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WATER

RESOURCES
WATER CLASSIFICATION
and
BEST BENEFICIAL USE
(DAO 34 Series of 1990)
Water Classification
Fresh Surface Waters
- rivers
- lakes
- reservoirs

Coastal and Marine Waters


Fresh Surface Waters
Class AA Public Water Supply Class I
- Intended primarily for waters having
watersheds which are uninhabited and
otherwise protected and which require
only approved disinfection in order to
meet the NSDW of the Philippines
Fresh Surface Waters
Class A Public Water Supply Class II
- For sources of water supply that will
require complete treatment
(coagulation, sedimentation, filtration,
and disinfection).
Fresh Surface Waters
Class B Recreational Water Class I
- For primary contact recreation such as
bathing, swimming, diving, etc.
(particularly those designated for
tourism purposes.
Fresh Surface Waters
Class C
Fishery Water - the propagation and
growth of fish and other aquatic
resources
Recreational Water Class II (Boating,
etc.)
Industrial Water Supply Class I for
manufacturing processes after
treatment
Fresh Surface Waters
Class D
For agriculture, irrigation, livestock
watering, etc.
Industrial Water Supply Class II (e.g.
cooling, etc.)
Other inland waters, by their quality,
belong to this classification
Coastal and Marine Waters
Class SA
Water suitable for propagation, survival and
harvesting of shellfish for commercial
purposes.
Tourist zones and national marine parks and
reserves established under existing laws
and/or declared as such by appropriate
government agency
Coral reef parks and reserves designated by
law and concerned authorities.
Coastal and Marine Waters
Class SB
Recreational Water Class I areas regularly
used by the public for bathing, swimming,
diving, etc.
Fishery Water Class I spawning areas for
Chanos-chanos or Bangus and similar
species
Coastal and Marine Waters
Class SC
Recreational Water Class II for boating
Fishery Water Class II for commercial and
sustenance fishing
Marshy and/or mangrove areas declared as
fish and wildlife sanctuaries
Coastal and Marine Waters
Class SD
Industrial Water Supply Class II (e.g. cooling)
Other coastal and marine waters by their
quality belong to this classification
Mangrove Areas
Mangrove area is declared by the
Philippine government under Presidential
Decree (PD) 705 as forest land.
Mangrove forest is dened as a type of
forest on tidal mudats along the sea
coast extending along the streams where
the water is brackish
Mangrove Areas in the Philippines
Mangrove forests in the Philippines
covered about 450,000 hectares at the
beginning of the century.
Reduced to only 138,000 hectares in
1993, then shrank further to 117,000
hectares in 1995
Mangrove Areas in the Philippines
About 8,200 hectares of mangroves
lost every year between 1970 and
1988.
loss is largely attributed to
conversion of mangroves to fishponds,
reclamation for residential and industrial
purposes, and
over-harvesting of mangrove trees for
fuel
Mangrove Areas in the Philippines
Composed of 97 species of trees, many
of them commercially important.
Used for centuries by Filipinos for
food, forage for animals, building
materials, fuel, folk medicine and
various purposes.
Mangrove Areas in the Philippines
Refuge for all kinds of creatures.
Food and shelter
Natural water filter
Stabilize the coast and river banks
Mangrove Areas in the Philippines
Reclamation of Mangrove Areas
Surface Water
Surface water is water on the ground or in a
stream, river, lake, sea or ocean; as opposed
to groundwater
Important sources of public water supplies
because of the high withdrawal rates they
can normally sustain
Seawater
Sea water is water from sea or ocean
On average, sea water in the world's oceans
has a salinity of ~3.5%
Seawater can be turned into drinkable
(potable) water by desalination processes.
Groundwater

Water that has percolated downward from


the ground surface through the soil pores.
Not as susceptible to pollution as surface
water but once polluted, restoration is
difficult and long term.
Reclaimed Wastewater
Water that has been treated sufficiently
for direct reuse in industry and
agriculture and for limited municipal
reclamation.
Water Use
Consumptive renders water unavailable for
future use; either because of evaporation,
extreme pollution, or seepage underground;
until the hydrologic cycle returns as rain.

Non-consumptive leaves the water


available (after treatment if necessary) for
reuse without going through the hydrologic
cycle.
Water Quality Criteria
Minimum criteria for surface waters
1. All surface waters shall be free from domestic,
industrial, agricultural, or other man-induced non-
thermal components of discharges
That settle to form putrescent deposit or create
nuisance
That float as debris
That produce color, odor, taste, turbidity
That are acutely toxic
That are present in concentrations which are
carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic
That pose serious danger to public health
Water Quality Criteria
Minimum criteria for surface waters
2. Thermal component of discharges which
alone, or in combination with other
discharges or components of discharges
That produce conditions so as to create
nuisance
That increase the temperature of the
receiving body of water (RBW) so as to
cause substantial damage or harm to the
aquatic life or vegetation therein or interfere
with the beneficial uses assigned to the
RBW.
Water Quality Criteria
Minimum criteria for Fresh Waters
Conventional and other pollutants affecting
aesthetics and oxygen demand
Color Oil and grease
Temperature Nitrate as nitrogen
pH Phosphate as phosphorous
Dissolved oxygen Phenolic substances
5-day BOD Total coliforms
Total suspended solids Fecal colifirms
Total dissolved solids Chloride
Surfactants Copper
Factors Affecting Availability
and Quality of Water

Erosion
Flooding

Drought
Causes of Flooding
Heavy rainfall
Precipitation that do not evaporate
either runoff or percolate into the soil
Forest and grasses retard water flow and
promote percolation
Heavily vegetated watersheds act as
sponges.
Light vegetation increases surface runoff
and, hence flooding.
Causes of Flooding
Stripping of vegetation by farmers,
urban planners, and developers
Increasing number of highways,
shopping centers, office buildings, and
homes, which greatly increase the
amount of impermeable surface
Controlling Flooding
Dams
Watershed management
Zoning
EL NIO SOUTHERN
OSCILLATION
(ENSO)
El Nio
El Nio is an unusual warming of the
tropical Pacific Ocean that occurs
irregularly at about 3-6 year intervals in
response to large scale weakening of
the trade winds that normally blow
westward from South America toward
Asia.
El Nio
Eastern South Pacific is dominated by an
eastern center of high pressure
Lower pressure prevails to the west
Pressure difference causes the trade winds
to blow east to west
Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) pressure
difference
Negative SOI - the trade winds may relax or
sometimes even reverse
El Nio

Relaxation of the trade winds may allow


warm water to appear at the surface of South
America
This warm water not only kills off marine life,
but also affects the atmosphere directly
above it causing convection, which can
cause intense rainfall in a region that is
normally dry.
Impacts of ENSO
Australia-Drought and devastating bush
fires
Indonesia, Philippines-Crops fail, starvation
follows
India, Sri Lanka-Drought, fresh water
shortages
Tahiti- tropical cyclones
South America Fish industry devastated
Decrease in nutrients off Peru- fewer fish
Impacts of ENSO
Across the Pacific - Coral reefs die
Colorado River basin-Flooding, mud slides
Gulf states-Downpours cause death,
property damage
Peru, Ecuador Floods, landslides
Southern Africa-Drought, disease,
malnutrition
Water Supply Problems

Unequal distribution of accessible


water

Rapidly rising demand

Pollution of water supplies


Traditional Approaches to Water
Shortages
Groundwater withdrawals
Dams and reservoirs
Impacts of Excessive Groundwater
Withdrawals
Groundwater overdraft leads to saltwater
intrusion
Saltwater
Intrusion
Impacts of Excessive Groundwater
Withdrawals
Groundwater overdraft drains swamps
and ponds at times drying them up
completely.
Impacts of Excessive Groundwater
Withdrawals
When water is withdrawn, the soil compacts
and sinks, a process called subsidence.
Excessive withdrawal of water threatens the
long-term prospects for irrigated agriculture
Impacts of Dams and Reservoirs
Positive Effects:
Help prevent recurrent catastrophic
floods
Generate electricity
Provide needed water for farms and
cities during drought periods
Increase certain forms of recreation
Impacts of Dams and Reservoirs
Negative Effects
Inundate wildlife habitat, farmland, and
towns
Reduce stream flow into the ocean
resulting in changes in salt
concentration of receiving waters
Reduction in the flow of nutrient-rich
sediment to coastal waters
Meeting Present and Future Demands
Water conservation
Water recycling
Restoration
Education: Learning to use water
wisely
How Water is Used in a Typical Household
Water Use Efficiency
Water use efficiency includes any
measure that reduces the amount of
water used per unit of any given
activity, consistent with the
maintenance or enhancement of water
quality
water conservation is any socially
beneficial reduction in water use or
water loss