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PART – I (GENERAL)

RAJASTHAN ATOMIC POWER STATION

INTRODUCTION:

Rawatbhata is a remote village in Chittorgarh district about 64 KMs, from


Kota, an industrial city of Rajasthan. The site is well connected by Western
Railways as well as National Highways no.3 and 8.

The land selected is in between Rana Pratap Sagar Dam &Gandhi Sagar
Dam at the right bank of Chambal River. The water from the reservoir of the
Rana Pratap Sagar Dam serves the requirements of the Nuclear Power
Plants.

There are four PHWR units of 100X1,200X1,220X2 MWe and two units of
235 MW newly constructed which feed the Northern Grid as abase load
station. There is lush greenery around the site. For employees various
colonies are constructed with all the domestic facilities.

PRINCIPLE OF NUCLEAR REACTION:


When a heavy nucleus split into smaller nuclei, a small amount of mass
is converted into energy. The amount of energy produced is given by
Einstein’s mass energy relation (E=m*c2) .This breaking up of nuclei is
called nuclear fission. Natural uranium has two type s of isotopes, U 238 &
U235 isotope in the ratio of 139:1. The less abundant U235 isotopes that
fissions when a U235 atom is struck by allows (or thermal) neutron, it splits
into 2 or fragments. This splitting is compiled by release of energy in the
form of heat, radio-ability and two or there atom at high speed, are made
to slow down in the split atom at high speed, are made to slow down in a
moderation, i.e. heavy water, so that they have a high probability of hitting
other U235 atoms which in turn release more energy and further sets of
neutrons. Attenuation of self sustained stage of spilling of uranium atom is
called chain reaction. There is a particular size of fissionable material for
which the neutron production by fission is exactly balanced by leakage
and absorption. This is called the critical size at which the chain reaction
is self sustaining this size of a reaction. At this stage the reactor is said to
have attained criticality. The slowing down of neutrons is achieved by
“moderator”, which is heavy water.

PRINCIPLE OF HEAT GENERATION:

Sr90

1 U235 U236
n
γ - Ray

In the above equation, (1) the total mass before fission, is the sum of the masses
n 1 of U235 and the
neutrons. Mass after fission is the sum of fission fragmentsXe and14neutrons.
4

Since loss of mass of 1 a.m.u is equivalent to an energy release of 931 MeV. Therefore energy
release in the above RELEASE
ENERGY reaction could beDURING
calculated asFISSION:
follows. Since

In the above equation, the total mass before fission is the sum of the
masses of U235 and the neutrons. Mass after fission is the sum of fission
fragments and neutrons.

2
Since loss of mass of 1 a.m.u is equivalent to an energy release of 931
MeV. Therefore energy release in the above reaction could be calculated
as follows. Since

PRESSURISED HEAVY WATER REACTOR (PHWR):

PHWRs have established over the years a record for dependability, with
load factors in excess of 90% over extended periods. In the PHWR, the
heavy water moderator is contained in a large stainless steel tank
(calandria) through which runs several hundred horizontal zircalloy
calandria tubes. The D2O moderator is maintained at atmospheric
pressure and a temperature of about 70°C. Concentric with the calandria
tube, but separated by a carbon dioxide filled annulus which minimizes
heat transfer from fuel to the moderator, is the zircaloy pressure tube
containing the natural UO2 fuel assemblies and the heavy water coolant
at a pressure of about 80 kg/cm² and a temperature of about 300°C.

The term pressurized refers to the pressurized D2O coolant which flows in
opposite directions in adjacent tubes and passes its heat to the
secondary coolant via the steam generators. System pressure is
maintained by a pressurizing one of the legs of a steam generator.

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REACTOR BUILDING
Following are the parts of reactor building:
1. Calandria 8. Dump Tank

2. Control Rods 9. Dousing Tank

3. Fuelling Machine 10. Reactor Dome

4. Heat Exchanger 11. Coolant Channel

5. PHT Pump 12. Fuel Bundles

6. Moderator Pump 13. Coolant Tower

7. Boiler (Steam Generator) 14. Turbine

REACTOR:
Reactor is the place where actual nuclear fission takes place. The
building that houses reactor and other accessories is called Reactor
Building. Following are the ingredients of Reactor Building:-

CALANDRIA:
It is a huge cylindrical structure which houses bundles. The specifications
regarding 200 MWe reactors calandria are:-

Weight - 22tons
Length - 4645 mm
Main Shield I.D - 5996 mm
Small Shell I.D. - 4928 mm
Thickness of Shell - 25 mm

There are 306 channels each accommodating 12 bundles. The calandria


is housed in steel lined concrete calandria vault filled with light water
which provides shielding & cooling of vault structure calandria tubes
made up of zircalloy.

CONTROL RODS:
The control rods contain material that regulates the rate of the chain
reaction. If they are pulled out of the core, the reaction speeds up. If they
are inserted, the reaction slows down.

In RAPS, cobalt is used as control rods.The used cobalt is then


processed and enriched .The enriched cobalt is then used for different

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purposes such as cobalt therapy etc.

CUT SECTION OF CALANDRIA

FUELLING MACHINE:
Reactor fuel is moved into and out of reactor by a pair of fuelling
machines that is clamped to channels on north and south ends of the
reactor. It consists of Head, which contains positioning the mechanisms
for manipulating the fuel, a carriage for Head in line with any desired fuel
channel, and numerous houses and cables, which supplies fluid and
electrical services. A ram and associated mechanism is provided for

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pushing reactor fuel and handling plugs in the reactor channels. The ram
is operated by the hydraulic pressure of Heavy water. The fuelling
machine is left in the vault when not in the use, unless maintenance
operations are required on it.

The various plugs and fuel handled by the fueling machines are stored in
the various chambers of the rotary magazine. The magazine has twelve
chambers. Refuelling can be done in a number of channels during one
refuelling session.

HEAT EXCHANGER:
Tube-and-shell type heat exchangers are suitable in this type of system.
The U type heat exchanger, shown in Fig simplifies expansion problems
and reduces the number of tube sheet joints. Heavy water hold-up is
reduced by passing the heavy water through the tubes and the cooling
water on the shell side.

The tube material would probably be copper-nickel alloy, whereas the


shell would be made of carbon steel. In RAPS cupronickel was used as
tube material but to reduce probability of tube failure stainless steel is
now being used as tube material. In order to maintain moderator cooling
at all times the cooling water supply has to be very reliable. Should the
normal process water

supply fail an alternative source of cooling water must be available.

HEAT EXCHANGER

MODERATOR SYSTEM:

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The following are the parts of moderator system-

1. Calandria 4. Dump Port

2. Coolant Channels 5. Moderator Pumps

3. Over Pressure Rupture Disc 6. Heat

MODERATOR SYSTEM
NUCLEAR FUEL:
The fuel used in a PHWR type reactor is sintered natural uranium di-
oxide in the form of small pellets. These pellets are kept in the zircalloy
tubes and are 24 per tube. The tubes are known as pencils and 19
pencils make a complete fuel bundle. The pencils are held between end
plates and zircalloy provide spacing between the tubes and zircalloy pads

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provide bearing action. This help mixing of the coolant flow with the sub
channels between the elements.

FUEL BUNDLE
COOLING TOWERS:
Mainly there are two types of cooling towers:-

• IDCT : Induct Drift Cooling Towers

• NDCT : Natural Drift Cooling Towers

The main purpose of these cooling towers is to bring down the


temperature of circulating water. This is light water that circulates through
the heat exchanger and carried away the heat generated by the DM
water. This DM water condenses the steam. Hence enhances the
efficiency of the plant.

Following is the description of the types of cooling


towers:
1) IDCT: As the name indicates it requires induced draft for cooling the
active process water. Big fans are used to produce the draft. The active
water is used in Reactor Building to cool various process equipments.

2) NDCT: The inductive water that is used to condense water is further


cooled by natural draft. They are 150M high with hyperbolic shape
atomizing action.

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STEAM TURBINE:
It is a rotating machine in which heat energy of steam is converted into
mechanical energy. The steam is caused to fall in pressure in a passage
or nozzle; due to this fall in pressure a certain amount of heat energy is
converted into mechanical kinetic energy, and the steam is set moving
with a greater velocity. The rapidly moving particles of steam enter the
moving part of the turbine and here suffer a change in direction of motion
which gives rise to a change in momentum and thus to a force. This
constitutes the driving force of the machine.

ZONE CLASSIFICATION:
Depending on contamination level the entire plant is divided into four
zones. This classification is as follows:

ZONE 1  zero contamination (Administrative,


Official buildings)

ZONE 2  zero contamination (shop floors)

ZONUE 3  little contamination (service buildings)

ZONE 4  very high contamination (reactor building)

METHODS OF MEASURING DOSE:

For measuring dose absorbed by a person, devices known as dosimeters


are used. Generally there are two types of dosimeters these are:
1. Direct Reading Dosimeters (DRD).
2. Thermo Luminescence dosimeter (TLD).

DIRECT READING DOSIMETERS (DRD):


This device measures the dose directly and is used for day to day dose
control. It is a pen shaped device and lenses are fitted on both the ends.
On bigger lens, a scale is marked which directly tells about the dose
absorbed.

THERMO LUMINESENCE DOSIMETER (TLD):


This is a badge type device and is used to dose absorbed during one
month’s time

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RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT:

Operation of a nuclear facility like nuclear power station inevitably leads


to the production of low level radioactive wastes which are collected
segregated to select best processing method, and conditioned for either
interim site storage or for disposal. The design of facilities is such that the
average public exposure from radioactive materials at the exclusion
boundary is a small fraction of the recommended AERB limits.
Based on the state of waste different procedures are applied to make
them compact and volume reduction is done. Then as per the
radioactivity present they are disposed off.

SAFETY:

INDUSTRIAL SAFETY:
We mean that the measures adopted as a whole in industry to reduce
accidents to bare minimum.

Factors responsible for Safety:


• Plant layout
• Design of machinery
• Safety Gadgets and equipments
• Protective aids
• Safety culture & Respect for Safety
• Attitude of the management/ employer - Caution Boards
• Display of Good practices about Safety
• Safety meetings, Open discussion and other measures
• Safety Manual
• Unsafe Act & Unsafe conditions

CAUSES OF ACCIDENTS:
Hazards are the risks and perils or dangers that
contribute to accidents and injuries.

"HAZARDS DO NOT CAUSE ACCIDENTS,


PEOPLE DO"

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KINDS OF HAZARDS:
• Fire
• Heat
• Material Handling
• Floors
• Ladders
• Tools
• Machinery
• Walking and Working surfaces
• Process
• Chemicals
• Electricity
• Unsafe Act
• Unsafe Condition

RADIATION SAFETY:
Radiation in Nuclear reactor is produced in following ways :
• Directly in fission reaction
• By decay of fission products

Following types of radiations are encountered:


• Alpha radiation
• Beta radiation
• Gamma radiation
• Neutron radiation
Out of the above types of radiations Alpha radiation is practically zero,
whereas Beta and Gamma radiation fields may be present almost
everywhere inside the reactor building and in negligible amount even
outside the reactor building. Neutron radiations are mainly present inside
the reactor vault. It is worth noting that the secondary side of the plant
i.e. feed water and steam cycle etc. are completely separate from the
nuclear systems and are therefore not supposed to be and neither they
are to carry any sort of radioactive particle and therefore free of
contamination and radiation. It is also wroth noting that all radiations are
emitted from the nucleus of every radioactive nuclide which will always
have a tendency to become stable by emitting radiations through
disintegration.

The following reaction shows the emissions of Alpha, Beta, Gamma and
Neutron.

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U238 → 2He4 → 92U234 +
92 (alpha)
It has very low penetrating power and can be stopped by simple paper.

H3 → 2He3 (18 KeV) +beta


1

It also does not have good penetrating power and in human skin it can
penetrate up to about half mm. It can be very easily shielded

92 U235 + 0n1 → 92U236 → Xe + Kr + 0n1 + gamma + Heat

Following methodologies are used to control the exposure to the


radiation and therefore resistive of the radiation dose.
(1) Administrative Control (4) Operation Control
(2) Zoning Technique (5) Maintenance and
House keeping
(3) Design Control

Exposure to any kind of radiation can be controlled by an individual by


following methods:
(1) Distance
(2) Shielding
(3) Decay (Time to Decay)

RAPPCOF (COBALT FACILITY):

Here, recovery of COABALT-60 SLUGS/PELLETS from the IRRADIATED


ABSORBER RODS received from different Nuclear Power Plants.

COBALT-60 DATA

27Co59 +0n1 →27Co60 +γ

Thermal 0n1 activation X-section: 37 Barns


Sp. Activity of Carrier free Co60 : 1128 Ci/g
Half Life: 5.27 year
Radiations:
β :0.31 MeV max.
:γ : 1.17 MeV 100%
:γ : 1.33 MeV 100%

§Thermal Energy/1000 Ci : 4 cal/s

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§Radiation field at 1 mtr from 1 Ci : 1.35 R/hr

PART- II (PROJECT)
INTRODUCTION TO PLC

Many PLC configurations are available even from a single vendor. But, in
each of these, there are common components and concepts. The most
essential components are: power supply – this can be built into the PLC
or be an external unit. Common voltage levels required by the PLC (with
and without the power supply) are 24 Vdc, 120Vac, 220Vac, CPU (central
processing unit)- this is a computer where ladder logic is stored and
processed. I/O (input/output) – a number of input / output terminals must
be provided so that the PLC can monitor the process and initiate actions .
Indicator lights – these indicate the status of the PLC including power on ,
program running , and a fault . These are essential during diagnosing
problems. The configurations of the PLC refers to the packaging of the
components typical configurations are listed below from largest to
smallest as shown in figure 3.1. Rack – a rack is often large (up to 18’’by
10’’) and can hold multiple cards .When necessary, multiple racks can be
connected together . These tend to be of the highest cost , but also the
most flexible and easy to maintain . Mini – these are similar in functions to
PLC racks , but about half the size shoebox – a compact , all –in-one unit
(about the size of a shoebox) that has limited expansion capabilities.
Lower cost and compactness make these ideal for small applications.
Macro – these units can be as small as a deck of cards. They tend to
have fixed quantities of I/O and limited abilities, but cost will be the
lowest. Software – software based PLC requires a computer with an
interface card, but allows the PLC to be connected to sensors and other
PLCs across a network.

EVOLUTION OF PLC:
In the late 1960’s the need to design more reliable and more flexible
control system became apparent e.g the automotive industry was
spending millions of dollars for rewiring control panels in order to make
relatively minor chamges at the time of yearly model changeover. In 1968
a team of automotive engineers wrote a specification for what they called
a ‘Programmable Logic Controller’. What they specifies was a solid steate
replacement for the relay logic. Istead of wires there would be bits,instead
of the wiring of the circuit the logic was dictated by the memory circuit.The
machines would use solid state outputs and n inputs instead of control
relays to control the motor starters and sense push buttons and limit
switches. The first commercially successful programmable controller was
introduced in 1969 by a firm called Bedford Associates (Modicon) and
delivered to the General Motors Hydromantic Division. By today standard
it was a massive machine containing thousand of electronic parts. It

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should be stressed that this machine was designed at a time long before
the availability of microprocessors. In the late 1970 the microprocessor
became the reality and greatly enhanced the role of the programmable
controllers permitting it to evolve from simply replacing relys to the
sophisticated control system component that it has become today.

ADVANTAGES OF PLC:
• Enhanced reliability
• On-line fault diagnostic capabilities
• Interactive operative interface
• Flexibility while setting and changing the logic during
commissioning and operation
• Online repair facility
• I/O forcing through software
Plc (Programmable Logic controller) DL-06

Plc used during this project is DL-06 manufactured by KOYO. The


dl 06 micro PLC family has 20 inputs and 16 outputs in the base unit. The
DL06 has four option card slots which can be used to add I/O or provide
additional communications options. The DL 06 CPU offers PID capability,
floating point number handing, and an instruction set very similar to our
new D2-260 CPU many powerful new instructions are included. All DL06
PLCs have two built – in communications ports that can be used for
programming operator interface, networking, etc. one of the DL 06 ports
is a multi – functions port capable of RS232C, RS422,communications

LADDER LOGIC:
Ladder logic is the main programming method used for PLSs. As
mentioned before, ladder logic has been developed to mimic relay logic.
By selecting ladder logic as the main programming method, the amount of
retraining needed for engineers and trades people was greatly reduced.
Modern control systems steel includes relays, but these are rarely used

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for logic. A relay is a simple device that uses a magnetic field to control a
switch as pictured in figure given below. When a voltage is applied to
input coil, the resulting current creates a magnetic field. The magnetic
field pulls a metal switch (or reed) towards it and contacts touch, closing
the switch. The contact that closes when the coil is energized is called
normally open. The normally closed contact touches when the input coil is
not energized. Relays are normally drawn in schematic form using a circle
to represent the input coil. The output contacts are represented with two
parallel lines. Normally open contacts are shown as two lines and will be
open (non – conducting) when the input is not energized. Normally closed
contacts are shown with two lines with a diagonal line through them.
When the input coil is not energized the normally closed contacts will
remain closed (conducting)

LADDER LOGIC INPUTS:


PLC inputs are easily represented in ladder logic. In Figure there are
three types of inputs shown. The first two are normally open and normally
closed inputs. The immediate input function allows ladder logic to
examine input values more than ones in every cycle.

Normally open; an active input X will close the contact and allow the
power to flow.

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Normally closed: power flows when the input X is not open.

Immediate inputs will take current values, not those from the previous
inputs scan.(Note: this instruction is actually an output that will update the
input the input table with the current input values. Other output contacts
can now be used to examine the new values.)

LADDER LOGIC OUTPUTS:


In ladder logic; there are multiple types of outputs, but these are not
consistently available on all PLCs. Some of the outputs will be externally
connected to devices outside the PLC, but it is also possible to use
internal memory locations in PLC. There are five types of outputs shown
in figure below:

1. Normal output: When energized the output will turn on and


energize the output.

2. Normally ON output: It is shown as a circle with a diagonal line.


When energized the output will turn off. This type of output is not
available on all types of PLCs.

3. One shot relay (OSR): When initially energized the OSR instruction
will turn ON for one scan but then be turned OFF for all the later
scans.

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4. Latch and Unlatch: These instructions can be used to lock the ON
outputs. When a L output is energized, the output will turn ON
indefinitely even when output coil is de-energized. The output can
only be turned OFF using a U output. This like a flip-flop and stays
set even when the PLC is turned off.

5. Immediate output: IOT will allow the outputs to be updated without


waiting for the ladder logic to be scanned. When power is applied
(ON), the output is activated for the left output but turned OFF for
the output on the right.

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PLC AND RELAYS:


• PLC reduces the wiring job to a large extent.

• Any change in user logic can be easily implemented through


simple programming; it does not require any hardware
modifications.

• Operator console in the main control room provides information


like the status of PLC, status of all inputs and outputs error
messages etc.

• Exhaustive on line diagnosis enable the operator to identify the


faults and helping easy of operation and maintenance.

• Online maintenance of any card is possible.

• Menu driven operations of the console make the operation of


console easy.

• Any input - output contact can be forced to open – close position


from console. However, administrative controls like password and
keys are provided.

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• As only plug-in cards are used, easy and fast maintenance is
possible.

ABOUT TRAINER KIT:


The DL-06 PLC trainer is meant to provided training on the DL-06. The
PLC DL-06 is manufactured and distributed by KOYO. The trainee on this
tainer can perform any experiment related to control. Various connections
on the PLC trainer can be done by using the patch cords. The inputs to
the PLC can be provided by using the input mugets and by switching the
switches to on positions. Similarly on can take the out put from the output
connector and provide the output to the output relay and to the indicating
lamp for indication purpose. Various equipments which are to be
controlled can be controlled by connecting them to these relays.
Programming for this PLC can be done by using direct soft 32 software.
Programming can be done in any of the following PLC programming
language like Ladder, State Flow and Mnemonics. After completing the
training on the PLC trainer one will be able to repair any of the logic
control loop using DL – 06 PLC.

Following experiments can be performed on the DL06 PLC trainer:

• PLC Installation and wiring


• Ladder logic programming
• Realization of various logics like 1/2, 2/2, 2/3, 3/4 and 1/4
• MV operating control
• Single phase motor control
• Three phase motor control
• Process tank level control using MV
• Configuration of timers and counters
• Configuring the outputs to a predetermined state during STOP
mode.
• Effect of control power supply failure (24V DC)
• Effect of power supply failure ( 230V AC)

GENERAL SPECIFICATION OF DL06 PLC:


POWER SUPPLY:

The DL 05 and DL 06 families have AC and DC power options. They are


also offered with a variety of I/O options. We can explore the Quick
Selection Guide on the next page to choose the right PLC for our
application.

General Specifications AC Powered DC Powered

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110/220 V AC
Power (+10%, -15%), 50- 12/24V DC
60 Hz
Input Voltage Range 95-240 V AC 12-24V DC
Maximum Power 30VA (DL05) 40VA 20W
(DL06)
Maximum Inrush Current 13 A, 1 ms 10A, < 1ms
(240V AC)
Storage Temperature -4Deg.F to 158
Deg.F (-20Deg. to
70Deg. C)
Ambient Operating Temp. 32Deg.F to
131Deg.F(0Deg. to
55Deg.C)
Ambient Humidity 5% - 95% Relative
Humidity(Non-
condensing)
Vibration Resistance MIL STD 810C,
Method 514.2
Shock Resistance MIL STD 810C,
Method 516.2
Noise Immunity NEMA(ICS3-304)
Atmosphere No corrosive gases

IMPORTANT POINTS OF DL06 PLC KIT:

• The DL06 instructions include the drum sequencing instruction,


networking, ASCII, MODBUS, LCD & high speed I/O capabilities.
High speed inputs are available on units with DC inputs only; high
speed outputs are available on units with DC outputs only.
• DL06 has limited motion control capabilities. The high speed I/O
features offer either encoder inputs with the high speed counting
and presets with the interrupt or a pulse/direction output for
stepper control.
• DL06 contains a non-removable FLASH memory for program
storage, which may be written and erased thousands of times. We
may transfer programs to/from Direct Soft 32 on a PC.
• Devices which can be connected to the communication ports of
DL06 are:

1) PORT 1: The port is RS-232C, fixed at 9600 baud, odd


parity address 1 and uses the proprietary K-sequence
protocol. The DL06 can also be connected to the MODBUS
RTU and Direct Net networks as a slave device through
Port 1. The port communicates with many devices such as

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DV-1000 Data Access Unit, EZ Touch, EZ Text, Direct
Touch, DS Data.

2) PORT 2: This is a multifunction port. It supports RS-232C,


RS-422 or RS-485, with selective baud rates (300 – 38400
bps) address and parity. It also supports the proprietary K-
sequence protocol as well as direct net and MODBUS RTU,
ASCII I/O and non-sequence/print protocols.

APPLICATION OF PLC IN CONDENSATE & FEED


WATER SYSTEM:

INTRODUCTION:
Heat generated in nuclear reactor due to fission of natural uranium is
carried away by Primary Heat Transport System (PHT) fluid to steam
generators. PHT fluid transfers its heat to feed water to process saturated
steam in SGs. This steam is expanded in turbine to produce shaft work to
drive generator. Steam after expansion in turbine is condensed in
condenser at constant pressure. This condensed steam is transferred to
steam generators through various heaters by Condensate Extraction
Pumps (CEPs) and Boiler Feed Pumps (BFPs). This system describing
the transfer of condensed steam in condenser to SG is called condensate
and feed water cycle.

DESCRIPTION OF CONDENSATE SYSTEM:


Steam exhausted from low pressure turbine is condensed in condenser,
which operates at a pressure lower than atmosphere by ensuring vacuum
in condenser. Steam is condensed in condenser into saturated water and
stored in condenser hot well. Condensate Extraction Pump (CEP) takes
suction from condenser hot well and transfers condensate to deaerator
through gland steam condenser and four numbers low pressure heaters.
This path of condensed water from condenser hotwell to deaerator falls
into condensate water system.

REQUIREMENT OF CONDENSOR:
• To reduce the steam exhaust pressure from last stage of Turbine
so as to increase specific output of turbine (i.e. work produced
from turbine with one unit heat addition to feed water in SG). If the
circulating cooling water temperature in condenser is low enough
(as per design) it creates a low back pressure (vacuum) for the
turbine. This back pressure is equal to saturation pressure
corresponding to condensing steam temperature which is a
function of the cooling water temperature. As back pressure is

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further lowered, higher is the cycle efficiency and output of the
turbine.
• To recover high quality feed water in the form of condensate and
feed it back to the system generator with the minimal
treatment/chemistry control during normal operation.

LIST OF VARIOUS SYSTEMS USED IN THE MAIN


CONDENSATE AND FEED WATER SYSTEM:

• Condenser
• Gland steam condenser
• LP heaters
• Deaerators
• Condensate transfer pumps
• Condensate extraction pumps
• Boiler feed pumps
• Auxiliary boiler feed pumps

The main systems used in our project are CEPs,


Deaerators, and CTPs. These are explained as
follow:-

1. CONDENSATE EXTRACTION PUMPS (CEPs)


These are two 100% CEPs which take suction from bottom of
hotwell independently. CEPs are located at 91m Elevation TB. Normally,
one pump operates and other is standby. These pumps provide
necessary pressure load and flow to condensate so that condensate
reaches to deaerator. CEP is vertical, four stages and centrifugal barrel
type with 1175 cubic-metre per hour at 119MWC developed heat.
Gate valves are provided at suction and discharge of each pump for
isolation of each pump. In order to avoid entry of pipe scales and
weldments into pumps, which may cause damage to pump, strainers are
provided at suction of each pump. AS CEP suction is under –ve pressure
hence in order to remove any vapour formed, suction side of CEP is
vented to condenser through LP flash tank. This helps in prevention of air
ingress during venting. Discharge lines of two CEPs are joined to form a
common header, which takes condensate to deaerator after passing
through various heaters. Each discharge line is provided with NRV to
prevent flow bypassing other CEP.

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2. DEAERATOR:

Deaerator is a contact type feed water heater where feed


water is heated to saturation temperature by steam extracted from HP
turbine exhaust.

The presence of certain gases like Oxygen, Carbon dioxide and


ammonia, dissolved in feed water is harmful because of their corrosive
attack on metals, particularly at elevated temperature. So, feed water
should be free, as far as possible of all dissolved gases especially
oxygen. So, Deaerator is used for deaerating the feed water. Apart from
this, it is also used in the heating of incoming feed water and as a
reservoir to provide a sudden or instantaneous demand of feed water.

PRINCIPLE OF DEAERATOR:

The solubility of dissolved gases decreases with increase in feed water


temperature and becomes zero at saturation temperature or boiling
temperature. Hence, these gases are removed in the deaerator, where
feed water is heated to the saturation temperature by steam extracted
from HP turbine exhaust during normal power operation, which is lean in
these dissolved gases, due to this concentrated gradient of dissolved
gases in water to pure steam, steam strips off all the dissolved gases.

Basically Deaerator comprises of two chambers:

• Deaerating Column
• Feed Storage Tank or Deaerator Tank

3. CONDENSATE TRANSFER PUMP:( 4321-P-1008,


1009):
There are two 100% condensate transfer pumps (CTP), (4321 P-1008,
1009) located at control building (CB) basement takes suction from Main
Condensate Storage Tank (4331-TK-1001) of 250 cubic metre capacity
located outside TB at 100 m EL. The purpose of CTP is to supply water to
deaerator storage tank when both CEPs are not available. One CTP
starts on auto when both CEPs trip. CTP is a single stage, side suction,
top discharge centrifugal pump with 37 cubic metres per hour at 66MWC.
when both CEPs trip, BFP will trip on very low level in deaerator storage
tank after 45 sec of reactor trip. ABFP starts on auto when both BFPs trip.
Under this condition deaerator storage tank make up is done by CTP.

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In the event of Station Black Out (SBO) when auxiliary boiler feed pump
will also be not available, there is a provision to feed fire water directly
into SG. Fire water line is connected at down stream of check valve near
SG 10% feed nozzle.

# SPEACIAL POINT:

Our project is mainly on CTP’s commissioning and their controlling


directly through Control Room by using a Programmable Logic Controller
(PLC).
For operating CTPs directly through PLC, we need to have some
information regarding their control. It means the position of hand
switches, interface relays, status and mode of BFPs and ABFPs, time
delays, deaerator storage tank and the condition of both the auto modes
of CTPs.

CONTROLLING OF CONDENSATE TRANSFER


PUMPS
4321-P-1008, 1009 are controlled by four position HS located at 6610-PL-
3. (AUTO #1, AUTO #2, ON, OFF/RESET). During plant running
condition HS of one CTP is kept in ‘AUTO #1’ and HS of another pump is
kept in ‘AUTO #2’.

In ‘ON & OFF’ position of HS, the corresponding during pump will start
and stop respectively.

(a) In AUTO #1, pump starts after 10sec when

• Both CEPs are not operating.


• Deaerator storage tank level is very low

(b) In AUTO #2 position, the pump will start after 20 sec when

• Both CEPs are not operating.


• Other CTP does not start or trips.
• Operating CTP trips on motor protection.

Following annunciations are provided:

• Pump trip
• Differential pressure across suction strain is high (0.3kg/cm2)
• HS error.

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LEGENDS USED IN THE CONNECTIONS OF INPUT
& OUTPUT OF PLC:
The legends are divided in two groups viz. Non-safety and safety. The
connections used in safety region are not available all the time for
monitoring as their failures are not affordable. The Non-safety region is
being monitored at regular intervals for its long use.

Various terminals are used in Safety and Non-safety region and some
panels are used in between both of these regions. Those terminals are as
follows:

• Control Distribution Frame Terminal (Non-safety)


• Programmable Logic Controllers Terminals
• Field Terminal
• Junction Box Terminal (Non-safety)
• Control Power Supply Distribution Panel Terminal
• Main Control Panel Terminal
• Buffer Terminal Cabinet terminal (Safety)
• Buffer Terminal Cabinet Terminal (Non-safety)
• MCST:- Main Condensate Storage Tank

In the wire diagram of CTP’s connection of input and output of PLC, these
terminals are as per there safety and non-safety requirements. Non-
safety terminals such as CDFT and BFCT are accompanied with Main
Control Panel Terminal and used in controlling Hand Switches. Various
relay contacts are checked by using NC & NO condition.

Basically in connections of PLC’s inputs and outputs two loads are used
viz. Normal Load (380 mA) & Maximum overload (400 mA). A +ve 48V
D.C supply is given to the BUS which is connected to the inputs of PLC.

LOGICS USED TO DEVELOP RUNGS:

• Four changeover contact relay i.e. Multiplying Relay is used for


INTERFACE/MULTIPLICATION of contacts, if any.
• Lamps & Hand Switches are mounted on third PLC unless stated
otherwise.
• All equipment numbers are prefixed by 64321 unless stated
otherwise.
• All wires are prefixed by 4321 unless stated otherwise.

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• 4321-P-1008 pump from class-III is started by MCC No P2 and
starter ‘J’. It is rated as 15 KW.
• 4321-P-1008 is Non-safety related group ‘A’ LOAD and redundant
to 4321-P-1009.
• Hand Switch being in Auto-1 position, pump 4321-P-1008 starts
when Deaerator level is low & both CEPs have tripped after a time
delay of 10 seconds.
• Hand Switch being in Auto-2 position, pump 4321-P-1008 starts
when the pump 4321-P-1009 not starting in 20 seconds on Auto-1
condition.
• Running pump will trip, when Main Condensate Storage Tank level
is low or Deaerator level is high.
• In one DG condition, the pump will not be allowed to run,
irrespective of HS position.
• 64321-SV-742 energises when both CEPs are not running &
closes the CEP recirculation valve 4321-CV-1228.

OPERATION ON DL06 PLC TRAINER KIT:


For performing operation on DL06 from the field, inputs and output are
needed to be converted as per the specification of trainer kit. The
controlling of CTP is done on DL06 by using DirectSoft32 software as an
interface, on which inputs, outputs and interfacing relays are named as
per the specified number of I/O on the kit.

There are 23 inputs and 16 outputs on DL06 kit with four communication
ports. 3 slots can be used as optional slots on the kit.

For developing a RUNG on the kit various input are renamed as per the
kit. The input specifications are as follows:

• 10434 : X0 : closes on thermal overload


• 10430 : X1 : closes when auto-1 mode selected
• 10431 : X2 : closes when auto-2 mode selected
• 10432 : X3 : closes when ‘on’ mode selected
• 10701 : X4 : closes when 4321-P-1001 tripped
• 10204 : X20 : closes when 4321-P-1002 tripped
• 10203 : X7 : closes when Deaerator level < low
• 19991 : X10 : closes when P-1009 tripped
• 10514 : X11 : closes when HS-304 is in ‘on’
• 10515 : X12 : closes when HS-304 is in auto-1
• 10275 : X13 : closes when HS-304 is in auto-2
• 10440 : X14 : closes when P-1008-ON
• 1-814 : X15 : opens when MCST level is low
• 1-0022 : X16 : opens when deaerator level is high
• 1-817 : X17 : opens during 1DG condition

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The Interface relay specifications are as follows:

• M0159 : C0 : for latching & sets for thermal overload


• M0069 : C1 : sets when both pumps are tripped
• M-334 : C2 : sets to start pump in auto-1 mode
• M0160 : C3 : sets to start pump in auto-2 mode
• M-323 : C4 : resets for P-1008 or P-1009, HS-‘OFF’

TIMERS: Basically timers are used for the delays between the systems
for setting up an automised time.

• T-5 : T0 : time delay 10 sec (adjustable)


• T-4 : T1 : time delay 20 sec (adjustable)

The output specifications are as follows:

• 00187 (LAMP) : Y0 : sets when P-1008-ON


• 00185 : Y1: sets to start pump
• 00188 (LAMP) : Y2: resets for Hand Switch error
• 00186 (SV742) : Y3 sets when both pumps are OFF

PLCs USED IN RAPS:


In RAPS, PLCs of various companies are used. The most commonly
used are of DirectSoft32, Siemens, TinyTerm and DirectTech.

In RAPP 5&6, TinyTerm4.1 version is used. In NTC 1&2, DirectSoft32


and Siemens are used as PLC Trainer Kit.

MONITORING: In RAPS, the number of PLCs is connected to a user


through an ENGINEERING CONSOLE (EC). All the PLCs are connected
by two mediums or channels through LAN.

Monitoring can only be done when PLC is in online mode, means


verification of i/p & o/p is possible. To monitor the network of system, few
things are checked viz. Active Station List, Media status, Media Selection.

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This basically finds out the redundancy of two loads, means the left CPU
mode address and the right CPU mode address. Two mediums are
available, one is permanent and other is standby.

In Tinyterm4.1 PLC, the kit contains 352 inputs, 160 outputs, 512
interface relays, 60 timers and number of multiplying relays which are
used for further operations such as hand switch, level switch, thermal
switch etc. it provides around 4 additional ports. The Kit also contains a
WATCH DOG TIMER which is used for self-diagnosis.

In the output, there are 10 blocks. Each block contains 16 relays.

IMPORTANT POINTS REGARDING PLC:

• Programmable Logic Controller is a digital computer used for the


automation of electromechanical processes, such as control of
machinery on factory assembly lines, lighting fixtures, packaging
and semiconductor devices.
• PLC is designed for multiple input and output arrangements,
extended temperature ranges, immunity to electrical noise and
resistance to vibration and impact.
• Different companies are using different software of PLC for
automation.
• Automation in PLC includes three main components viz. PLC Kit,
Computer and User where computer is used as an interface.
• PLC can be used in two ways i.e. On-line and Off-line. In on-line
PLC is directly connected to a computer and computer is directly
connected to a user which means PLC and User are connected
indirectly. Hence, verification of input and output is possible. In off-
line PLC; there is no direct connection of PLC and computer.
Hence, verification of input and output is not possible.

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