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Ultrasonic

Levitation
By: Ibrahim Ahmed Hassan
Adham Hesham El Faitoury
What is levitation ?

Levitation is a process by which an object is


suspended in a stable position against gravity,
without physical contact.
Fig.1 drops of Liquid are levitating
When you see this picture for the first time,
you might think that these drops of foam are
falling down from the pipe.

But I can assure you they are being levitated(


suspended in the air).
this video will make it easier to imagine.
How to levitate an object?

Levitation can be realized by various


physical means, such as magnetic
force, electrostatic force,
aerodynamic force, acoustic radiation
force and so on.
Sample of a titanium-
zirconium-nickel alloy inside
the Electrostatic Levitator
vacuum chamber at NASA's
Marshall Space Flight Center.
Acoustic levitation

Acoustic levitation takes advantage of the


properties of sound to cause objects to be
float.
Acoustic levitation uses sound traveling through an object to
balance the force of gravity, the process can take place in normal
or reduced gravity (earth or gas-filled enclosures in space).
The physics of acoustic levitation

A basic acoustic levitator has two main parts:


1. A transducer, which is a vibrating surface
that makes sound,
2. A reflector.
What do we need a reflector for?
When a sound wave reflects off of a
surface, the interaction between its
compressions and rarefactions causes
interference.

Compressions that meet other


compressions amplify one another,
and compressions that meet
rarefactions balance one another out.
By placing a reflector the right distance
away from a transducer, the acoustic
levitator creates a Standing wave.
Standing waves
A vibration of a system in which some particular
points remain fixed while others between them
vibrate with the maximum amplitude.
Also known as stationary wave.

The wave remains in the constant position.

This phenomenon occurs because the medium is moving in


the opposition direction to the wave, or the result of
interference between two waves traveling in opposite
directions. In A standing wave, there is no net propagation
of energy.
STANDING SOUND WAVES HAVE DEFINED
NODES, OR AREAS OF MINIMUM PRESSURE,
AND ANTINODES, OR AREAS OF MAXIMUM
PRESSURE.

STANDING WAVES ARE THE HEART OF


SONIC LEVITATION.
Standing wave levitation
phenomenon was first
observed in Kundts tube
experiment in 1866, that
small dust particles moved
toward the pressure nodes of
the standing wave created in
a horizontal Kundts tube.
How acoustic levitation works?

Often, the transducer and


reflector have concave surfaces
to help focus the sound.
Zhao, S., & Wallaschek, J., A standing wave acoustic levitation system for large planar objects,
Institute for Dynamics and Vibration Research, Appelstr. 11, 30167 Hannover, Germany.
Bowen, L., (2014). Floating on sound waves with acoustic levitation. Argonne national
laboratory, IL, USA
Can any sound cause levitation?
An acoustic wave can exert a force on objects
immersed in the wave field. These forces are
normally weak, but they can become quite
large when using high intensity.

THE MORE INTENSE IS THE SOUND THE MORE IS ITS


LEVITATION CAPABILITY.
Intense sound is central to acoustic levitation.
the transducers in many levitators produce
sounds in excess of 150 decibels (dB). Ordinary
conversation is about 60 dB, and a loud nightclub
is closer to 110 dB, this why most systems use
ultrasonic waves, because they are too high
pitched for people to hear.
In addition to the frequency and volume of the
wave, researchers also must pay attention to a
number of other factors:
1. The distance between the transducer and
the reflector must be a multiple of half of the
wavelength of the sound the transducer
produces.
2. The object being levitated should
measure between one third and half of
the wavelength of the sound.
3. Objects that are the right
size to levitate must also be of
the right mass.
4. Drops of liquid being levitated must have a
suitable bond number.

The etvs number (eo), also called the bond number (bo), is a
dimensionless number measuring the importance of surface tension
forces compared to body forces to characterize the shape of
bubbles or drops moving in a surrounding fluid.

If the Bond number is too


low, the drop will burst.
5. the intensity of the sound must not overwhelm the
surface tension of liquid droplets being levitated.
Near field levitation (Squeeze film
levitation)

Near field levitation is observed


when an object with a flat surface is
placed directly upon a sound
radiator, which means no need for a
reflector.
The gap between
radiation source and
the levitated object
must be much
smaller than the
sound wavelength in
air. Thus, standing
wave does not exist
Experimental results
in the gap anymore.
Hrska, S. ,(2015), Acoustic levitation, Seminar Ib1. letnik, II. stopnja , university of Ljubljana
Ultrasonic levitation
application
CONTENTS:
1. CONTAINER LESS TANK
2. FOAM BREAKING
3. ACOUSTIC PARTICLE SEPARATION
4. NON CONTACT TRANSPORTATION
5. OTHER APPLICATIONS
Container-less Tanks
STANDING WAVE LEVITATION IS SUITABLE FOR CONTAINER-LESS
PROCESSING OF MATERIALS, AND ACADEMIC EXPERIMENTS ON
SOME MATERIALS

RESEARCHERS CAN SUSPEND THESE MATERIALS IN AN ACOUSTIC


FIELD TO STUDY THEM WITHOUT THE RISK OF CONTAMINATION
FROM OR DESTRUCTION OF CONTAINERS DUE TO THE CORROSION
OF TANK
Containerless Tanks

Used in pharmaceutical industry in studying the crystalline form


of drugs to improve the solubility and bioavailability of several
drugs.
Containerless Tanks

Used in critical Chemical reaction


Containerless Tanks

VIDEO
Foam Breaking
Used in Destruction of Foam in undesirable product of a
particular reaction or process, or an integral part of a specific
unit operation.

Such as:
1. chemostats used for the fermentation of sugars to alcohol
using yeast

2. Foam Formation in Boiler Drum


Foam Breaking
Foam Breaking Occurs as Liquid is drained from foam Structure so it
Collapses
Foam Breaking
Foam Breaking mechanism
It is expected that liquid released by the rupture of lamella
will first taken up by the surrounding Plateau borders due
to ultrasonic pressure Causing Liquid Drainage according
to Morey & Dedhia
Foam Breaking

Experiment:

In order to investigate the frequency dependence of ultrasound


induced foam collapse, Experiments run were conducted using
no ultrasound, 27.72 kHz and 40.00kHz
Foam Breaking
Foam Breaking
RESULTS
1. RATE OF LIQUID DRAINAGE
Foam Breaking
RESULTS
2. FOAM COLLAPSE
Acoustic particle separation

Acoustic particle separation is separation and isolation


of particulate materials for a multitude of applications
involving living cells, macromolecules, industrial
colloids and particles and synthetic polymers.
Acoustic particle separation

Methods of Acoustic Particle Separation:

1. SPLITT

2. S-SPLITT

3. HACS
Acoustic particle separation

SPLITT (Split-flow thin cell fractionation)

The preparative technique of split-flow thin fractionation (SPLITT)


use a ribbon-like channel where the species are transported by a
laminar flow and axially transported and transversally driven by
Acoustic pressure.
Acoustic particle separation
SPLITT can be used for discrete or continuous separations of cells,
macromolecules and particles

Splitters are generally aligned at both ends of the flow cell dividing the
incoming and outcoming flow streams into an adjacent thin lamina
Acoustic particle separation

The sample is input at the inlet a adjacent to wall A, and the


carrier fluid (an inert fluid) is input at inlet b.

Blue: represent the flow splitters


Acoustic particle separation
S-splitt(step splitt device)
This device is a modification of the SPLITT channel, where the
splitters were replaced by steps
Acoustic particle separation

The S-SPLITT channels yield high velocities at relatively low flow


rates

The function and theoretical treatment of this device is the same


as done for a classical SPLITT
Acoustic particle separation
HACS (Hydrodynamic acoustic continuous sorter device for
programmed separation)
The manipulation of particles in USW offers the possibility of separate
particle mixtures allowing the coupling of an acoustic field
Non-Contact Transportation
It is based on near-field levitation

streaming velocity is proportional to amplitude of sound


radiator. Creating asymmetric acoustic streaming above radiator
also creates asymmetric stream causing movement of object in
direction of higher streaming velocity.
Non-Contact Transportation
Advantages of Non Contact Transportation System Using NFAL:

1. The system works in ultrasonic frequency, which is beyond


humans hearing range, which means that there is no noise
induced.

2. the system has no requirement on the material type. Any


materials can be levitated and transported.
Non-Contact Transportation

Advantages of Non Contact Transportation System Using


NFAL:
3. The system is simple, compact, easy to manufacture and
operate because the system does not have bearing, belt and etc.
Non-Contact Transportation

The disadvantages of the system are that it has high power


consumption and low power efficiency.
The system is sensitive to the driving force induced by acoustic
streaming
Other Applications

1. The removal & studying E.coli bacteria and catalytic micro


rods

2. Non-Contact ultrasonic motor

3. Cooling Systems
References
-R. Yano, M. Aoyagi, H. Tamura, T. Takano. Positioning of an object
in near-field acoustic levitation and its application. Proceedings of
symposium on ultrasonic electronics 31 (2010): 531-532

- Yin, Y., (2007). Non-contact Object transportation using near-field


acoustic levitation induced By ultrasonic flexural waves. North
Carolina State University. Raleigh, NC.
Bowen, L., (2014). Floating on sound waves with acoustic levitation.
Argonne national laboratory, IL, USA.

Sound Methods of Breaking Foam By James Winterburn, Pembroke


College

Hrska, S. ,(2015), Acoustic levitation, Seminar Ib1. letnik, II. stopnja ,


university of Ljubljana

Acoustic Levitation in ULTRA SLOW MOTION Smarter Every Day


134, YouTube.
William M. Carey, "Sound pressure", in AccessScience@McGraw-Hill,
http://www.accessscience.com, DOI 10.1036/1097-8542.637500, last
modified: July 30, 2002.

Xie, W.J. and B. Wei. "Parametric Study of Single-Axis Acoustic


Levitation." Applied Physics Letters. 8/6/2001.

Angelica Castro,Thesis Manipulation of biomimetic objects in


acoustic levitation