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DOI 10.1617/s11527-013-0068-7

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Valerio Alecci Silvia Briccoli Bati

Giovanna Ranocchiai

RILEM 2013

Abstract Today, there is an increasing use of fiber of wrapped specimens and the failure mode as

reinforced polymer (FRP) composites in civil engi- observed in the experimental tests.

neering as reinforcement of existing structures. In

particular, FRP composites offer higher strength and Keywords FRP Confinement Triaxial tests

Youngs modulus than traditional steel devices, also Concrete

easy handling and installation, excellent resistance to

corrosion and they can be plastered after application.

When FRP wraps are used to confine compressed

pillars, the effective contribution of the composite

cannot be accurately evaluated because it begins to 1 Introduction

work as the stress state of the member grows. In the

present paper, some theoretical relationships available Columns and pillars compressed along their length

in literature and in current international design guide- exhibit a transverse expansion. It is commonly known

lines, regarding the evaluation of confinement effect that cracks along the direction of the compression

on wrapped concrete columns, are analyzed and force develop in masonry like materials when the limit

compared with experimental test results. Based on value of the transverse strain is exceeded. In the past,

these considerations, we propose a new formula that is the use of reinforced concrete jackets or iron bands

in good agreement with the experimental test results around the member were the main repairing and

that were produced for the purpose and reported both retrofitting techniques for masonry or concrete pillars;

in the present paper and in a previously published iron hoops were applied still hot as to produce a pre-

research study. Although empiric, the proposed stress state within the compressed member.

formula is able to reproduce the structural response In the recent years FRP reinforcement techniques

have been used increasingly because of their high

performances in strength enhancement and in the

V. Alecci

repair of concrete columns in both seismic and

Dipartimento di Architettura, University of Florence,

Piazza Brunelleschi 6, 50121 Florence, Italy corrosive environments. The FRP wrap generally is a

passive reinforcement for compressed members

S. Briccoli Bati G. Ranocchiai (&) because, with the current technologies, it is not easy

Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Abientale,

to pre-stress it, so it begins to work as the stress state

University of Florence, via Santa Marta 3,

50139 Florence, Italy and the induced transverse strain grow. However, in

e-mail: giovanna.ranocchiai@unifi.it literature some interesting experimental investigations

Materials and Structures

exist on concrete elements confined by pre-stressed This paper is organized in the following way: the

FRP wraps [16, 31]. main contributions available in the literature regarding

The evaluation of the effective contribution of an the evaluation of the confinement effect on concrete

FRP wrap and the estimate of the ultimate strength of compressed members are presented; the results of

the structure was the subject matter of several simple compression and triaxial tests carried out on

experimental researches on concrete specimens [5, wrapped and unwrapped concrete specimens are

11, 13, 21, 22, 25, 33, 36, 3941, 46, 50, 51] and on presented; the results obtained are compared with

brick masonry specimens [1, 3, 7, 18]. Concerning those determined by applying relationships available

concrete members, some researchers focus their in the literature or proposed by official guidelines and

attention on the influence of the number of layers on are discussed; finally, a new formulation is proposed

the increase of strength [18, 21, 37] and on the able to fit experimental test values and taking into

influence of environmental conditions on the perfor- account the effective failure mode of concrete col-

mance of a wrapped compressed element [12, 46]; umns introducing a ductility parameter.

others investigate the mechanical behavior of com-

posite systems with resins and fibers of different kinds 2 The confinement effect on compressed concrete

and the cost-efficiency of each individual system [52]. members

Dai et al. [8] studied the behavior of concrete elements

confined with FRP composites of large deformability The early relationships available in literature for the

formed by fibers made from recycled materials. Wei calculation of the effect of confinement on the strength of

et al. [48] presented an experimental study on concrete FRP reinforced compressed members express the strength

columns with partially deteriorated strength confined as the sum of the strength of the unconfined element plus a

with CFRP to evaluate the effect of a partial confine- quota that depends on the confinement capability of the

ment, only on the part of the member with locally wrap. The expression still in use to predict the peak stress

deteriorated strength. Other experimental researches, of a concrete element confined with a steel spiral was

carried out on members with circular, square and originally proposed by Richart et al. [27]. This formula

square with round corners cross-sections, studied was derived to fit the experimental values of the strength

problems concerning the efficacy of reinforcement in of concrete cylinders loaded axially while subjected to

some critical regions [4, 5, 29, 30]. confining lateral pressure [26]:

In the last years, design guidelines about the use of

fcc fco k0 f 0 1

FRP composites to repair concrete members were

developed in many countries. Concerning the com- where fcc is the strength of the confined specimen; fco

pressed elements confinement, these guidelines only is the compressive strength of the unconfined speci-

partially exploit the theoretical knowledge available in men; f0 is the effective lateral uniform confining

literature. Recently, Rocca et al. [28] presented a pressure; k0 is the confinement coefficient indicated

comparative study regarding four design guidelines with 4.1 in the first expression by Richart et al. [27].

for FRP confined members of both circular and Usually, f0 is computed from the lateral pressure

prismatic cross sections. f and from the effectiveness coefficient ke:

In the present paper, the results of simple compres-

f 0 ke f 2

sion and triaxial experimental tests carried out on

wrapped or unwrapped concrete cylinders are this represents the part of the compressed cross-

reported. Small scale concrete specimens were real- sectional region; it depends on the transverse and

ized with a reduced amount of binder to produce low longitudinal distribution of the reinforcement and on

strength members, in order to simulate columns the shape of the cross-section.

requiring a retrofitting intervention. Different amounts f is related to the FRP circumferential force by

of fiber were used aiming to observe the variation of means of the formula:

strength, ductility and failure mode of the specimens. N f R 3

The research study reported in this paper prosecutes

a previously published study focused on FRP confined obtained by simple equilibrium relationships on a

masonry members [1]. circular confined cross-section where R is the radius

Materials and Structures

and N is the normal force along the FRP wrap specimens wrapped by FRP sheets or encased in FRP

direction. tubes is presented by Rousakis et al. [32].

Richart et al. [27] found that Eq. (1) applies Other formulations were proposed by Legeron and

generally to concrete pillars confined by steel spirals Paultre [20] and by Fahmy and Wu [14]. The former

which are in an axial tension and provide a continuous report the following formula:

confining pressure around the cylinder. In Richarts

formula f0 is not the confining pressure corresponding 0 23

fcc f

to the fiber strength, but the effective confining 1 2:6 6

fco fco

pressure at the moment of pillar collapse.

Other experimental investigations employed the Legeron and Paultre [20] specify that the f0 value

formulation proposed by Richart et al. to predict the has to be adopted equal to the ultimate fiber strength

FRP reinforced member strength, assigning to f0 the only when the ratio of the concrete strength to the fiber

meaning of the confinement pressure corresponding to strength is lower than a fixed limit value. The Italian

the ultimate strength of the fiber. Having assumed this Guide Instructions (Centro Nazionale delle Ricerche,

meaning, they demonstrated that a value of k0 equal to CNR-DT200 2004) [6] employ the formula (6) but

4.1 in Eq. (1) does not well reproduce the strength of assuming f0 is equal to the fiber ultimate strength.

FRP confined elements; for this reason a halved value Fahmy and Wu [14] proposed the following

of the k0 coefficient was proposed by Campione and formulas:

Miraglia [5]. Toutanji and Deng [46] obtained a value

fcc f 00:7

for the k0 coefficient as a function of the confinement 1 4:5 7

fco fco

pressure corresponding to the ultimate strength of the

fiber f0 and the unconfined concrete compression fcc f 00:7

1 3:5 8

strength fco as follows: fco fco

0 0:15

f where the k0 coefficient assumes different values when

k0 3:5 4 the unconfined concrete compressive strength fco is

fco

higher than 40 MPa (Eq. 8) or not (Eq. 7).

Substituting Eq. (4) in Eq. (1), it can be written as

Mander et al. [23] reported a relationship able to

follows:

evaluate the compression strength fcc of reinforced

0 0:85 concrete elements confined with an effective pressure

fcc f

1 3:5 5 obtained from steel spirals or circular hoops:

fco fco

s !

In the successive literature, various estimates for 7:94f 0 f0

the k0 coefficient were proposed, based on Eq. (4), fcc fco 1:254 2:254 1 2

fco fco

where 3.5 and -0.15 values are varied. More specif-

ically, Karbhari and Gao [16] substituted these values 9

respectively with 2.1 and -0.13; Saaman et al. [35] This formula, as reported by Rocca et al. [28], was

substituted them with 6.0 and -0.3, Saafi et al. [34] included in the American Concrete Institute Guide in

substituted them with 2.2 and -0.15. Other values are 2002 [2].

reported, for example, by Wu and Zhou [49]. Lam and At the same time, this formulation was revised by

Teng [19], proposed a k0 coefficient value equal to 3.3, Spoelstra and Monti [38], to consider the confinement

on the basis of a large database of tests on FRP- effect produced by FRP materials:

confined circular concrete cylinders. Two modified s!

and more accurate versions of this model are presented f0

by Teng et al. [45]. A critical comparative review of fcc fco 0:2 3 10

fco

existing models is illustrated by Teng and Lam [44]

and by De Lorenzis and Tepfers [9]. A recent In this form, the relationship was included in the

comparative study referred to 20 existing empirical Design Recommendations provided by fib (2001) [15]

models over an extended database of 471 cylindrical as a practical formula.

Materials and Structures

Recently, a new mathematical form for strength We can assume that strain corresponding to failure

modeling of compressed confined members was for concrete is smaller than strain corresponding to

employed by Wu and Zhou [49], based on the Hoek failure for carbon fiber:

Brown failure criterion. Hoek and Brown developed

ect \ef 14

this failure criterion in 1980 for hard rock materials as

a result of an experimental campaign carried out by where ect and ef are respectively the maximum strain of

means of a Hoek cell. Successively, the criterion was the concrete and of the fiber. Based on a limit

extended to damaged rock materials and to concrete condition where we reach the maximum positive

with existing cracks. strain in concrete when the FRP wrap is still

s undamaged:

0

fcc f0 16:7 fco 0:42 f P0

0:42

1 11 eh er ect 15

fco fco fco 16:7 fco mEct R2 p

The formulations proposed by Legeron and Paultre where P0 is the maximum axial load of the unconfined

[20] and by Fahmy and Wu [14], follow a new approach, compression test; due to compatibility of strains, the

different from the Richart classical approach, based on lateral pressure corresponding to the fracture of the

the effective material properties of constituents. inner core can be computed as follows:

Equation (11), unlike previous formulas, allows the

P0 fR

maximum strength of confined elements, adding a 16

term that depends on confinement pressure f0 , to a mEct R2 p sEf

constant quantity that represents the same confinement The value of lateral strain that leads concrete to

pressure rather than the unconfined specimen strength. fracture (and is expressed by (15)) is produced in the

wrapped cylinder by the super positioning of axial

2.1 Stress state in the wrapped cylinder stress state and circumferential lateral pressure, so,

equating the second of Eq. (12) to the left term of Eq.

In order to expound the physical meaning of these (16), it follows:

formulas, let us assume a cylindrical reference system

P0 P f f

for the description of the strain field inside the concrete 2

2

17

mEct R p mEct R p Ect mEct

elements: axis z is taken along the main cylinder

dimension and r and h represent polar coordinates on a that is simplified as:

transverse cross-sectional plane. The strain field on

P P0 f m 1R2 p 18

axially loaded wrapped cylinders may be represented

by means of the following expressions: where f is obtained by Eq. (16):

(

ez Erctz rmE

r rh

ct

2f

EctPR2 p mE ct f

P0 sEf

19

er eh Erctr rmE

z rh

Efct mEctPR2 p mEf ct mEct R3 p

ct

represent the confinement value corresponding to the

where P is the axial load; f is the lateral pressure maximum fiber strength but the confinement pressure

produced by the confining wrap; Ect is the Youngs produced by FRP reinforcement when the inner core

modulus of inner concrete; m = 1/m where m is the fractures.

Poissons ratio of concrete, R is the cylinder radius. On Obviously, the hypothesis of linear elastic behav-

the other hand, the strain field inside the FRP wrap, iour for concrete is an approximation.

considering Eq. (3), can be written as: A second limit condition can be assumed supposing

fR that, successively, concrete reduces to a disintegrated

eh 13 granular mass confined by FRP wrap. In this case, we

sEf

neglect the residual strength of fractured material

where s is the nominal fiber thickness and Ef is the within the wrapped cylinder, and suppose that the FRP

fiber Youngs modulus. wrap fails when a hydrostatic or volumetric stress state

Materials and Structures

occurs in the column; in this case, the axial stress is strength of a damaged element, or to improve the

equal to the confinement pressure: mechanical performances of a structural element made

of material which strength is not adequate to the

P

f 20 demand of codes; this is the case when concrete was not

A well manufactured or when codes have been modified

The maximum load of the column is reached when after the construction of the building. For this reason it

the radial stress of the reinforcement reaches the was decided to use a low strength concrete and the

maximum value: cement amount was reduced by about 15 % maintain-

ing the same quantity for the other components of the

P fmax R2 p 21

mixture. Considering a standard mixture (1:2:4,

In this formula fmax represents the confinement cement: sand: coarse aggregates), the new mixing was

value corresponding to the fiber ultimate strength. For 1:2.5:5. The size of the coarse aggregates was chosen in

this reason, in Eq. (11), proposed by Wu and Zhou order to reproduce the scale factor of the specimens.

[49], the first summand contains the confinement The concrete was mixed uniformly in the mixer and

pressure value: it can be noted that the minimum value poured into a prismatic mould where it was manually

of the strength of the confined cylinder fcc represents compacted and vibrated.

the strength of the unconfined cylinder when f0 is equal After 28 days of curing, every prismatic specimen

to zero and the strength of the confined granular mass was cored with a laboratory coring machine (Controls

when fco is equal to zero. Mod-45 C0330) to attain cylindrical elements of

The value of P attained by Eq. (18) is not very 5.4 cm in diameter and 8.5 cm high (Fig. 1). Both the

useful in practice, as it represents neither the maxi- small size and the height to diameter ratio of the

mum strength of the wrapped cylinder nor the load specimens are due to the necessity of testing some of

corresponding to the maximum confinement transmit- them by means of a triaxial compression device (Hoek

ted by the FRP wrap to the inside. Similarly, the value cell). Small size of specimens can induce scale effect

of P attained by Eq. (21) represents a non realistic on the mechanical properties of specimens. In partic-

result because, as observed during experimental tests, ular the small ratio between aggregate diameter and

specimens extracted after wrap failure were damaged specimen diameter can induce higher values of

but they still had a low residual strength. It is also average strength and higher scattering of experimental

confirmed by an experimental investigation on the results. For this reason coarse aggregates of 6 mm

strength of concrete elements after wrap failure maximum size were used. It cannot be excluded that

presented by Valdmanis and Tepfers [47]. the test results were in some way influenced by size

In Alecci et al. [1], some considerations concerning effect (the specimens reproduce a 1:4 scaled concrete

the failure modes of scaled reinforced and unrein- column). However, Matthys et al. [20] observed that

forced masonry cylinders are reported, and the effec- some existing models for the evaluation of confined

tive contribution of FRP confinement is studied, based compressed columns strength, based on small size

on the mechanical properties of component materials. cylinder tests, predict fairly accurately the ultimate

In order to fully understand these aspects and to verify strength of large scale confined columns.

the validity of such considerations on concrete mate- The small slenderness (height to diameter ratio is

rial, in a similar manner the Authors carried out less than 2) affects the strength of cylinders (cubic

experimental tests on plain and FRP wrapped scaled strength is usually believed about 20 % higher than

concrete cylinders. cylindrical strength obtained on cylinders with height

to diameter ratio equal to 2); for this reason, for the

sake of comparison, all tests were performed on

3 Experimental program 5.4 cm in diameter and 8.5 cm high specimens. In so

doing, both concrete compression strength and com-

45 concrete specimens were realized for the experi- pression strength of reinforced concrete elements will

mental campaign. Composite wraps are used as a be affected in the same extent.

reinforcement of compressed member in the emergency A CFRP composite produced by BASF Construc-

(for example after a seismic damage) to increase the tion Chemicals Italia Spa was used as reinforcement,

Materials and Structures

specimens before testing

made of carbon fiber embedded in a matrix constituted the load path; kinematic available ductility was taken

by primer and epoxy resin adhesive. as the ratio of the ultimate displacement to the

displacement at the peak load. Kinematic ductility

3.1 Tests on concrete unconfined members and kinematic available ductility are not mechanical

parameters of materials but structure properties,

Six of the 45 concrete specimens were axially representing the capability of the specimen to generate

compressed without making use of strengthening residual strength. They can be influenced by the

reinforcement. Tests were carried out using an Instron fracture path and by the material homogeneity, so

Model 4400 universal testing machine with displace- ductility parameters can suffer size effect. However, in

ment control system. The use of the displacement a comparison between specimens of the same shape

control system permitted us to observe the whole and dimensions, they are proportional to the capability

loading history, up to the point of a conventional test- of material to dissipate mechanical energy up to the

end corresponding to a residual strength equal to half point where the given specimen preserves its own

of the peak load. Displacement was applied so that the shape.

maximum stress rate, in the linear ascending branch of Dealing with brittle materials, the value of the

the load path, was 0.2 MPa/sec. The displacement of kinematic available ductility higher than 1 reveals the

the upper load plate was recorded by the testing presence of the softening branch, that is the capability

machine sensor. of the structural element to exhibit equilibrium states

As it could be expected, the fracture path is even for load values lower than the peak load; in this

characterized by vertical cracks. The results are shown case the failure is highlighted by the fracture path and

in Table 1, where r is the stress corresponding to the the softening branch can be considered a safety

peak load, K is the stiffness, lc is the kinematic warranty.

ductility and lcd is the kinematic available ductility.

Stiffness was determined in the linear range of the 3.2 Triaxial compression tests

loaddisplacement curve, in order to avoid the influ-

ence of the non linear start of the load path produced Twenty-one of the 45 concrete specimens were tested

by the contact between load plates and specimen by triaxial compression by means of a Hoek cell. The

surfaces. Kinematic ductility was calculated as the Hoek cell (Fig. 2) works like a soil triaxial test

ratio of the displacement measured at the peak load, to machine. A uniform stress is produced and controlled

the displacement corresponding to the linear part of by a hydraulic pressure generator, and it is applied, in

Table 1 Results of tests on confined and unconfined (first data line) specimens; standard deviation in brackets

Fiber nominal thickness s (mm) K (N/mm) r (MPa) lc lcd

0.02063 56496 (8318) 30.66 (2.87) 1.27 (0.18) 1.13 (0.14)

0.02750 52575 (9043) 30.89 (3.89) 1.27 (0.15) 1.14 (0.19)

0.04125 55764 (15076) 38.04 (2.52) 1.46 (0.24) 1.05 (0.05)

Materials and Structures

the Hoek cell, to the lateral surface of a cylindrical probably damaged by lateral pressure, as it exhibited

specimen contained in a rubber tube. The device is very low axial strength. For this reason, in order to reach

able to produce cell pressure at a constant rate increase higher lateral pressure values, some of the concrete

and is able to maintain it constant for the set-up time. specimens were alternatively subjected to axial load and

The triaxial device was not conceived to produce the lateral pressure. Results of triaxial tests are reported in

collapse of the specimen for increasing lateral Table 2 and plotted in Fig. 3 where fcc is the normal

pressure, as, in this case, when the rubber tubing stress corresponding to the axial peak load and f0 is the

breaks, oil leaks out and the reading of the effective confinement lateral pressure produced by the Hoek cell.

breaking pressure is not reliable. After reaching the

desired value of the circumferential stress, the spec- 3.3 Tests on concrete confined members

imen is successively loaded to failure by means of an

increasing axial load. Eighteen of the 45 concrete specimens were wrapped

It is important to point out that the Heak cell just with a CFRP composite (Mbrace produced by BASF

gives the values of limit triaxial stress states of Construction Chemicals Italia Spa) with a different

concrete; it does neither reproduce the failure mode of amount of unidirectional carbon fiber. MBrace carbon

a fiber confined compressed member, nor of a steel fiber is a dry fabric composed of high strength carbon

confined compressed member. fibers held in a unidirectional alignment with

The specimens tested by triaxial compression were 0.165 mm of nominal thickness as reported by the

initially compressed by an axial load ranging from 500 to manufacturer data sheet.

20000 N in order to prevent oil leaks from the rubber In Table 3 the tensile strength rr and tensile

tubing and, subsequently, subjected to a lateral pressure Youngs modulus E of fiber and matrix as provided

different for each specimen, ranging from 1.5 to by the manufacturer are shown.

31.4 MPa. While maintaining the lateral pressure con-

stant, the axial load was increased with a stress rate of Table 2 Results of triaxial tests by Hoek cell

0.2 MPa/s, until failure occurred. After reaching the

rupture of the specimen, both axial load and lateral Specimen fcc f0

(MPa) (MPa)

pressure were released and the specimen was easily

extracted from the Hoek cell. Specimen P32 was P34 29.53 0.50

P12 33.08 1.00

P11 34.26 2.00

P13 39.03 3.00

P14 45.73 4.00

P15 49.38 5.00

P21 59.41 6.00

P22 59.03 7.00

P23 63.68 8.00

P24 67.76 9.00

P25 73.03 10.00

P31 77.95 12.00

P33 77.39 12.50

P35 78.23 12.75

P32 0.59 13.00

P16 78.88 13.00

P17 82.16 14.00

P26 83.53 14.00

P27 87.57 15.00

P36 96.02 18.20

P37 151.32 30.40

Fig. 2 Hoek Cell

Materials and Structures

y = 4,5082x + 14

160 R = 0,9757 Ribbons were extracted from the unidirectional fabric

140 and distributed over one ribbon 2 cm wide. Particular

120 care was taken in handling fibers as it could affect

fcc (MPa)

80 realized with the proper fiber weight as to reproduce

60 the scaled amount of reinforcement previously set; a

40 precision balance was used to evaluate the weight of

20 the fiber extracted from the unidirectional fabric. A

0 spiral winding technique was preferred to cylindrical

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

f' (MPa) winding in order to reduce the anchorage length in

small scale specimens. The inclination of the wrap was

Fig. 3 Axial strength versus confinement pressure curve for about 6 degrees and slightly reduces the efficiency of

concrete specimens: diamond experimental results; dash regres-

the reinforcement. However, this angle is neglected in

sion line; square results by Eq. (5); times results by Eq. (6);

triangle results by Eq. (7); circle results by Eq. (10); plus results the calculations as it produces a deviation lower than

by Eq. (11) 0.7 % on the evaluation of tensile fiber stress. The

concentration of fiber with respect to matrix was

As concrete cylinders reproduce a 1:4 scaled approximately 45 % and was determined measuring

concrete column, the amount of fiber was, then, the thickness of composite wrap after the tests.

reduced to , in order to take into account the scale Mechanical tests were carried out on confined

factor. In fact, due to formula (3), maintaining the specimens not earlier than one week after their

same confinement pressure, on small scale specimens assemblage, following the same procedure adopted

the force on the wrap is reduced as a linear function of for unconfined columns. The failure was characterized

the scale factor. In order to obtain the same values of by the rupture of the composite wrap in the central

stress on fiber and, then, the same failure mechanism, zone of the specimen height while the concrete inner

the nominal thickness of fiber was reduced as a core, although damaged, seemed to show a residual

function of the scale factor. Six specimens were structural capacity. Test results are shown in Table 1,

confined with of the fiber of the commercial product as a function of different fiber nominal thickness.

(nominal thickness 0.04125 mm, corresponding to

0,165 mm in full scale columns), six specimens were

confined with 1/6 (nominal thickness 0.02750 mm 4 Results and comparisons

corresponding to 0,11 mm in full scale columns) of the

fiber and six specimens were confined with 1/8 In Table 1, some data are shown for a comparative

(nominal thickness 0.02063 mm corresponding to analysis between the achieved results. In the first data

0,0825 mm in full scale columns) of the fiber, so that line the results obtained by unconfined specimens are

the specimen collapse was due to fiber failure rather reported.

than to debonding between components. Specimen As it can be observed, concrete specimens increase

surfaces were firstly cleaned and then the primer was their strength when confined, even when fiber weight

applied in order to obtain a good surface preparation is reduced to a nominal thickness of 0.02063. This is

and to improve the adhesion. Finally an adhesive confirmed by the observation of the loaddisplace-

ment paths shown in Fig. 4, concerning four repre-

sentative specimens. Note that the specimen

Table 3 Mechanical characteristics of reinforcement compo- reinforced with 0.04125 mm nominal thickness is

nent materials

equivalent, from the point of view of collapse

rr (MPa) E (MPa) mechanism, to a real scale element confined with

0,165 mm nominal thickness and that the displace-

Primer 12 700

ment reported in Fig. 4 diagrams is not representative

Adhesive 50 3000

of the displacement obtained in tests on full scale

Carbon fiber 3430 230000

specimens. However, it can be noted that the

Materials and Structures

until load value exceeds about a half of the maximum

strength of unconfined concrete so as to suggest that

wraps scarcely collaborate with the concrete speci-

mens. It is possible that the rupture of concrete within

the wrapping occurs when load values are slightly

higher than P0.

It is important to note the reduction of the E

modulus when the unconfined strength level is

surpassed: the strengthening effect and the possible

problems related to slenderness of the concrete

columns, not analyzed in the present study, have been

specifically studied by some researchers [10, 42].

Formulas for the determination of the E modulus

when unconfined concrete strength is surpassed and

CFRP confinement is activated are provided by

Tamuzs et al. [43]. Fig. 5 Confined specimen after failure

All wrapped specimens reduced kinematic avail-

able ductility when increasing the amount of rein- specimens axial compressive strength) and represents

forcement, as is highlighted by the abrupt rupture of the confinement pressure necessary to reproduce the

the wrap (Fig. 5), therefore, the softening branch experimental strength of wrapped specimens. It is

disappears and, consequently, any warning of the known that f* value is lower than fmax.

impending collapse. In Table 5 the experimental values of maximum

In Table 4, confinement pressure values are compressive stress are compared with the values

reported for reinforced specimens, computed accord- deduced by Eqs. (5), (6), (7), (10), (11) and (18). r0 is

ing to three different relations: f was obtained by the unconfined specimen experimental peak stress;

Eq. (19) and represents the confinement pressure rexp is the confined specimen experimental peak

produced by FRP reinforcement when the inner core stress; r (5) is the maximum stress obtained according

breaks because of exceeding transversal limit strain; to Toutanji and Deng [46]; r (6) is the maximum stress

fmax represents the confinement corresponding to obtained according to Legeron and Paultre [20] by

maximum fiber strength, that is the confinement value Eq. (6) later included in Italian Guide Instructions [6];

usually denoted as f0 in the formulations available in r (7) is the maximum stress obtained according to

the literature; f* is determined as a linear interpolation Fahmy and Wu [14]; r (10) is the maximum stress

of the triaxial test results (corresponding to wrapped obtained according to Spoelstra and Monti [38] by

Eq. (10) included in Design Recommendations pro-

100000 vided by fib [15] as a practical formula; r (11) is the

90000 maximum stress obtained according to Wu and Zhou

80000

70000

[49]; r (18) is the load corresponding to the failure of

60000 the confined inner core. This last value, computed by

(N)

50000 Eq. (18), highlights that the concrete inner core fails

40000

30000

20000

10000

0 Table 4 Confinement pressures

0 1 2 3

(mm) Fiber (%) s (mm) f (MPa) fmax (MPa) f* (MPa)

unconfined specimen confined specimen 0.02063

confined specimen 0.02750 confined specimen 0.04125 12.5 0.021 0.143 2.620 0.658

16.7 0.028 0.191 3.494 0.692

Fig. 4 Load displacement curves for confined and unconfined 25.0 0.041 0.287 5.240 2.793

specimens

Materials and Structures

when the stress value is considerably lower than the small slenderness ratio on concrete strength and from

ultimate stress value of the whole confined specimen. the influence of small reinforcement density. How-

In Fig. 3, the diagrams describing the axial com- ever, these parameters are not directly taken into

pressive strength variation versus the confinement account in the analyzed formulas, where only con-

pressure for triaxial tests are shown. When the finement pressure f0 and compressive concrete strength

confinement pressure value is equal to zero, the fcc are introduced. While testing wrapped and

average compression value fco, as determined exper- unwrapped masonry specimens [1], we observed a

imentally on the unconfined specimens, was intro- higher discrepancy between experimental and analyt-

duced, but it was adjusted so as to balance the ical results obtained through Eq. (5) and Eq. (6). All

discrepancy of cement ageing. The other values on the the curves reported in Fig. 3, representing the formu-

graphs represent the strength of eighteen concrete lations available in the literature, faithfully reproduce

specimens, tested by the Hoek cell, as a function of the the non linear trend of experimental results but

different confinement pressure applied. The graph lies underestimate their values; however, the triaxial

on the plane r1 = r2 in the principal stress space. collapse mechanism produced by a Hoek cell is

A linear regression was carried out on data reported substantially different from the collapse mechanism of

in Fig. 3, the result is: axially compressed confined specimens, where failure

happens at first because of reaching the limit of

fcc fco 4:508f 0 22

transversal strain in the inner concrete core and

it is represented as a straight line on the graph. The successively because of the rupture of the wrap

initial value was imposed equal to fco; the regression reinforcement.

was modified because of the data concentration near to The collapse fracture path is qualitatively different:

the initial value. Specimen P32 was excluded from the specimens extracted from the Hoek cell are reduced to

statistic. Eq. (22) is formally equal to Eq. (1) and the granular mass, while axially compressed wrapped

value of the term corresponding to k0 falls within the specimens, although fractured, still exhibit a coherent

range determined by the first researchers that dealt inner core (Fig. 5).

with steel hoop confined concrete members. These We can assert that it is erroneous to use the first

points represent axial compressive strength values formulation proposed by Richart et al. [27], misun-

obtained applying Eqs. (5), (6), (7), (10) and (11) derstanding the significance of the f0 term, even if

respectively. coefficients have been adapted to fit experimental

All proposed formulations underestimate experi- results, because it is not consistent with the failure

mental results, except Eq. (7) that, however, slightly mode of reinforced compressed members.

overestimates specimens with a low concentration of

reinforcement. Moreover, these formulas give back

strength values quite different from each other; they 5 Discussion

are able to fit a definite sample of data, but cannot fit

well the whole of available experiments. The exper- What we have evidenced is that the formulas available

imental results reported in the present research may in literature for the calculation of FRP reinforced

suffer, in some extent, from the influence of scale masonry [1] or concrete columns are based on the

effect on concrete strength, from the influence of the formal adaptation of the formula proposed by Richart

Table 5 Comparison between predicted strength values according to Eqs. (5), (6), (7), (10), (11), (18) and experimental results

Fiber r0 rexp r Eq. (5) r Eq. (6) r Eq. (7) r Eq. (10) r Eq. (11) r Eq. (18)

(%) (MPa) (MPa) (MPa) (MPa) (MPa) (MPa) (MPa) (MPa)

16.7 11.14 30.89 25.69 24.51 34.41 20.94 22.30 12.86

12.5 11.14 30.65 22.53 22.18 32.18 18.44 19.84 12.43

Materials and Structures

fmax 24

behavior of reinforced structural elements depends on R R

the ratio between strength and strain to failure of the

where s is the fiber nominal thickness. The comparison

materials, on the ductility of the inner core and on the

between strength data obtained by the experimental

amount of reinforcement. In fact, it was verified that

tests and the proposed formula is reported in the

tensile stress in FRP reinforcement is clearly lower

diagram plotted in Fig. 6, as a function of fiber

than the ultimate fiber stress. Recently, some authors

concentration.

have pointed out this phenomenon, distinguishing the

It is to be pointed out that the proposed formula is

domain of proposed formulas according to the com-

empirical in nature, at least in the second term, as it

pressive strength of inner core material [14, 20]. Wu

uses a parameter that describes indirectly the capabil-

and Zhou [49], correctly, try to consider the contribu-

ity of a material to produce a residual strength. The

tion of the damaged concrete core as an addition to the

validation of the proposed model against experimental

strength of completely disintegrated concrete confined

results is very limited because the information about

by FRP. However, it is unlikely to define a simple

post peak behaviour and ductility of concrete com-

formula able to take into account the residual strength

pressed members are not reported in other experimen-

of the inner core that depends, in turn, on the

tal campaigns. Moreover, kinematic ductility cannot

variability of the fracture path and on the damage of

be considered a material parameter, as it suffers scale

the inner core, both empirically fitting experimental

effect; for this reason direct measurements have to be

results and making use of damage formulations. The

obtained from specimens equal to the wrapped com-

ability of the inner core to contribute to the global

pressed members. It would be correct to validate

compressive strength of the confined element, after

Eq. (23) against experimental results obtained from

concrete or masonry have fractured, depends on the

specimens with different shapes, dimensions and

capability of the material to produce a jagged and not

material properties, provided that experimental values

uniform fracture path, able to indent the contiguous

of kinematic ductility were known.

parts and to produce a residual strength. This property

can be highlighted in a compression test by the

available kinematic ductility lcd, which cannot be

6 Conclusions

considered, however, a material property but a prop-

erty of the structure, as it is heavily dependent on size

The main formulas developed to evaluate the ultimate

and shape.

compressive strength of confined compressed mem-

A formula that considers all these problems can be

bers, often included into recommendations and stan-

conceived adding two terms: the first term is the axial

dards, have been revised: the Richart formula,

compression load corresponding to the failure of the

inner concrete core, that is represented by Eq. (18),

45

where the term f is calculated by Eq. (19) and

40

represents the confinement pressure corresponding to

35

the failure of the inner core; the second term is the

30

fcc (MPa)

25

linearly on the amount of fiber in the wrap, as can be

20

observed from the experimental results (Fig. 6), and it 15

depends, also, on the kinematic available ductility. 10

The exponent of the kinematic available ductility has 5

been determined while fitting the experimental results 0

obtained on concrete compressed elements: 0 10 20 30

fiber (% of commercial product)

sEf

fcc fco 1 m 1 fmax l3cd 23

REc Fig. 6 Comparison between strength data obtained by the

experimental tests (dots) and the proposed formula (line) for

fmax is the maximum confining contribution that the concrete specimens. Vertical lines represent ranges of variation

wrap is able to perform and it is: for experimental results

Materials and Structures

according to Toutanji and Deng [Eq. (4) [46]);

Legeron and Paultre (Eq. (6) [20] successively 1. Alecci V, Briccoli Bati S, Ranocchiai G (2009) Study of

included into Italian CNR Guide Instructions [6]); brick masonry columns confined with CFRP composite.

J Compos Constr 13(3):179187

Fahmy and Wu (Eq. (7) [14]); Eq. (10) proposed by 2. American Concrete Institute (ACI) (2002) Guide for the

Mander et al. [23] and revised by Spoelstra and Monti design and construction of externally bonded FRP systems

[38], included in different form into American Con- for strengthening concrete structures. ACI 440.2R-02,

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Experimental uniaxial tests have been realized on Proceedings of the 2nd congress on mechanics of masonry

wrapped and unwrapped concrete specimens. The structures strengthened with FRP-materials: modeling,

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results, jointly with the experience gained with 4. Campione G (2006) Influence of FRP wrapping techniques

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The formulas of the literature for the evaluation of with FRP. Cem Concr Compos 25(1):3141

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the ultimate strength of compressed pillars,

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adaptation of Richarts formula, introducing for f0

8. Dai JG, Bai YL, Teng JG (2011) Behavior and modeling of

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on confinement of concrete cylinders with fiber-reinforced

mental results. Actually, it has been shown that,

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upon failure, the tensile stress in the FRP wrap is 10. De Lorenzis L, Tamuzs V, Tepfers R, Valdmanis V, Vilks U

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ogies for construction and restoration, Lecce, pp 327342

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11. Eid R, Roy N, Paultre P (2009) Normal- and high-strength

The failure mode of triaxial compressed specimens concrete circular elements wrapped with FRP composites.

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of CFRP confined low strength concretes subjected to

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simultaneous heating-cooling cycles and sustained loading.

A new formula is provided that, although empir- Mater Struct 45:223233

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doing, the proposed formula wants to reproduce,

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