension and compression with categories, whichever is
tensile load resistance equals to the greater
or greater than 50 % of the
compressive load resistance.

(b) For loading tests in compression, SO will order the Specialist Testing
Contractor to carry out the tests in accordance with this Section;
(c) For loading tests in tension, submit details of tests for SO's approval and carry
out the tests according to the Approved procedures.
(3) Testing arrangements:
(a) Piles will not be tested before the concrete and / or grout has attained
sufficient strength to withstand the test loads and selection of piles for testing
shall be in accordance with clause 4.199;
(b) Allow sufficient time in the programming of the Works for SO to order the
piles to be load tested and for performing the number of tests stated before
completion of the Works or the respective Section thereof;
(c) Provide attendance on the Specialist Testing Contractor as specified in
Specification Section 1 ;
(d) Pave the area around the test pile with chunam or other materials approved
by SO immediately after the pile has been selected for load test. The extent
of the paved area to be determined by SO. Keep the paved area from being
damaged prior to the load test;
(e) Provide adequate site safety to cater for the possible failure of the piles
during testing.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

LOADING TESTS OF PRELIMINARY PILES

4.221 Testing Equipment


(1) Supply suitable platforms, hydraulic and other equipment together with four
deflectometers reading to 0.025 mm and all other appliances necessary to record
the settlement of the pile to Approval;
(2) Ensure that the support of the reference beam is at least 2000 mm or 3 times the
pile diameter, whichever is the greater, from the test and anchor piles.

4.222 Calibration of Hydraulic Equipment


Before commencement of the testing, submit to SO, calibration test certificates from
an independent laboratory in respect of all hydraulic equipment. Carry out the
calibration:
(1) In the period between the notified date for commencement of the Works and
commencement of testing; or
(2) Whenever the equipment has been adjusted.

4.223 Measurement of Test Loads


Measure test loads by the use of a calibrated load cell and a calibrated pressure gauge
included in the hydraulic system and:
(1) Ensure that the load cell is axially loaded throughout the test;
(2) Use the values given by the load cell for the interpretation of the test result, the
pressure gauge readings being required as a check for gross error.

4.224 Temperature Variations


Provide suitable protection to minimise the effect of temperature variations on the test.

PROCEDURE FOR LOAD TESTS OF PRELIMINARY PILES

4.225 Anchorages
(1) Apply the load by jacking against suitable reactions provided by kentledge,
anchor piles, or other anchorages to Approval;
(2) Provide the centre of such reactions at a minimum distance of 2000 mm or three
times the pile diameter, whichever is the greater, from the centre of the pile to
be tested and from the centre of any adjacent pile.

4.226 Pile Cap to Test Pile


Extend the pile to be test loaded from its original level to a suitable level for the
carrying out of the test and design and construct a suitable pile cap to the test pile.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

4.227 Loading of a Preliminary Pile


Apply and remove the test loading of a preliminary pile at cut off level or at other level
agreed by SO in three stages as follows:

Stage Test Loading


1 100 % P
2 200 % P
3 360 % P (for pile types 1 & 2)
or 330 % P (for pile type 4)
P = safe load carrying capacity as defined in clause 4.53 for Contractor's Design
Piling Contract / Combined Piling and Building Contract; or
P = safe load carrying capacity as specified by SO for Engineer's Design Piling
Contract / Combined Piling and Building Contract.

4.228 Sequence
Adopt the following sequence of testing of preliminary pile unless otherwise instructed:
(1) Apply the load in increments of 50 %P up to the stage 1 test loading;
(2) Do not apply increments of loading until the rate of settlement of the pile is less
than 0.05 mm in 10 minutes;
(3) Remove the test load and determine the recovery of the pile before resuming
loading;
(4) Repeat procedures in Sub-clauses (1) and (2) above for the stage 2 test loading;
(5) Maintain the full stage 2 test loading for 72 hours before removal;
(6) Remove the test load and record the recovery of the pile;
(7) Apply the load in increments of 50 %P up to the stage 2 test loading allowing 20
minutes between load increments;
(8) Maintain the stage 2 test loading for 20 minutes;
(9) Apply the load in increments of 10 %P until the stage 3 test loading or the failure
load as defined in clause 4.233 is reached, allowing 20 minutes between load
increments;
(10) Maintain the stage 3 test loading for 2 hours if failure of the pile does not occur;
(11) Remove the test load in four equal decrements allowing 20 minutes between
decrements, and record the recovery of the pile.

4.229 Recording and Checking Data


(1) Carefully record the settlement of the pile under each increment of loading and
the exact time at which such increment is applied or removed, in the presence of
SO;
(2) Throughout the period of the test, make check observations of the settlement of
the pile being tested by a suitable surveyor's level.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

4.230 Contractors Representative


Have a representative in attendance continuously throughout the period of the test to
take and record all specified data hourly or at such other intervals as may be stipulated
by SO.

4.231 Completion
On completion of the test, remove all testing equipment etc, demolish the test pile
cap, make good the test pile and the Site back to their original condition and remove
all debris arising from the test from the Site.

4.232 Records and Submission of Report to SO


Keep records of load tests on piles on the Site and submit a report to SO within 12
hours of the test being completed. Keep the records on standard forms as shown in
Appendix V to this Section and available to SO for inspection at all times. The records
must include graphs showing load and settlement versus time, plotted in the format as
agreed by SO.

LOAD TEST RESULTS OF PRELIMINARY PILES

4.233 Failure Load


Keep records during loading and unloading. The ultimate or failure load of the pile is
that load which produces a settlement of the pile head exceeding:
f = De + D/120 + 4 mm
where:
f = settlement at failure in mm.
D = least lateral dimension of the pile in mm.
De = elastic deformation of the pile shaft and is defined as:
De = 3.6PLp/AE for stage 3 test loading for preliminary pile of pile types 1 & 2;
or
3.3PLp/AE for stage 3 test loading for preliminary pile of pile type 4; or
2PLp/AE for all other stages of test loading for preliminary pile.
where:
P = as defined in 4.227; unit in kN
Lp = pile length in mm
A = cross sectional area of pile in mm
E = Young's Modulus for pile material in kN/mm

4.234 Residual Settlement


When the rate of recovery after the removal of the maximum test load is less than 0.1
mm / hour observed in a period of not less than 15 minutes, the residual settlement at
the head of the pile exceeding the greater of D/120 + 4 mm or 25 % of the maximum
pile head settlement during the test, will be deemed a failure of the pile.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

LOADING TESTS OF WORKING PILES

4.235 General
The Specialist Testing Contractor will carry out load tests of working piles in
accordance with the requirements of the Specification.

4.236 Loading of a Working Pile


As ordered by SO, the Specialist Testing Contractor will apply and remove the test
loading of a working pile at cut off level or at other level agreed by SO, in two stages
as follows:
Stage Test Loading for Pile Types 1, 2, 4, 5 & 6
1 100 % P
2 200 % P
P = safe load carrying capacity as defined in clause 4.53 for Contractor's Design
Piling Contract / Combined Piling and Building Contract; or
P = safe load carrying capacity as specified by SO for Engineer's Design Piling
Contract / Combined Piling and Building Contract.

4.237 Loading Types 5 and 6 Piles


The Specialist Testing Contractor will not carry out the test until the grout has reached
the 28-days characteristic compressive strength.

4.238 Sequence
The Specialist Testing Contractor will adopt the following sequence of testing of
working pile unless otherwise instructed:
(1) Apply the load in increments of 50 %P up to the stage 1 test loading;
(2) Do not apply increments of loading until the rate of settlement of the pile is less
than 0.05 mm in 10 minutes;
(3) Remove the test load and determine the recovery of the pile before resuming
loading;
(4) Repeat procedures in Sub-clauses (1) and (2) above for the stage 2 test loading;
(5) Maintain the full stage 2 test loading for 72 hours before removal;
(6) Remove the test load and record the recovery of the pile.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

LOADING TEST RESULTS OF WORKING PILES

4.239 Failure Load and Residual Settlement


(1) Keep records during loading and unloading. The ultimate or failure load of the
pile is that load which produces a settlement of the pile head exceeding:
f = De + D / 120 + 4 mm
where:
f = settlement at failure in mm.
D = least lateral dimension of the pile in mm.
De = elastic deformation of the pile shaft and is defined as:
De = 2PLp / AE for all other stages of test loading for working pile.
where:
P = as defined in 4.236 as appropriate; unit in kN
Lp = pile length in mm (For pile with rock sockets, Lp should be measured
to the centre of the rock socket. For pile without rock sockets, Lp should
be taken as the entire length of the pile)
A = cross sectional area of pile in mm
E = Young's Modulus for pile material in kN / mm
(2) Consider the following in calculating the De:
(a) For Type 5 pile, the contribution from steel bars, cement grout and steel
casing along the whole pile length, Lp; and
(b) For Type 6 pile, the contribution from cement grout within the length of the
rock socket;
(3) When the rate of recovery after the removal of the maximum test load is less
than 0.1 mm / hour observed in a period of not less than 15 minutes, the residual
settlement at the head of the pile exceeding the greater of D / 120 + 4 mm or 25
% of the maximum pile head settlement during the test, will be deemed a failure
of the pile.

4.240 Failed Piles for


Contractors Design Piling Contract / Combined Piling and Building Contract
Where a pile fails, install additional piles as instructed by SO and then retest. The
Contractor may be required to carry out test probes in order to position the additional
piles to SO's satisfaction. Carry out the extended pile caps consequent upon the
installation of the additional piles to an Approved design and in an Approved manner.
Bear all costs and no time extensions will be allowed.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

4.241 Failed Piles for


Engineers Design Piling Contract / Combined Piling and Building Contract
In the event that a pile fails, SO will investigate the cause of failure and carry out any
tests he deems necessary. Provide attendance to SO's investigation as required by SO.
If the failure is due to poor workmanship or faulty materials, carry out remedial works
as follows:
(1) Rectify such non-compliance in accordance with this Specification;
(2) Where additional piles or extended pile caps are required, carry out such work to
an Approved design and in an Approved manner;
(3) Bear all costs and no extension of time is allowed for testing, remedial works and
installation of additional pile(s).

CORE TESTING TYPE 1c AND TYPE 3 PILES

4.242 General
Testing arrangements:
(1) Core tests of piles as described in this sub-section will be carried out by Specialist
Testing Contractor(s) and selection of piles for testing shall be in accordance with
clause 4.199;
(2) Provide attendance on the Specialist Testing contractor(s) as specified in
Specification Section 1 ;
(3) Allow sufficient time in the programming of the Works for SO to order the piles to
be tested and for performing the number of tests stated before completion of the
Works or the respective Section thereof.

4.243 Core Dimensions and Sample Size


The following works will be carried out by Specialist Testing Contractor:
(1) Testing samples
(a) Take full-length concrete core specimens of minimum NX size for Type 1(c)
piles or 100 mm diameter for Type 3 piles;
(b) Take cores of minimum NX size down to not less than 600 mm, or one half of
the diameter of the pile base, whichever is the larger, into the rock below the
pile base;
(c) Sample size: minimum 2 number or 5 % of the total number of piles,
whichever is the greater.
(2) Testing methods:
(a) Laboratory compression tests on 3 core samples selected from the full length
concrete core; acceptance criteria for concrete core compression tests are
given in clause 4.245;

4.244 Reinstatement of Core Holes


Fill core holes solid with non-shrinkage grout of at least the same crushing strength as
the pile cored.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

4.245 Criteria for Failure


Non-compliance:
(1) Concrete of the respective piles is considered failed if:
(a)
(i) The estimated in-situ cube strength of any core specimen is less than 75 %
of the specified grade strength or the average estimated in-situ cube
strength of the three core specimens is less than 85 % of the specified
grade strength, for cases other than that stated in Sub-clause (1)(a)(ii)
below;
(ii) The estimated in-situ cube strength of any specimen is less than 60 % of
the specified grade strength or the average estimated in-situ cube strength
of the three core specimens is less than 70 % of the specified grade
strength for the case where a reduction factor of 0.8 is applied to the
design stresses of concrete placed under water; or
(b) The concrete cores show evidence of honeycombing or segregation of
individual constituent materials; or
(c) In the opinion of SO, the concrete fails to meet the specified requirements in
any other respect;
(2) The interface of concrete and rock of the respective pile is considered failed if, in
the opinion of SO, the concrete and rock of the core specimen is not in good
contact;
(3) The rock below the pile base is considered failed if, by visual examination, the
rock core obtained does not conform to the rock material specified in the design;
(4) The respective pile will be considered not complying with the requirements of this
Specification if any one of the failure criteria stated in Sub-clause (1), (2) or (3)
above is met; in such event,
(a) Comply with the requirements stated in clause 4.240 or 4.241, as
appropriate;
(b) SO may order the Specialist Testing Contractor to carry out further tests on
other piles and the number of piles to be tested shall be in accordance with
clause 4.252;
(c) Bear all costs and no extension of time is allowed for testing, remedial works
and installation of additional pile(s) as a consequence of the above non-
compliance.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

4.246 Requirement for Further Tests


Non-compliance:
(1) Cube test results
(a) When concrete cube compressive test result does not comply with
Specification Section 5, SO will order the Specialist Testing Contractor to
extract full length concrete core from each pile cast on the same concreting
day and further select 3 core samples from each pile according to instruction
of SO for compression test (the cores taken in this case are not included in
the core sample specified in clause 4.243). Acceptance criteria and further
actions arising from such tests shall be in accordance with clause 4.245;
(2) Core test results
(a) When the concrete of a pile fails according to Sub-clause (1)(a) of clause
4.245, no further test on concrete core of this pile is allowed;
(3) Bear all costs and no extension of time is allowed for testing, remedial works and
installation of additional pile(s) as a consequence of the above non-compliance.

DESTRUCTIVE TESTING OF SAMPLES OF PRECAST CONCRETE PILES

4.247 General
Testing arrangements:
(1) Allow for providing additional materials of piles for testing;
(2) Arrange for the taking and testing of concrete cores by a Specialist Testing
Contractor employed direct by the Authority;
(3) Provide attendance on the Specialist Testing Contractor as specified in
Specification Section 1 and remove the tested piles from Site on completion of
the tests.

4.248 Sample Size


Testing samples:
(1) Where precast concrete piles (Types 1(a), 1(b) and 2) are proposed for the
Contract, SO will order approximately 1 % of the number of piles delivered to
Site to be subjected to the tests as specified in the following clauses in this sub-
section, prior to driving;
(2) Where precast prestressed spun concrete piles (Types 1(b)) are proposed for
the Contract, SO will order at least 2 % of the number of piles with a minimum
of one pile per batch per delivery to Site to be subjected to the tests as specified
in the following Clauses in this sub-section, prior to driving.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

4.249 Coring
Testing methods:
(1) For Types 1(a) and 2 :
(a) Specialist Testing Contractor will take cores in accordance with Specification
Section 5 from each of the chosen precast concrete piles for core test;
(2) For Type 1(b) :
(a) Specialist Testing Contractor will take 3 sets of 3 cores (total 9 nos.) of
76 mm diameter taken normal to the length and from 3 transverse sections
of a chosen precast prestressed spun concrete pile in accordance with clauses
5.181 and 5.182 for core test;
(b) Where the estimated insitu cube strength of any individual core is less than
85 % of the specified grade strength, comply with any instruction of SO for
the taking of additional core samples to make up a total of 12 numbers of
core samples in the same concreting day for further tests. Allow the time
without any claim for extension of time and bear all the costs for such extra
work;
(c) Assess the coring test results in accordance with clause 5.186.
(3) Do not apply the provisions of clause 5.187 to precast concrete piles generally or
those of clause 5.184 to precast prestressed spun concrete piles.

4.250 Test Failure


Non-compliance:
In the event that the coring test results fail to comply with the Specification, all piles
concreted on the same day will be deemed to be unacceptable and must be removed
from the Site.

4.251 Premature Driving


Where driving is carried out before test results are known, submit remedial proposals
for those unacceptable piles, as described above, which have already been driven, for
Approval.

FURTHER INSPECTION AND TESTING

4.252 Requirement
If inspection, loading tests, core tests (for Type 3 piles) or weld tests show that any
pile is not in accordance with the Specification or the Drawings, SO may order further
inspection / tests, the number to be calculated by the application of the formula given
below and no extension of time will be allowed. Contractor to bear the cost of such
further inspection / tests.
number of further inspections / tests = n 2

2n 3
where n = total number of unsuccessful inspections / tests progressively
until all inspections / tests are successful.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

4.253 Sample Evaluations


Typical examples of evaluations of number of further inspections / tests are given in
Appendix II to this Section, for illustrative purposes only.

NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTS ON WELDS

4.254 General
Testing arrangements:
(1) Non-destructive tests on welds will be carried out by Specialist Testing
Contractor(s), allow at least 3 working days for the execution of each weld test
by the Specialist Testing Contractor(s);
(2) Provide attendance on the Specialist Testing Contractors as specified in
Specification Section 1 ;
(3) Allow sufficient time in the programming of the Works for SO to order the piles to
be tested and for performing the number of tests stated before completion of the
Works or the respective Section thereof.

4.255 Types of Test and Sample Size


(1) Testing methods and testing samples:
(a) During the progress of the works, SO will require testing of the butt and fillet
welded joints to all types of piles to be examined by non-destructive tests as
follows:
(i) In accordance with the requirements stated as clause 6.196;
(ii) For full penetration butt weld, the testing frequency shall be 100 %, in
accordance with clause 14.3.6.1 of Code of Practice for the Structural Use
of Steel 2005. SO may, at his discretion, reduce such testing frequency to
a minimum of 10 %.
(b) In addition, SO will order another Specialist Testing Contractor to carry out
the same test on 5 % of the tested welds again.
(2) Non-compliance:
(a) In the event that the result of test carried out by either one of the Specialist
Testing Contractors failed, the tested weld shall be deemed not complying
with the requirement of the Contract.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTS ON PILES

4.256 General
(1) Testing methods and test samples:
(a) In addition to the normal requirements for testing of the piles, a proportion of
the installed piles will be tested by Specialist Testing Contractor(s), using non-
destructive tests which includes the following types of test:

Type of Test Number of Piles to be Tested


Pile driving (i) Minimum 5 % of the total number of all driven
analyser piles excluding Type 4 piles driven to bedrock
and driven concrete piles
(ii) Minimum 10 % of the total number of all Type 4
piles driven to bedrock
(iii) Refer to Sub-clause (1)(b) for driven concrete
piles
Pile Integrity Refer to Sub-clause (1)(b) for driven concrete piles
Test
Sonic logging 100 % of the total number of large diameter bored
piles

(b) The total number of driven concrete piles tested by pile driving analyser and
Pile Integrity Test, taken together, will be minimum 5 % of the total number
of all driven concrete piles;
(c) In addition, SO will order another Specialist Testing Contractor or the Housing
Department Materials Testing Laboratory to carry out the same tests on 5 %
to 10 % of the tested piles again.
(2) Testing arrangements:
(a) Inform SO in writing at least 7 working days before all piles of each individual
pile cap or every 20 % of the total numbers of piles of the same block,
whichever is less, are ready for the non-destructive test; allow at least 7
working days for the execution of non-destructive test on each pile by the
Specialist Testing Contractor(s);
(b) Provide attendance on the Specialist Testing Contractors and / or Housing
Department Material Testing Laboratory as specified in Specification Section
1;
(c) Allow sufficient time in the programming of the Works for SO to order the
piles to be tested and for performing the number of tests stated before
completion of the Works or the respective Section thereof.

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SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

(3) Preparation works for sonic logging:


(a) Install sonic access tubes of mild steel with thickness not less than 2.5 mm
for Type 3 pile of number as given in the following table:
Pile Diameter No. of Sonic Access Tube
Less than 2 m diameter 4
Equal to or exceeding 2 m diameter 6

(b) Half of the number of the sonic access tubes installed in a Type 3 pile shall be
used for both sonic logging test and confirmatory core testing. These tubes
shall be of 150 mm internal diameter. The remaining half number of the
sonic access tubes shall be used for sonic logging test only in accordance with
the following table.
Pile Diameter Remaining half number of the
Sonic Access Tube
(Pile Length)
Less than 2 m diameter 2 nos. of internal diameter not
less than 42 mm
(Length less than 50 m)
Less than 2 m diameter 2 nos. of 150 mm internal
diameter
(Length equal to or longer than 50 m)
Equal to or exceeding 2 m diameter 3 nos. of internal diameter not
less than 42 mm
(Length less than 50 m)
Equal to or exceeding 2 m diameter 3 nos. of 150 mm internal
diameter
(Length equal to or longer than 50 m)
(Pile Length = length of bored pile measured from cut off level to founding level)
(c) Install sonic access tubes for both sonic logging test and confirmatory core
testing and those for sonic logging test only in alternate positions along the
perimeter inside the pile shaft;
(d) Fit all tubes with screw-on steel watertight shoes or other Approved means at
both ends. Fix all tubes securely to the interior of the reinforcement cage of
the pile by method to be approved by SO;
(e) All sonic access tubes shall be watertight including any joints, evenly spaced,
parallel to each other and to the axis of the pile, free from corrosion with
clean internal and external faces so as to allow free and unobstructed
passage of the testing probes;
(f) Plug or cap all sonic access tubes before concreting. Extend the tubes along
the depth of the pile from 300 mm approximately above the pile top level
down to 1 m above the pile base for the 150 mm diameter tubes used for
both sonic logging test and confirmatory core testing, and down to 500 mm
above the pile base for the remaining half number of the sonic access tubes
used for sonic logging test only;
(g) Fill up the sonic access tubes with water prior to concreting of pile and during
testing;
(h) Cut off all tubes flush with the concrete surface of pile and fill up the tubes
with non-shrinkage grout of at least the same crushing strength as the
concrete of the pile upon completion of all testing.

- GS 2013 / S4 / Page 66 of 78 -
SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

4.257 Relationship to Load Testing or Core Testing


The results of this testing will, in conjunction with other considerations, be used in
selecting piles for load testing or core testing as appropriate.

4.258 Test Report


A report of these tests will be prepared by the pile testing contractors and will include
the following:
(1) Date of testing;
(2) Pile reference number;
(3) Measured pile length;
(4) Record test data;
(5) Defects such as cracks, fractures or other dis-continuities; and
(6) Pile stiffness for pile driving analyser.

- GS 2013 / S4 / Page 67 of 78 -
SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

4.259 Testing of Piles driven by Hydraulic Hammers


(1)
(a) For piles pitched by using hydraulic hammers, the pile driving analyser tests
as stipulated in clause 4.256 shall be performed with CAPWAP analysis in
accordance with the following table.
Number of Piles to be Tested by
Pile Type the Pile Driving Analyser
(Type of Hammer Used for Final Set) (Number of Tests with CAPWAP
Analysis)
All driven piles excluding Type 4 piles Minimum 5 % of the total number
driven to bedrock and Type 1b piles of piles
(drop hammers or other types of (at least half of the pile driving
hammers as allowed in clause 4.127) analyser tests)
Type 4 piles driven to bedrock Minimum 10 % of the total
number of piles
(drop hammers or other types of
hammers as allowed in clause 4.127) (all the pile driving analyser tests)
Type 1b piles Minimum 5 % of the total number
of piles
(drop hammers or other types of
hammers as allowed in clause 4.127) (all the pile driving analyser tests)
Minimum 10 % of the total
All driven piles
number of piles
(hydraulic hammers)
(all the pile driving analyser tests)

(b) Unless otherwise agreed by SO, use only hydraulic hammers to carry out the
tests.
(2) Prepare and submit a report of hydraulic hammer performance which should
include particularly the following:
(a) Correlation of the results of final sets measurement, the results of pile driving
analyser tests with or without CAPWAP and the results of static load tests;
(b) Back calculate the values of the Hydraulic Hammer Factor, " Kh ", of the
proposed modified Hiley formula stated in clause 4.53 by using appropriate
test results.

4.260 Checking of Size of Pile Shaft and Bell-out of Type 3 Pile


(1) Testing sample and method :
(a) Prior to installation of permanent lining and steel reinforcement of each Type
3 pile, check the correctness of the size of the pile shaft and the bell-out by
using Ultrasonic Echo Sounder Test or other approved tests and submit the
test report to SO;

- GS 2013 / S4 / Page 68 of 78 -
SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

(2) Testing method:


(a) Unless otherwise agreed by SO, the testing equipment shall fulfil the following
minimum quality and capability:
(i) Comply with the requirements of clause 8.12 of the Code of Practice for
Foundations;
(ii) Be able to generate ultrasonic wave of suitable frequency and energy for
reflection of the pile shaft and casing surface within 0.5 m to 8 m in
distance;
(iii) Have four sensors each mutually perpendicular to one another and be able
to provide two cross sectional profiles of the pile simultaneously in one go;
(iv) Have measurement accuracy within 0.5 % in horizontal distance; and
(v) Be able to measure up to a depth of 100 m;
(b) The test report shall include the following:
(i) The profile of the pile;
(ii) The verticality of the pile besides the verticality of the whole pile, the
verticality of the pile from cut off level down to intermediate depths of
maximum 10m intervals shall be reported;
(iii) The original electro-sensitive paper records which shall be endorsed by the
QCM or SQCC of the Contractor and the field technician of the laboratory;
and
(iv) Interpretation of the test results with respect to the acceptance criteria.
(3) Testing arrangement:
(a) Unless otherwise agreed by SO, employ an Approved laboratory to carry out
the tests;
(b) Prior to the tests, seek SOs agreement on the following:
(i) Testing procedures and equipment;
(ii) Acceptance criteria of the tests other than those stated in the Specification;
(iii) Test report format; and
(iv) Submission arrangement of the test reports.
(c) In addition, SO will order a Specialist Testing Contractor to carry out the same
tests on 5 % of the total number of Type 3 piles; allow at least 7 working
days for the execution of each test by the Specialist Testing Contractor(s);
provide attendance on the Specialist Testing Contractor as specified in
Specification Section 1 ;
(d) Carry out investigation and rectify any defect or irregularities identified by the
test and carry out further tests, all to SOs satisfaction, before proceeding to
the next stage of work;
(e) Allow sufficient time in the programming of the Works for SO to order the
piles to be tested and for performing the number of tests stated before
completion of the Works or the respective Section thereof. No claim for
additional cost and any extension of time as a result of complying this Clause
will be entertained by SO.

- GS 2013 / S4 / Page 69 of 78 -
SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

CONFIRMATORY CORE TESTING OF FOUNDING STRATA OF TYPE 3 PILES

4.261 Requirement for Confirmatory Core Testing


(1) Testing samples:
(a) Take core of minimum NX size down the concrete / rock interface through
one of the sonic tubes with its end installed 1 m above the bottom of the pile;
the core taken shall include the 1 m of concrete above the interface and at
least 1 m of rock below the interface. Use triple-tube core-barrels to extract
cores;
(b) Sample size: 100 % of the total number of Type 3 piles;
(2) Testing methods:
(a) Laboratory compression tests and / or field point load tests on core specimens
to determine the concrete or rock strength when ordered;
(3) Testing arrangement:
(a) Submit three copies of each of the reports of the confirmatory core tests
within three working days after completion of each test;
(b) In addition, SO will order a Specialist Testing Contractor to carry out
confirmatory core tests on 5 % of the total number of Type 3 piles; allow at
least 7 working days for the execution of each confirmatory core testing by
the Specialist Testing Contractor(s); provide attendance on the Specialist
Testing Contractor(s) as specified in Specification Section 1 ;
(c) Allow sufficient time in the programming of the Works for SO to order the
piles to be tested and for performing the number of tests stated before
completion of the Works or the respective Section thereof.

4.262 Equipment and Method


Obtain Approval for the coring equipment and the method of executing the work.

4.263 Treatment of Specimens


Deal with the concrete core specimens in accordance with CS 1 : 2010 all as set out in
Specification Section 5.

4.264 Reinstatement of Core Holes


Fill core holes and sonic tubes solid with non-shrinkage grout of at least the same
crushing strength as the pile cored.

- GS 2013 / S4 / Page 70 of 78 -
SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

4.265 Criteria for Failure


Non-compliance:
(1) Concrete of the respective piles is considered failed if:
(a) The concrete cores show evidence of honeycombing or segregation of
individual constituent materials, or
(b) In the opinion of SO, the concrete fails to meet the specified
requirements in any other respect;
(2) The interface of concrete and rock of the respective pile is considered
failed if, in the opinion of SO, the concrete and rock of the core specimen
is not in good contact;
(3) The respective pile will be considered not complying with the
requirements of this Specification if any one of the failure criteria stated in
Sub-clause (1) or (2) above is met; in such event,
(a) Comply with the requirements stated in clause 4.240 or 4.241, as
appropriate;
(b) SO may order the Specialist Testing Contractor to carry out further
tests on other piles and the number of piles to be tested shall be in
accordance with clause 4.252;
(c) Bear all costs and no extension of time is allowed for testing, remedial
works and installation of additional pile(s) as a consequence of the
above non-compliance.

*****

- GS 2013 / S4 / Page 71 of 78 -
SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

APPENDICES
APPENDIX PIL1/II -
CALCULATION OF NUMBER OF FURTHER INSPECTIONS / TESTS

Typical Examples for Illustrative Purposes Only

1. Loading test shows 2 piles failed to meet the requirements of the Contract.

2. The Contractor when required, at his own expense, is to carry out further tests in
accordance with the formula of:

n 2

2n 3
= 2 - 2 x 2 + 3
= 3 further tests

3. If one of the above 3 further tests fails, SO may order further tests to be carried out at the
contractor's expense by re-applying the formula and taking into account the total number of
failed piles. Altogether and based on the formula, the number of total retesting required:
= 3 - 2 x 3 + 3
=6
As 3 tests have been carried out the Contractor therefore when ordered by SO is to carry
out:
6 - 3 = 3 further tests
4. If the next 3 further tests show further failed piles, the formula will be re-applied as before
until all the tests are successful.

- GS 2013 / S4 / Page 72 of 78 -
SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

APPENDIX PIL1/III -
PILE DRIVING RECORD
(PRECAST CONCRETE, PREFABRICATED STEEL & DRIVEN CAST-IN-PLACE
PILES)
(Sheet 1 of 2)

Contract No: ............................................................ Title: ...........................................................


Contractor: .......................................................................................................................................

Pile Data
Ref. No: ................................................................... Location: .....................................................
Type: .................................. Size: ............................................ Rake: .................................
For precast concrete and steel piles; Preformed length: .................................................................
For precast concrete piles; Date of casting: .......................................................................................

Drive System Data


Hammer: type: ............... mass: ............... kg drop (at set): .............. mm rated energy ............ kJ
Helmet, dolly and anvil: type: ............................................ mass: ............................................ kg
Packing: type: .............................. condition: .............................. thickness: ............................. mm

Levels
Commencing ground / sea bed* level (PD / CD)*: ...........................................................................
Depth of overburden / height of working platform above sea bed level: ..............................................
Reference working level/platform level*: ....................................................... (*delete as appropriate)
Date & Drop Depth No. of Cumula-tive Indicate here length of Remarks (State details of
Time (m) Penetrated blows No. of blows individual segments, obstruction, delays
(m) per m location of splices and interruptions and location
+ testing carried out of concrete samples)++

+ per 0.25 m for top 3.0 m of pile


++ for cast-in-place pile

- GS 2013 / S4 / Page 73 of 78 -
SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

APPENDIX PIL1/III -
PILE DRIVING RECORD
(PRECAST CONCRETE, PREFABRICATED STEEL AND DRIVEN CAST-IN-
PLACE PILES)
(Sheet 2 of 2)

Temporary Compression Record:


(on graph paper graduated in millimetres to be pasted in space below)

Final penetration Top of pile


depth: ................................... mm level: .....................................................

Temporary Cut off


compression: ................................. mm level: ...........................................................
Final set: ................................... mm/last 10 Pile head
blows level: ........................................................
or: ............................ blows / 25 mm Final toe
level: .........................................................
Deviation from plumb or rake 1 in ................. Deviation at cut-off level: x - x ............. mm
y - y ............. mm

For driven cast-in-place piles:


Length of temporary Length of permanent Length of cage
casing: ......................... m casing: ......................... m reinf: ......................... m
Concrete Date of
grade: ....................................................... concreting: ..................................................
Theoretical vol. of concrete Actual vol. of concrete
required: ............... m placed: ......................... m

Reported by: Witnessed by:


.................................. .....................................................
Contractor's Rep. COW / IOW / Engineer / Architect
Date: .............................. Date: .............................................

- GS 2013 / S4 / Page 74 of 78 -
SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

APPENDIX PIL1/IV -
PILE DRIVING RECORD (BORED CAST-IN-PLACE PILES) (Sheet 1 of 2)

Contractor No: ................................................. Title: ................................................................


.....
Contractor: ...................................................................................................................................
.................

Pile Data:
Ref. No: ......................................................... Location: ..........................................................
.......
Type: ............... Diameter: ............... mm Type: ............... Diameter: ............... mm
Bore Hole Record:
Commencing ground / sea bed* level (PD /
CD*): .........................................................................................
Depth of overburden / height of walking platform above sea bed
level: ................................................... m
Casing / drilling fluid*
type: ..........................................................................................................................
Reference working level / platform level*: ............................................................ (*delete as
appropriate)

Date & Depth Details of strata Details of soil testing, Remarks (State details of
penetrated penetrated/ground proving of bedrock obstruction, delays
Time water level and under-ream interruptions, and location of
concrete samples)

Deviation from plumb or rake 1 in .................. Deviation at cut-off level: x - x .......... mm


y - y ................... mm
Length of temporary Length of permanent
casing: .............................. m casing: .............................. m

- GS 2013 / S4 / Page 75 of 78 -
SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

APPENDIX PIL1/IV -
PILE DRIVING RECORD (BORED CAST-IN-PLACE PILES) (Sheet 2 of 2)

Bore hole condition prior concreting:


Bottom visible / invisible* Measured depth of bore: ............................... m
Depth of water / drilling fluid*: ...................... m
Damage and debris
observations: ..................................................................................................................

Concrete Record:
Concreting in dry / by tremie* Water inflow rate: ................................ litre / sec
Concrete Slump: ...............................................................
grade: ................................................ ..
Actual concreted level: ......................... Cut-off level: ......................................................
Concreting in dry / by tremie* Water inflow rate: ................................. litre /
sec
Concrete Slump: ...............................................................
grade: ................................................. ..
Actual concreted level: ......................... Cut-off
level: .........................................................
Length of cage reinforcement: .......... m

Date & Delivery Quantity Theoretical Actual Lt % Cumulative Remarks


Time Note No./ (m) length filled length La length placed (Interruptions in
Truck Lt (m) placed (m) placing, cause of
load No. La (m) excessive Lt %
La
Location of concrete
cubes. Ref No. of
cubes taken etc.)

Reported by: Witnessed by:


.................................. .....................................................
Contractor's Rep. COW / IOW / Engineer / Architect
Date: ................................ Date: .............................................

- GS 2013 / S4 / Page 76 of 78 -
SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

APPENDIX PIL1/V -
PILE LOAD TEST RECORD (Sheet 1 of 2)

Contract no: .......................................................... Title: ........................................................


......
Contractor: ...............................................................................................................................

Pile Data:
Ref No: ................................................................. Location: ..................................................
...............
Type: ....................................................................... Size: ........................................................
...............
Pile dia* / diagonal width (D): ................................. Gross pile length
(Lp): ...................................
Sectional area (A): .................................................. Young's modulus
(E): ............................................

Testing Data:
Safe load carrying capacity
(P): .................................................................................................................

Pressure gauge No: ...................... Calibration Cert. Date: .......................


Load cell No.: .. Ref: ......................... Date: .
Calibration Cert.
Ref: .........................

Dial gauge number 1 2 3 4


Serial number
Calibration certificate reference
Date calibration

Level of fixed point on load reaction system: before testing: .............................................


after testing: ................................................
ground settlement .

Survey at pile head: before testing: .............................................


after testing: ...............................................

Date Load Pressure Load Dial Gauge Readings Dial Dial


and Gauge Cell Gauge Gauge
(kN) Dial 1 Dial 2 Dial 3 Dial 4 Average
Time Readings readings Readings Readings

- GS 2013 / S4 / Page 77 of 78 -
SECTION 4 PILING GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

APPENDIX PIL1/V -
PILE LOAD TEST RECORD (Sheet 2 of 2)

Load in kN
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000

5-

10 -

15 -

20 -

25 -

30 -

35 -

40 -
2 PLp D
Maximum pile head settlement (mm): allowable 4 ............. Actual = ...........
AE 120
D
Residual settlement (mm): allowable = The greater of ( 4) or
120
25 % maximum pile head settlement during the test =............. Actual = ..................
Reported by: Witnessed by:
.................................. .....................................................
Contractor's Rep. COW / IOW / Engineer / Architect
Date: ......................... Date: ................................

- GS 2013 / S4 / Page 78 of 78 -