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Appendix

Fundamental Solutions
Supplied by Tatiana Ribeiro

The fundamental solutions presented for static elasticity are in indicial notation. Please
refer to Chapter 1 for the correlation between indicial and vector notation.

A.1. DISPLACEMENT SOLUTION

The displacement ui at an internal point P is computed by

ui P U ij P, Q t j Q dS  Tij P, Q u j Q dS  Eijk P, Q V 0 jk Q dV
S S V (A.1)

 6ijk P, Q H 0 jk Q dV
V

Where ui , ti are the displacements and tractions and V 0 jk , H 0 jk are initial stresses and
strains. The fundamental solutions are given for plane problems by

1
U ij P, Q C C1 ln G ij  r,i r, j (A.2)
r
and in 3D by
C
U ij P, Q
r

C1G ij  r,i r, j (A.3)

For plane as well as for 3-D problems we have

C2
Tij P, Q
rn

C3G ij  (n  1)r,i r, j cos T  C3 n j r,i  ni r, j
(A.4)
492 The Boundary Element Method with Programming

C (A.5)

Eijk P, Q rn

C3 r,k G ij  r, j G ik  r,iG jk  C4 r,i r, j r, k

C2

6ijk P, Q rn

C3 r,k G ij  r, j G ik  C5 r,iG jk  C4 r,i r, j r, k

(A.6)

where r is the distance between the source point P and the field point Q and ni the
outward normal. The derivative of r with respect to the Cartesian axis j is given by r,j.
The term cosT is computed by

1 (A.7)
cos T r <n
r
and the values for the constants are given in Table A.1

Table A.1 Constants for fundamental solutions

Plane strain Plane stress 3-D


n 1 1 2
C 1/8SG Q  (1+Q SG 1/16SG Q
C1 3-4Q (3-Q  Q 3-4Q
C2 1/4S Q (1+Q S 1/8S Q
C3 1-2Q (1-Q  Q 1-2Q
C4 2  3
C5 1 (1-Q  Q  1-2Q
C6 4  5
C7 1-4Q (1-3Q  Q 1-4Q
C8 -1/8 Q - Q /8 -1/15 Q
C9 3-4Q (3-Q  Q 4-5Q
C10 1 (1-3Q  Q  1-5Q
C11 -1/16G Q - Q /16G -1/30G Q
C12 1 1 7-5Q
C13 1-4Q (1-3Q  Q  2-10 Q
C14 1-2 Q (1-3Q  Q 1-4Q
C15 1 (1-Q  Q 1-2Q
C16 G/4(1-Q G Q /4 G/15(1-Q
C17 1-4Q 1 2+10 Q
C18 -1/8(1-Q - Q /8 -1/30(1-Q
C19 G/2S Q Q G/2S G/4S Q
FUNDAMENTAL SOLUTIONS 493

A.2. STRAIN SOLUTION


The strain tensor at an internal point is computed by

H ij P S ijk P, Q tk Q dS  Rijk P, Q uk Q dS
S S
(A.8)

 6ijkl P, Q H 0 kl Q dV  ijkl H 0 kl P  Eijkl P, Q V 0 kl Q dV  FijklV 0 kl P

V V

where
C
Sijk P, Q
rn

C3 r, j G ik  r,iG jk  r, k G ij  C4 r,i r, j r, k
(A.9)


C2 C4 cos T Q r, j G ik  r,iG jk  r,k G ij  C6 r,i r, j r, k


Rijk P, Q (A.10)
r n 1 C3 n j G ik  nk G ij  niG jk  C4 r,i r, j nk  C4Q n j r,i r, k  ni r, j r, k

C2

6ijkl P, Q r n 1

C3 G ik G jl  G jk G il  G ij G kl

 C4Q G il r, j r, k  G jk r,i r,l  G ik r, j r,l  G jl r,i r, k (A.11)

C4 C3G kl r,i r, j  G ij r, k r,l  C6 r,i r, j r, k r,l

C

Eijk P, Q r n 1

C4Q G il r, j r,k  G jk r,i r,l  G ik r, j r,l  G jl r,i r, k
 C4 G kl r,i r, j  G ij r, k r,l  C6 r,i r, j r, k r,l (A.12)

 C3 G ik G jl  G jk G il  G ij G kl

Fijkl

C11 G jk G il  C9 G ik G jl  G ij G kl
(A.13)

H ijkl

C8 C9 G jk G il  G ik G jl  C10G ij G kl
(A.14)

where the constants are given in Table A.1 .


494 The Boundary Element Method with Programming

A.3. STRESS SOLUTION


The stress tensor for an internal point is computed by

V ij P S ijk P, Q tk Q dS  Rijk P, Q uk Q dS
S S
(A.15)

 E ijkl P, Q V 0 kl Q dV  Fijkl V 0 kl P  6ijkl P, Q H 0 kl Q dV  H ijkl H 0 kl P

V V

where

C2
Sijk P, Q
rn

C3 G ik r, j  G jk r,i  G ij r, k  C4 r,i r, j r, k

(A.16)

C19
Rijk P, Q
r n 1
^C cosT C r G
4 3 , k ij
 Q r, j G ik  r,iG jk  C6 r,i r, j r, k

(A.17)

 C3 n j G ik  niG jk  C4 r,i r, j nk  C7 nk G ij  C4Q n j r,i r, k  ni r, j r, k `

C2

E ijkl P, Q r n 1

C3 G ik G jl  G jk G il  G ij G kl  C4G ij r, k r,l
(A.18)

 C4Q G il r, j r,k  G jk r,i r,l  G ik r, j r,l  G jl r,i r, k C4 G kl r,i r, j  C6 r,i r, j r, k r,l

C19

6 ijkl P, Q r n 1
^C G
3 ik G jl
 G jk G il  C14G ij G kl
(A.19)

 C4Q G il r, j r, k  G jk r,i r,l  G ik r, j r,l  G jl r,i r, k
C4 C3G kl r,i r, j  C15G ij r, k r,l  C6 r,i r, j r, k r,l `

Fijkl
C18 C12 G jk G il  G ik G jl  C13G ij G kl

(A.20)

H ijkl

C16 C12 G ik G jl  G jk G il  C17G ij G kl
(A.21)

where the constants are shown in Table A1.