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CHAPTER 8

Columns
8.1 Introduction
Columns are structural elements that support axial loads from the roof and oors. They
are usually oriented vertically in a building, and a typical cross-section is rectangular
or circular. However, virtually any orientation and shape can be provided as needed.
ACI 2.2 provides the following denition of a column:

Member with a ratio of height-to-least lateral dimension exceeding 3 used primarily to sup-
port axial compressive load. For a tapered member, the least lateral dimension is the average
of the top and bottom dimensions of the smaller side.

In a typical column stack, the loads are collected at each oor level and are trans-
mitted to the column below; the columns in the lowest level of the building transfer
the loads from above to the foundations. Columns may also be supported by beams or
walls at any level above ground. Transfer beams are members that support one or more
columns from above, and are generally used at locations where open, column-free space
(like a lobby) is needed below. These beams are supported by one or more columns or
walls.
In addition to axial loads, columns may be subjected to bending moments. Gravity
loads can cause unbalanced moments at columnbeam or columnslab joints, especially
at the perimeter of a structure. These unbalanced moments are transmitted from the roof
or oor system to the columns. Columns that are in a frame that is part of the lateral
forceresisting system of a structure must be designed to resist axial loads, bending
moments, and shear forces due to the combined effects of gravity and lateral forces
caused by wind or earthquakes.
The axial loads on a column are usually compressive. As such, columns are often
referred to as compression members. However, if the effects from lateral loads are large
enough, it is possible for a column to be subjected to a net tensile axial load under one
or more load combinations. Columns are also described as members subjected to combined
axial load and bending, as are similar members such as walls.
Pedestals are also members that support primarily axial compressive loads. A
pedestal is dened as a member having a ratio of height to least horizontal lateral
dimension equal to or less than 3.
In addition to sectional and material properties, the design strength of a column
depends on the type of lateral reinforcement in the member. The primary types are
ties and spirals. Tied columns have rectangular or circular ties that enclose the lon-
gitudinal reinforcement in the column. Spiral reinforcement consists of an essentially

407
408 Chapter Eight

continuously wound reinforcing bar that is in the form of a cylindrical helix that en-
closes the longitudinal reinforcement at a specied pitch. It is usually used in circular
columns and provides a higher degree of lateral connement than that provided by
ties.
Design strength also depends on the slenderness of a column. Use of high-strength
concrete has resulted in smaller column cross-sectional dimensions, which increases
the likelihood of slenderness (secondary) effects being included in the design of the
column.
Design requirements are presented in this chapter for columns subjected to ax-
ial loads, combined exure and axial loads, and shear. Methods are presented on the
following:

1. Sizing the cross-section

2. Determining the required amount of reinforcement
3. Detailing the reinforcement

The effects of slenderness, which depend on the geometric properties (cross-

sectional dimensions and length) and end-support conditions, are also covered.

8.2 Preliminary Column Sizing

Preliminary sizes of typical columns in a structure are needed for a variety of reasons,
including frame analysis and initial cost estimation.
In the early stages of design, it is common practice to obtain preliminary column
sizes, utilizing axial gravity loads only. The axial load in a column at a particular oor
level is obtained by multiplying the dead and live loads at that level by the area that is
tributary to the column. The tributary area depends on the sizes of the bay, which are fre-
quently dictated by architectural and functional requirements. The type of oor system
also inuences column spacing. For example, a at-plate oor system usually requires
columns to be spaced closer than those supporting a beam-supported oor system (see
Section 7.2). Live loads at the roof and at the oor levels can be reduced in accordance
with the applicable provisions of the governing building code (see Section 3.2). In gen-
eral, larger tributary areas translate into greater permitted reductions in live load.
The total axial gravity loads in the rst-story columns are calculated by summing
the loads at each oor level over the height of the building.
Factored axial loads Pu are determined by the load combinations given in ACI 9.2.
The load factors can be applied at each oor level, and the summation can be performed
using factored loads. Equivalently, the service loads can be summed over the column
stack, and the load factors can be applied later.
A preliminary column size is obtained by setting the total factored axial load Pu
equal to the design axial load strength Pn,max given by ACI Eq. (10-1) or (10-2). These
equations are applicable to members with spiral reinforcement and tie reinforcement,
respectively (see Section 5.5). The appropriate equation is subsequently solved for the
gross area of the column Ag , assuming practical values for the total area of longitudinal
reinforcement Ast , the compressive strength of the concrete f c , and the yield strength
of the reinforcement f y .
It is evident from the preceding discussion that a preliminary column size is often
obtained by assuming that the effects from bending moments are relatively small and
Columns 409

that the column section is nonslender; that is, secondary effects are negligible. The rst
of these assumptions is usually valid for columns that are not part of the lateral force
resisting system. However, unbalanced gravity load moments due to unequal spans are
just one example where gravity loads cause bending moments on a column. Methods
to determine when slenderness effects need to be considered are given in Section 8.5.
For many columns, slenderness effects are not an issue.
A preliminary column size should be determined using a low percentage of lon-
gitudinal reinforcement. This allows reinforcement to be added in the nal design
stage without having to change the column dimensions. Additional longitudinal rein-
forcement may also be required to account for the effects of axial load in combination
with bending moments and/or slenderness effects. Columns that have longitudinal
reinforcement ratios Ast/Ag in the range of 1% to 2% are usually the most economical
because concrete carries axial compressive loads more cost-effectively than reinforc-
ing steel. Generally, it is usually more economical to use larger column sizes with less
longitudinal reinforcement.
The design chart shown in Fig. 8.1 can be used to obtain a preliminary size of a
nonslender, tied column with Grade 60 longitudinal reinforcement that is loaded at an
Pu/Ag (ksi)

Ast/Ag

FIGURE 8.1 Design chart for nonslender column with tie reinforcement.
410 Chapter Eight

eccentricity of no more than 10% of the column dimension (i.e., the bending moments
are zero or relatively small). The information provided in the chart was derived for
various concrete compressive strengths f c and longitudinal reinforcement ratios Ast /Ag
by setting the factored axial load Pu equal to the design axial load strength Pn,max given
in ACI Eq. (10-2). Similar design charts can be generated for other column sizes and
shapes and other material strengths.
The dimensions of a column can be inuenced by architectural and functional re-
quirements. One or both dimensions of a rectangular column may be limited, which
could result in a column that is slender.
Columns must be sized not only for strength but also for constructability. To ensure
proper concrete placement and consolidation, column dimensions and bar sizes must
be selected to minimize reinforcement congestion, especially at beamcolumn or slab
column joints. A smaller number of larger bars usually improve constructability. Section
8.7 contains information and design aids that facilitate the selection of longitudinal bars
that adequately t within a column section.
Signicant cost savings are often realized where column forms can be reused from
story to story. In low-rise buildings, it is generally more economical to use the same
column size over the full height of the building and to vary the amount of longitudinal
reinforcement as required. In taller buildings, the size of the column should change
over the height, but the number of changes should be kept to a minimum. The same
column size can be used over a number of stories by judiciously varying the amount
of longitudinal reinforcement and the strength of the concrete. In any building, it is
economically unsound to vary column size to suit the load at each story level.

Example 8.1 Determine a preliminary column size for a tied reinforced concrete column that is
subjected to a factored axial load of 1,200 kips. Assume f c = 7,000 psi and Grade 60 reinforcement.

Solution Because no additional information is provided, initially assume that bending moments
and second-order effects are negligible. As such, ACI Eq. (10-2) can be used to determine a pre-
liminary column size by setting the factored axial load Pu equal to the design axial load strength
Pn,max :

This equation can be rewritten in the following form:

    
Pu Ast Ast
= 0.80 0.85 f c 1 + fy
Ag Ag Ag

Substituting the known quantities into this equation and rearranging terms results in

    
1,200 Ast Ast
= (0.65 0.80) (0.85 7) 1 + 60
Ag Ag Ag

1,200
Ag =
3.09[1 (Ast /Ag )] + 31.2(Ast /Ag )

Columns with a longitudinal reinforcement ratio Ast /Ag between 1% and 2% are usually the
most economical. Table 8.1 provides a summary of required column areas Ag for 1%, 1.5%, and 2%
reinforcement ratios.
Columns 411

Ast /A g A g (in.2 )
0.010 356.0
0.015 341.7
0.020 328.6

TABLE 8.1 Preliminary Size of the Column Given in Example 8.1

The required column area can also be determined from Fig. 8.1. For a longitudinal reinforcement
ratio of 1% and f c = 7 ksi, obtain from the gure a value of Pu /Ag equal to approximately 3.375.
Thus, Ag = 1,200/3.375 = 355.6 in2 , which essentially matches the value given in Table 8.1.
A 20 20 in cross-section with a gross area of 400 in2 is satisfactory for all three reinforcement
ratios. Column dimensions may be dictated by architectural or other requirements.
Once a preliminary column section has been established, it can be used in a structural model,
and the analysis will yield rened values of axial loads, bending moments, and shear forces on
the member. Prior to nal design, it must be determined if the effects of slenderness need to be
considered in the design of the column.

8.3 Analysis and Design Methods

8.3.1 Analysis Methods
Methods of analysis for reinforced concrete structures are presented in ACI 8.3 and
are summarized in Section 3.3 of this book. A discussion of the provisions relevant to
columns follows.
Frames are permitted to be analyzed by a number of different methods. A rst-
order frame analysis is an elastic analysis that does not include the internal force effects
resulting from the overall lateral deection of the frame (i.e., it is assumed that secondary
effects are negligible). In such cases, it is permitted to x the far ends of the column when
computing gravity load moments. Bending moments at a beamcolumn or slabcolumn
joint are distributed to the columns above and below the joint in accordance with the
relative column stiffnesses and the restraint conditions at the ends of the column. The
stiffness of a column is proportional to the modulus of elasticity of the concrete and the
moment of inertia of the cross-section and is inversely proportional to the length of the
column.
A second-order analysis considers the effects of deections on geometry and axial
exibility. Second-order effects need to be considered in the design of certain columns
in order to obtain the correct amplied moments for design. Column slenderness and
its effects on design moments are covered in Section 8.5.

8.3.2 Design Methods

Regardless of the method of analysis, columns must be designed for the most critical
combinations of factored axial loads and bending moments due to the applied loads.
considered in the design of all columns.
Derivation of the nominal axial strength and the exural strength of compression
members is given in Section 5.7 and is based on the general principles of the strength
412 Chapter Eight

design method. Nominal strengths are determined by a strain compatibility analysis

for given strain distribution. Design strengths are obtained by multiplying the nom-
inal strengths by the strength reduction factor dened in ACI 9.3, which depends on
the magnitude of the strain in the reinforcing bars that are farthest from the extreme
compression face of the section.
The following equations must be satised in the design of any column:

Pn Pu (8.1)
Mn Mu (8.2)

The factored axial load and bending moment acting on a reinforced concrete section
must be equal to or less than the corresponding design value in order for the section to
satisfy strength requirements.
Interaction diagrams are usually used to determine the adequacy of a reinforced
concrete column subjected to axial loads and bending moments. As noted in Section
5.7, these diagrams are a collection of design strength values that are determined using
strain compatibility analyses. The cross-sectional dimensions of the column, the amount
and distribution of longitudinal reinforcement in the section, the compression strength
of the concrete, and the yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcement are all used in
the construction of interaction diagrams.
Section 8.4 contains methods to construct interaction diagrams for rectangular and
circular reinforced concrete sections. Slenderness effects and their impact on the design
of columns are covered in Section 8.5.

8.4 Interaction Diagrams

8.4.1 Overview
For concrete members subjected to combined exure and axial load, it is convenient
to construct interaction diagrams. In general terms, an interaction diagram shows the
relationship between axial load and bending moment at failure. The results from strain
compatibility analyses for a number of strain distributions are summarized in an inter-
action diagram.
An interaction diagram is commonly used in establishing the adequacy of a section
that is subjected to a combination of factored axial loads and bending moments, which
are determined by the load combinations in ACI 9.2. Methods to construct interactions
diagrams for rectangular and circular sections are presented next.

8.4.2 Rectangular Sections

Nominal Strength
The general principles and assumptions of the strength design method can be applied
to reinforced concrete sections subjected to axial compressive load and bending (see
Section 5.7). Figure 5.39 contains a step-by-step procedure that can be used to determine
the nominal axial strength Pn and the nominal exural strength Mn for a particular strain
distribution in a rectangular section. Failure of the section is assumed to occur when
the applied axial load and bending moment attain these values.
Columns 413

A number of different strain distributions that correspond to key points on an

interaction diagram are illustrated in Fig. 8.2.
Point 1 corresponds to the case of pure compression. The strain over the entire depth
of the section in this case is equal to the ultimate strain in the concrete (c = 0.0030). The
strength of the column under pure axial load is equal to Po [see Eq. (5.35) in Section 5.5]:

Po = 0.85 f c (Ag Ast ) + f y Ast (8.3)

Recall that the Code reduces this axial load to account for minimum eccentricities,
based on the type of lateral reinforcement in the section [see Eqs. (5.36) and (5.37) in
Section 5.5 for members with spiral reinforcement and tie reinforcement, respectively].
Point 2 corresponds to crushing of the concrete at the compression face of the section
and zero stress at the other face. Because the tensile strength of the concrete is taken as
zero, which is the fourth design assumption of the strength design method (see Section
5.2), this point represents the onset of cracking at the face of the section farthest from
the compression face. All points on the interaction diagram that fall below this point
represent cases in which the section is partially cracked. At this point, and at other points
similar to this one, the column fails as soon as the maximum compressive strain reaches
Columns 415

The maximum allowable axial load Pn,max for a tied column is shown in the gure
and is equal to 80% of the strength of the column under pure axial load Po where Po is
determined by Eq. (8.3).
Also identied in Fig. 8.3 are the portions of the diagrams that correspond to
compression-controlled sections, tension-controlled sections, and sections in the tran-
sition region.
Compression-controlled sections are those with axial loadbending moment combi-
nations above and to the left of the balanced failure point. The strength reduction factor
for compression-controlled sections with other than spiral reinforcement is 0.65 (ACI
9.3.2.2). Thus, the design strength interaction diagram in this region has values that are
65% of the values on the nominal diagram. For axial loads at or near the nominal axial
compressive strength, it is possible for the depth to the neutral axis and the depth of the
stress block to be greater than the depth of the section. In such cases, the depth of the
stress block a should be taken as the depth of the section, and the strain compatibility
analysis should be performed using that value.
Tensioned-controlled sections are those with axial loadbending moment combi-
nations in the lower portion of the interaction diagram indicated in Fig. 8.3. In ac-
cordance with ACI 9.3.2.1, the strength reduction factor for these sections is equal
to 0.9.
Between the compression- and tension-controlled sections are sections in the transi-
tion region. As indicated previously, the -factor varies linearly in this region (see ACI
9.3.2.2 and Fig. 4.2 of this book).
For purposes of design, factored axial loadbending moment combinations that fall
on or within the boundaries of the design strength interaction diagram can be safely
carried by the column section For example, the column section is adequate for the
factored axial loadbending moment combination denoted by Point 1 in Fig. 8.3. No
modications need to be made to the concrete column in such cases.
In contrast, the column dimensions, amount of longitudinal steel, and/or com-
pressive strength of the concrete must be increased when factored axial loadbending
moment combinations fall outside the boundaries of the design strength interaction
diagram (see Point 2 in Fig. 8.3).
Example 5.10 illustrates the determination of the nominal strengths Pn and Mn
corresponding to balanced failure for a rectangular reinforced concrete column. Other
key points on the interaction diagram for that column are determined in the following
example.

Example 8.2 Determine the following points on the design strength interaction diagram for the
rectangular column shown in Fig. 8.4:

2. Crushing of the concrete at the compression face and zero stress at the other face
3. Strain in the reinforcing bars farthest from the compression face t equal to zero
4. Balanced failure
5. Strain in the reinforcing bars farthest from the compression face t equal to 2y
6. Pure bending

Assume that the extreme compression ber occurs at the top of the section and that ties are
utilized as the lateral reinforcement. Also assume normal-weight concrete with f c = 7,000 psi and
Grade 60 reinforcement ( f y = 60,000 psi).
416 Chapter Eight

FIGURE 8.4 The 18 in

2.6 in
rectangular column
given in Example
8.2.

8.9 in

15.1 in

21.4 in
24 in
10 No. 10

Solution
The design maximum axial load capacity Pn,max is determined by ACI Eq. (10-2) for a tied column
[see Eq. (5.39)]:

Pn,max = 0.80[0.85 f c (Ag Ast ) + f y Ast ]

= 0.80 0.65[0.85 7 (432 12.7) + (60 12.7)] = 1,694 kips

Point 2Crushing of the Concrete at the Compression Face and Zero Stress at the Other Face
The strain in the reinforcing steel farthest from the compression face can be determined from similar
triangles (see Figs. 8.2 and 8.4):

0.003 t
=
24 24 21.4
0.0030 2.6
t = = 0.00033
24

The owchart shown in Fig. 5.39 is utilized to determine Pn and Mn for this strain distribution.

Step 1: Check the minimum and maximum longitudinal reinforcement limits. The minimum
and maximum amounts of longitudinal reinforcement permitted in a compression member are
specied in ACI 10.9.1:

Maximum Ast = 0.08Ag = 0.08 18 24 = 34.6 in2

The provided area of longitudinal reinforcement Ast = 10 1.27 = 12.7 in2 falls between the
minimum and maximum limits.
Step 2: Determine the neutral axis depth c. In this case, the neutral axis depth is equal to the
depth of the section, which is 24 in.
Step 3: Determine 1 .

1 = 1.05 0.00005 f c = 1.05 (0.00005 7,000) = 0.70 for f c = 7,000 psi

(see ACI 10.2.7.3 and Section 5.2 of this book)
Columns 417

a = 1 c = 0.70 24.0 = 16.8 in

Step 5: Determine C. The concrete compression resultant force C is determined by Eq. (5.42):

C = 0.85 f c a b = 0.85 7 16.8 18 = 1,799.3 kips

Step 6: Determine si . The strain in the reinforcement si at the various layers is determined
by similar triangles where compression strains are positive (see Fig. 8.2):
r Layer 1 (d1 = 2.6 in):

0.0030(24 2.6)
s1 = = 0.0027
24

0.0030(24 8.9)
s2 = = 0.0019
24

0.0030(24 15.1)
s3 = = 0.0011
24

r Layer 4 (d4 = 21.4 in):

0.0030(24 21.4)
s4 = = 0.00033 (checks)
24

It is evident that all of the layers of reinforcement are in compression. Also, the layer of rein-
forcement closest to the extreme compression ber yields (i.e., s1 > y = 0.0020).
Step 7: Determine fsi . The stress in the reinforcement f si at the various layers is determined
by multiplying si by the modulus of elasticity of the steel E s :
r Layer 1: f s1 = 0.0027 29,000 = 78.3 ksi > 60 ksi; use f s1 = 60 ksi
r Layer 2: f s2 = 0.0019 29,000 = 55.1 ksi
r Layer 3: f s3 = 0.0011 29,000 = 31.9 ksi
r Layer 4: f s4 = 0.00033 29,000 = 9.6 ksi

Step 8: Determine Fsi . The force in the reinforcement Fsi at the various layers is determined
by Eq. (5.44) or (5.45), which depends on the location of the steel layer:
r Layer 1 (d1 = 2.6 in < a = 16.8 in): Fs1 = [60 (0.85 7)] 3 1.27 = 205.9 kips
r Layer 2 (d2 = 8.9 in < a = 16.8 in): Fs2 = [55.1 (0.85 7)] 2 1.27 = 124.8 kips
r Layer 3 (d3 = 15.1 in < a = 16.8 in): Fs3 = [31.9 (0.85 7)] 2 1.27 = 65.9 kips
r Layer 4: Fs4 = 9.6 3 1.27 = 36.6 kips

Note that the compression steel in the top three layers fall within the depth of the equivalent
stress block; thus, Eq. (5.45) is used to determine the forces in the reinforcement in those layers.
418 Chapter Eight

Step 9: Determine Pn and Mn . The nominal axial strength Pn and nominal exural strength
Mn of the section are determined by Eqs. (5.46) and (5.47), respectively:

Pn = C + Fsi = 1,799.3 + (205.9 + 124.8 + 65.9 + 36.6) = 2,232.5 kips

Mn = 0.5C(h a ) + Fsi (0.5h di )

= [0.5 1,799.3 (24 16.8)] + [205.9(12 2.6) + 124.8(12 8.9)

+ 65.9(12 15.1) + 36.6(12 21.4)]
= 6,477.5 + 1,774.0 = 8,251.5 in kips = 687.6 ft kips

The design axial load and bending moment are obtained by multiplying Pn and Mn by
the strength reduction factor . Because t = s4 = 0.00033, which is less than the compression-
controlled strain limit of 0.0020 for sections with Grade 60 reinforcement (ACI 10.3.3), the section
is compression-controlled and = 0.65 (see ACI 9.3.2.2 and Fig. 4.2 of this book).
Therefore,

Mn = 0.65 687.6 = 446.9 ft kips

Point 3Strain in the Reinforcing Bars Farthest from the Compression Face Is Equal to Zero
Step 1: Check the minimum and maximum longitudinal reinforcement limits. The provided
area of longitudinal reinforcement falls between the minimum and maximum limits (see the cal-
culations under Point 2).
Step 2: Determine the neutral axis depth c. In this case, the neutral axis depth is equal to the
depth from the compression face to the reinforcing bars farthest from the compression face, which
is 21.4 in.
Step 3: Determine 1 .

1 = 1.05 0.00005 f c = 1.05 (0.00005 7,000) = 0.70 for f c = 7,000 psi

(see ACI 10.2.7.3 and Section 5.2 of this book)

a = 1 c = 0.70 21.4 = 15.0 in

Step 5: Determine C. The concrete compression resultant force C is determined by Eq. (5.42):

C = 0.85 f c a b = 0.85 7 15.0 18 = 1,606.5 kips

Step 6: Determine si . The strain in the reinforcement si at the various layers is determined
by similar triangles where compression strains are positive (see Fig. 8.2):
r Layer 1 (d1 = 2.6 in):

0.0030(21.4 2.6)
s1 = = 0.0026
21.4
r Layer 2 (d2 = 8.9 in):

0.0030(21.4 8.9)
s2 = = 0.0018
21.4
Columns 419
r Layer 3 (d3 = 15.1 in):

0.0030(21.4 15.1)
s3 = = 0.0009
21.4

r Layer 4 (d4 = 21.4 in):

0.0030(21.4 21.4)
s4 = = 0 (checks)
21.4

It is evident that all of the layers of reinforcement are in compression, except for layer 4 where it
was given that the strain is zero. Also, the layer of reinforcement closest to the extreme compression
ber yields (i.e., s1 > y = 0.0020).
Step 7: Determine fsi . The stress in the reinforcement f si at the various layers is determined
by multiplying si by the modulus of elasticity of the steel E s :
r Layer 1: f s1 = 0.0026 29,000 = 75.4 ksi > 60 ksi; use f s1 = 60 ksi
r Layer 2: f s2 = 0.0018 29,000 = 52.2 ksi
r Layer 3: f s3 = 0.0009 29,000 = 26.1 ksi
r Layer 4: f s4 = 0 ksi

Step 8: Determine Fsi . The force in the reinforcement Fsi at the various layers is determined
by Eq. (5.44) or (5.45), which depends on the location of the steel layer:
r Layer 1 (d1 = 2.6 in < a = 15.0 in): Fs1 = [60 (0.85 7)] 3 1.27 = 205.9 kips
r Layer 2 (d2 = 8.9 in < a = 15.0 in): Fs2 = [52.2 (0.85 7)] 2 1.27 = 117.5 kips
r Layer 3: Fs3 = 26.1 2 1.27 = 66.3 kips
r Layer 4: Fs4 = 0 kips

Note that the compression steel in the top two layers fall within the depth of the equiva-
lent stress block; thus, Eq. (5.45) is used to determine the forces in the reinforcement in those
layers.
Step 9: Determine Pn and Mn . The nominal axial strength Pn and nominal exural strength
Mn of the section are determined by Eqs. (5.46) and (5.47), respectively:

Pn = C + Fsi = 1,606.5 + (205.9 + 1,17.5 + 66.3 + 0) = 1,996.2 kips

Mn = 0.5C(h a ) + Fsi (0.5h di )

= [0.5 1,606.5 (24 15.0)] + [205.9(12 2.6) + 117.5(12 8.9)

+ 66.3(12 15.1) + 0]
= 7,229.3 + 2,094.2 = 9,323.5 in kips = 777.0 ft kips

The design axial load and bending moment are obtained by multiplying Pn and Mn by the
strength reduction factor . Because t = s4 = 0, which is less than the compression-controlled
strain limit of 0.0020 for sections with Grade 60 reinforcement (ACI 10.3.3), the section is
compression-controlled and = 0.65 (see ACI 9.3.2.2 and Fig. 4.2 of this book).
Therefore,

Pn = 0.65 1,996.2 = 1,297.5 kips

Mn = 0.65 777.0 = 505.1 ft kips
420 Chapter Eight

Point 4Balanced Failure

The design strength values for this strain distribution are determined in Example 5.10:

At balanced failure, t = s4 = 0.0020, which is the limit for compression-controlled sections.

Point 5Strain in the Reinforcing Bars Farthest from the Compression Face Is Equal to Two Times the Yield Strength
Step 1: Check the minimum and maximum longitudinal reinforcement limits. The provided
area of longitudinal reinforcement falls between the minimum and maximum limits (see the cal-
culations under Point 2).
Step 2: Determine the neutral axis depth c. The strain in reinforcing bars farthest from the
compression face is given as two times the yield strain: s4 = 2y = 2 0.0020 = 0.0040.
The neutral axis depth is determined by Eq. (5.41):

0.0030dt 0.0030 21.4

c= = = 9.2 in
t + 0.0030 0.0040 + 0.0030

Step 3: Determine 1 .

1 = 1.05 0.00005 f c = 1.05 (0.00005 7,000) = 0.70 for f c = 7,000 psi

(see ACI 10.2.7.3 and Section 5.2 of this book)

a = 1 c = 0.70 9.2 = 6.4 in

Step 5: Determine C. The concrete compression resultant force C is determined by Eq. (5.42):

C = 0.85 f c a b = 0.85 7 6.4 18 = 685.4 kips

Step 6: Determine si . The strain in the reinforcement si at the various layers is determined
by Eq. (5.43) where compression strains are positive:
r Layer 1 (d1 = 2.6 in):

0.0030(9.2 2.6)
s1 = = 0.0022
9.2
r Layer 2 (d2 = 8.9 in):

0.0030(9.2 8.9)
s2 = = 0.0001
9.2
r Layer 3 (d3 = 15.1 in):

0.0030(9.2 15.1)
s3 = = 0.0019
9.2
r Layer 4 (d4 = 21.4 in):

0.0030(9.2 21.4)
s4 = = 0.0040 (checks)
9.2
Columns 421

It is evident that the top two layers of reinforcement are in compression and that the bottom
two layers are in tension. Also, the layer of reinforcement closest to the extreme compression ber
and the layer farthest from the extreme compression ber yield (i.e., s1 and s4 > y = 0.0020).
Step 7: Determine fsi . The stress in the reinforcement f si at the various layers is determined
by multiplying si by the modulus of elasticity of the steel E s :
r Layer 1: f s1 = 0.0022 29,000 = 63.8 ksi > 60 ksi; use f s1 = 60 ksi
r Layer 2: f s2 = 0.0001 29,000 = 2.9 ksi
r Layer 3: f s3 = 0.0019 29,000 = 55.1 ksi
r Layer 4: f s4 = 0.0040 29,000 = 116.0 ksi > 60 ksi; use f s4 = 60 ksi

Step 8: Determine Fsi . The force in the reinforcement Fsi at the various layers is determined
by Eq. (5.44) or (5.45), which depends on the location of the steel layer:
r Layer 1 (d1 = 2.6 in < a = 6.4 in): Fs1 = [60 (0.85 7)] 3 1.27 = 205.9 kips
r Layer 2: Fs2 = 2.9 2 1.27 = 7.4 kips
r Layer 3: Fs3 = 55.1 2 1.27 = 140.0 kips
r Layer 4: Fs4 = 60 3 1.27 = 228.6 kips

Note that the compression steel in the top layer falls within the depth of the equivalent stress
block; thus, Eq. (5.45) is used to determine the forces in the reinforcement in that layer.
Step 9: Determine Pn and Mn . The nominal axial strength Pn and nominal exural strength
Mn of the section are determined by Eqs. (5.46) and (5.47), respectively:

Pn = C + Fsi = 685.4 + (205.9 + 7.4 140.0 228.6) = 530.1 kips

Mn = 0.5C(h a ) + Fsi (0.5h di )

= [0.5 685.4 (24 6.4)] + [205.9(12 2.6) + 7.4(12 8.9)

+ (140.0)(12 15.1) + (228.6)(12 21.4)]
= 6,031.5 + 4,541.2 = 10,572.7 in kips = 881.1 ft kips

The design axial load and bending moment are obtained by multiplying Pn and Mn by the
strength reduction factor . Because t = s4 = 0.0040 falls between the limits of compression- and
tension-controlled sections (0.0020 and 0.0050, respectively), the section is in the transition region,
and can be calculated by the following equation (see ACI 9.3.2.2 and Fig. 4.2 of this book):
   
250 250
= 0.65 + (t 0.0020) = 0.65 + (0.0040 0.0020) = 0.82
3 3

Therefore,

Point 6Pure Bending

For sections with multiple layers of reinforcement, there is no easy way of determining Mn for
the case of pure bending. A trial-and-error procedure is usually utilized using various neutral
axis depths c. A strain compatibility analysis is performed using the assumed value of c, and the
nominal axial strength Pn is calculated using Eq. (5.46). The iterations can end after a value of zero
(or a value close to zero) is found for Pn .
For the case of pure bending, the neutral axis should be located within the upper half of the
section. After several iterations, determine Pn , assuming c = 5.225 in. Also, a = 1 c = 3.658 in.
422 Chapter Eight

C = 0.85 f c a b = 0.85 7 3.658 18 = 391.8 kips

The strain in the reinforcement si at the various layers is determined by Eq. (5.43) where
compression strains are positive:

r Layer 1 (d1 = 2.6 in):

0.0030(5.225 2.6)
s1 = = 0.0015
5.225
r Layer 2 (d2 = 8.9 in):

0.0030(5.225 8.9)
s2 = = 0.0021
5.225
r Layer 3 (d3 = 15.1 in):

0.0030(5.225 15.1)
s3 = = 0.0057
5.225
r Layer 4 (d4 = 21.4 in):

0.0030(5.225 21.4)
s4 = = 0.009
5.225

It is evident that the top layer of reinforcement is in compression and that the bottom three
layers are in tension. Also, the reinforcement in all three of the layers that are in tension yield (i.e.,
s2 , s3 , and s4 > y = 0.0020).
The stress in the reinforcement f si at the various layers is determined by multiplying si by the
modulus of elasticity of the steel E s :

r Layer 1: f s1 = 0.0015 29,000 = 43.5 ksi

r Layer 2: f s2 = 60 ksi
r Layer 3: f s3 = 60 ksi
r Layer 4: f s4 = 60 ksi

The force in the reinforcement Fsi at the various layers is determined by Eq. (5.44) or (5.45),
which depends on the location of the steel layer:

r Layer 1 (d1 = 2.6 in < a = 3.658 in): Fs1 = [43.5 (0.85 7)] 3 1.27 = 143.1 kips
r Layer 2: Fs2 = 60 2 1.27 = 152.4 kips
r Layer 3: Fs3 = 60 2 1.27 = 152.4 kips
r Layer 4: Fs4 = 60 3 1.27 = 228.6 kips

Note that the compression steel in the top layer falls within the depth of the equivalent stress
block; thus, Eq. (5.45) is used to determine the forces in the reinforcement in that layer.
The nominal axial strength Pn is determined by Eq. (5.46):

Pn = C + Fsi = 391.8 + (143.1 152.4 152.4 228.6) = 1.5 kips
=0
424 Chapter Eight

Bending moment (ft kips)

FIGURE 8.6 Nominal and design strength interaction diagrams about the minor axis of the
column given in Example 8.2.

bination 6, which corresponds to ACI Eq. (9-6). The factored wind load effects are subtracted from
from wind; this produces a more critical effect on the column (see the discussion in Section 4.2).
The six load combinations in Table 8.2 are plotted in Fig. 8.7, which contains the design strength
interaction diagram that was constructed for this column in Example 8.2.