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A Brief Historical Survey of Anthroposophical Architecture in the USA

by David Adams

I will attempt to survey the increasing variety of

anthroposophically designed architecture in the
United States by focusing primarily on the work of
eight designers whose work has resulted in most
of these buildings in North America. The design of
Fritz Westhoff (1902 Paraguay-1980 New Jersey,
USA) marks the beginning of this architecture in
America. Beginning about 1928, Westhoff's wooden
furniture was full of irregular organic forms, angular
planes, and beveled edges. Both his furniture and
his three buildings in Spring Valley, New York,
2. Fritx Westhoff Interior furnishings, Threefold Vegetarian Resa-
reflect Steiner's organic functionalist approach.
taurant, 518 W. 56th St., New Yor City, 1929-1930. Cloased 1942.

The Threefold Commonwealth Group had been group, Westhoff set up a workshop in the buildings
formed in New York in November 1923 under the basement to produce the furniture needed for the
spaces above, particularly for
the new building for restaurant
and apartments at 318 West 56th
Street purchased in early 1929.

During 1928 and especially

1929 Westhoff designed and
constructed a large quantity of
striking, organically designed
furnishings to fill the ground-
floor restaurant, including chairs,
tables, benches, radiator screens,
& wall sconces (figs. 1-2, 4).
Also active in the overall interior
design of the restaurant (which
1. Fritx Westhoff Interior furnishings, Threefold Vegetarian Resataurant, 518 W. 56th St., in 1930 added a remodeled
New Yor City, 1929-1930. Cloased 1942. exterior streetfront including
asymmetrically curved door
leadership of former journalist Ralph Courtney and windows) were journalist Ralph Courtney and
(1885-1965) and in 1924 had
begun what was said to be
the first vegetarian restaurant
in New York City on West
56 Street: the Threefold
Vegetarian Restaurant (fig.
3). The group also rented
out apartments in the same
building. Soon after moving
to New York (probably in
early 1927) from Germany
and South America and 3. Ralph Courntey & Carl Schmidt Exterior, Threefold Vegetarin Restaurant in 1940, New York
becoming a participant in the City. Closed 1942.
40 miles northwest
near Spring Valley
(an area today called
Chestnut Ridge),
partly to grow food
for the restaurant.
Under the direction
of Courtney, new
wooden buildings
soon began to arise
there, beginning with
the shingled Summer
Dining Building of
4. Fritz Westhoff Drawing of Entrance to Threefold Vegetar-
1927, which provided
ian Restaurant, New York City, ca. 1930. a summer kitchen
and dining area
carpenter Carl Schmidt (1895-1975). During the and miscellaneous
same period and continuing until about 1934 Westhoff offices and storage
also designed and built a wide variety of furniture (fig. 7). Carl Schmidt
for the apartments (chairs, desks, bureaus, tables, executed many of
bookshelves, beds, wardrobes, lamps, sofas, etc.). In the details. As the
1928 his unique furniture was favorably discussed in first attempt to use 6. Fritz Westhoff Dresser with Trian-
two illustrated articles in New York City newspapers Steiner's architectural gular Mirror 1928-30, New York.
and sold by the Stern Brothers company (figs. 5-6). language on an
American building (although mainly as applied
In 1926 the group purchased a thirty-acre farm about trim around doors and windows), this building
inspired others, including three by Westhoff.

Westhoff's Carriage House of 1929 included parking

and storage on the first story with summer conference
housing on second story (figs. 8-9). In contrast to the
Summer Dining Building, Westhoff's Carriage House
was structurally and spatially inspired by Steiner
throughout. Westhoff's engineering training enabled
him to sturdily and inexpensively construct this small

7. Ralph Courtney & Carl Schmidt Summer Dining Building

5, Fritz Westhoff Desk and Chair ca. 1928-1930, New York City Threefold Farm, Spring Valley, NY, 1927, destroyed 1980s
In a single-story, wood-frame private home built by
Westhoff for Fanny Combs in 1931 the spreading
roof folds angularly but symmetrically around the
house in a sheltering gesture, but the most prominent
feature is a pointed and upwardly projecting front
gable with laterally spreading roof lines, in which an

8. Fritz Westhoff Carriage House Threefold Farm, Spring Valley,

NY 1929, destroyed 1982.

11. Fritz Westhoff Combs House Threefold Farm, Spring Valley,

NY 1931.

angular window once provided light from above to

the interior (figs. 10-11). The following year Westhoff
constructed another small home for Fred and Alice
Heckel next to the Combs House (figs. 12-13). In
this concrete-foundation house the front gable as well
9. Fritz Westhoff Carriage House, front Threefold Farm, Spring
Valley, NY 1928, destroyed 1982. as the entire structure seem to project forward in a
building almost entirely out of 2 x 4s as structural dynamic fashion, while the angled flaps of the wood
members. This carriage house, along with two private
houses he constructed nearby in 1931 and 1932, were
unprecedented in American architecture for their
dynamic, planar designs, tilting walls, and animated
attempts at expression. The Carriage House's multi-
pitched, angular, spreading roof with two irregular
pentagonal wings
sheltered a variety
of dynamic con-
trasts in the forms
below (related to
their functions
within the building),
including numerous
rising, titled angles
in the building's
12. Fritz Wethoff Heckel House Threefold Farm, Spring Valley,
side panels, flaps, NY 1932
center rear sections,
windows, and front shingle roof fold down over the walls all the way to
piers. In 1982 this the ground at the rear and on the side by the front
building was torn entrance. Later additions were made to the rear of both
down to expand 10. Fritz Westhoff Combs House Threefold houses, obscuring their original rear facades. By the
a parking lot. Farm, Spring Valley, NY 1931 period photo mid-1930s Westhoff abandoned his work in furniture
torium for 600 persons. Her clay model was used by
American architect Daniel Birdsall in 1946 to draw
up plans. These were then revised, downsized for
economic reasons, and executed in detail by Ralph
Courtney and Carl Schmidt, working with a local
builder. Built over two years with a cinder block
construction covered with stucco, the Threefold

13. Fritz Westhoff Combs and Heckel Houses Threefold Farm,

Spring Valley, NY 1931-1932, period photograph
and architecture and took more profitable jobs as
an engineering designer for several firms in Central
America and New York, until his retirement in 1967.

Although Courtney directed the construction of a

number of other smaller wooden structures at the
Threefold Farm (today the Threefold Educational
Foundation, or Center), his most important project was
the Threefold Auditorium. About 1945 the auditorium's 16. Mieta Waller-Pyle, Ralph Courtney, Daniel Birdsall, and
site was cho- Carl Schmidt Threefold Auditorium 1945-1949 Threefold
sen by and Farm, Spring Valley, NY.
its exterior
designed by Auditorium was completed in 1949 (figs. 14-16).
Mieta Waller-
Pyle (1883- Seen from above, the building seems centered on
1952; married two intersecting pentagons (representing stage and
to American auditorium) rising above another pentagon. However,
p a i n t e r these forms are not easily visible from the ground
William Scott or interior. The building sits on the top of a hill and
Pyle) as a adjacent to it is a later, cylindrical astronomical
r e i n f o r c e d 14. Mieta Waller-Pyle Scale Model of Thtee- observation tower, whose metallic, domed top section
fold Auditorium, Spring Valley, NY, 1945,
concrete audi- modelling clay. containing the telescope rotates. The main entrance,
situated between two flanking wings of rooms, presents

15. MIeta Wallter-Pyle, Ralph Courtney, Daniel Birdsall, and

Carl Schmidt Threefold Auditorium 1945-1949 Threefold 17. Ralph Courtney and Carl Schmidt entrance lobby, Threefold
Farm, Spring Valley, NY Auditorium Threefold Farm, Spring Valley, NY 1945-1949
a rounded surface enhancements of
with two round- the irregularly
arched doors. curving or an-
Above the right- gular tops of
hand flanking doorways lining
wing is an outdoor the sides of the
terrace with a auditorium. Two
wrought-iron large side rooms
railing of curving were designed
linear forms. for meetings and
a community li-
Inside, a tree- brary. Courtney
like, flat, wooden and Schmidt
paneled form labored to com-
rises between the plete the interior
two doorways throughout
with pointed pro- the 1950s.
jections, some- 18. Ralph Courtney and Carl Schmidt Threefold Auditorium, interior Threefold Farm,
Spring Valley, NY, 1945-1949
what similar to
Steiners 1913-
14 Boiler House chimney (fig. 17). A stairway leads
upward on either side of the entrance lobby area,
bounded by a twisting wrought iron railing. Beneath
the mezzanine are doors leading to ground-story rooms
for storage, stage props, bathrooms, and dressing
rooms. The auditorium itself is a large, pentagonal
space with curving rows of seating for about 200
persons with a raised stage (fig. 18). The high ceiling
echoes the exterior pentagonal shape with sloping
planes and a pentagram cross of five intersecting
rows of lights. The entire interior is covered with a
complex pattern of irregularly angular planes of
corrugated plywood paneling (Weldtex), giving the
20. George de Ris and Henry Monges Monges House. Spring Val-
lively illusion of three-dimensional faceting. These ley, NY 1941-1942.
are used to indicate a variety of forms, including some
of Steiners original graphic designs and echoes and Another early architectural landmark to be constructed
on American soil was the Monges House of 1941-42
in Spring Valley, which is presently used as apartment
housing and a care facility for the elderly (figs. 19-
20). It was designed by architects Henry B. Monges
(1870-1954) and George de Ris (1905-1976), who
supervised the construction. Located on top of a hill,
this house consisted of a two-story center section that
anchored four additional one-story sections ranged
irregularly around it, along with a basement. The
one-story section projecting outward toward the edge
of the hill was used as a eurythmy practice room by
Lisa Monges and features three large windows with
dynamically curved corners (fig. 21). Behind and
19. George de Ris and Henry Monges Mongest House. Spring Val-
ley, NY 1941-1942.
above this rises the projecting, angled roof line of the
21.George de Ris and Henry Monges, Monges House, 23.Margreta Overbeck Crucifixion Window St. Matthews
interior of eurythmy studio,Spring Valley, NY, 1942. Episcopal Church, Evanston, Illinois, 1960s, leaded stained
second story crowned by a brick chimney (perhaps glass, manufactured by J & R Lamb Studios, Inc.
echoing the general form of the Combs house). The at 211 Madison Avenue in New York City (fig. 22).
house as a whole has an irregular, spreading roof line, The auditorium was executed along with architect
and the interior features some irregularly shaped, Walter Leicht during the later 1940s. It featured a
angular rooms. Several additions were made to the series of three symmetrically angled arches leading
building in 1965-66 by architect Walter Leicht after from the audience seating up to the proscenium arch
it was acquired of the raised stage,
by the Rudolf embracing the
Steiner Fellowship stage. The entire
Foundation ceiling was angled
and renamed downward from
Hilltop House. the center with two
planes bending
De Ris, who joined downward on each
the Society in 1931 side to join the
and served on its side walls. The
national council auditorium was
for many years, destroyed after the
also designed the building was sold
auditorium interior in the mid-1980s.
of the national
headquarters of the We should also
Anthroposophical 22.George de Ris and Walter Leicht Auditorium, Anthroposophical Society in Ameri- mention that de
Society in America ca, 211 Madison Avenue, New York City, late 1940s, sold 1982. Ris worked as
General Manager for the J. & R. Lamb Studios for 36
years, designing church interiors, stained glass, and
ecclesiastical furnishings, traveling constantly across
the country. More than one of the Lamb Studios artists
had interests in anthroposophy, although the most
outstanding contribution was made by Margreta
Overbeck (1909-2007), whose kaleidoscopic,
"shattered form" stained glass designs from 1940
through the mid-1980s attempted to translate eurythmic
movements and the effect of watercolor veiling into

26. Joan de Ris Allen Plan, Rainbow Hall, Camphill Spe-

cial Schools, Beaver Run (Glenoore), PA 1966-1967.
de Ris, worked since 1969 as an architectural principal
of Camphill Architects in England, Scotland, Ireland,
and Norway, until her return to the United States in
2002. However, in her earlier career she also designed
a number of impressive buildings for the American

24. Joan de Ris Allen Rainbow Hall, Camphill Special

Schools, Beaver Run (Glenmoore), PA1966-1967

many hundreds of large-format stained glass windows

for churches throughout the United States (fig. 23). 27. Joan de Ris Allen Karl Knig School House Camphill
Special Schools, Beaver Run (Glenmoore), PA 1974-1975.
Joan de Ris Allen (b. 1931), the daughter of George
Camphill Centers. In 1966-67 she designed the
wooden-shingled Rainbow Hall for Camphill Special
Schools, Beaver Run, near Glenmoore, Pennsylvania
(figs. 24-26). The building provided a 150-person
auditorium with stage, a chapel for Sunday services,
a colored light therapy setting, and a variety of rooms
for classes, eurythmy, therapy, and meetings. The
auditorium of this two-story building is shaped on
plan as a regular pentagon and is constructed around
five large, curving laminated wood beams joined
together in the center. Triangular wooden-beam
subdivisions create the form of a five-pointed star on
the ceiling. Along with several residential houses at
the same location, she also designed the Karl Knig
School House in 1974-75 (figs. 27-28). This wood-
shingled school building provides eight classrooms,
25. Joan de Ros Allen Interior, Rainbow Hall,Camphill Special an assembly hall/gymnasium (with four interesting
Schools, Beaver Run, PA 1966-67.
laminated colored glass figural windows designed by
Peter Bruckner), therapy rooms, a library, etc. for a

28. Joan de Ris Allen Karl Knig School House plan Camphill 31. Joan deRis Allen Interior Auditorium, Fountain Hall Camphill
Special Schools, Beaver Run (Glenmoore), PA 1974-1975 Village, Copake, NY designed 1968-1969 (Walter Leicht and Hans
Kunz, execution 1969-1970)

K-8 school for children with special needs.

Probably the most significant American

building designed by de Ris Allen is
Fountain Hall at Camphill Village in Copake,
New York (figs. 29-30). It consists of an
auditorium and meeting hall, dressing rooms,
basement chapel, and library. It was designed
in 1968-1969 with the execution supervised
by Walter Leicht 1969-1970 and several
important details executed by Hans Kunz
(including the concrete casting of the angular
top of the bell tower). The many-angled
29. Joan deRis Allen Fountain Hall Camphill Village, Copake, NY designed
1968-1969 (Walter Leicht and Hans Kunz, execution 1969-1970) exterior includes 22 distinct wall planes
rising approximately two stories high
with a large balustraded balcony and
attached bell tower. The exterior
is primarily finished in deep red
stucco. Numerous irregularly angled
windows, doors, volumes, niches,
stairway openings, etc. are seen
throughout the exterior and interior
of the building. The large auditorium
is irregular in shape, but basically
pentagonal on plan (fig. 31). The
trapezoidal plan of the raised stage
intersects one point of the pentagonal
plan of the auditorium. The foyer,
balcony, rear stage, and chapel each
include striking abstract and figural
stained glass windows designed
30. Joan deRis Allen Fountain Hall Camphill Village, Copake, NY designed 1968-1969
(Walter Leicht and Hans Kunz, execution 1969-1970)
by Carlo Pietzner and executed
32. Carlo Pietzner, design; Karl Wolfe and Eleanor H. Ciullo, ex-
ecution, Riders of the Apocalypse, dale-de-verre window in rear
balcony of auditorium, Fountain Hall, Camphill Village, Copake
together with Carl Wolff about 1970 (fig. 32). The
entrance to
the impressive
chapel below 35. Joan de Ris Allen Rose Hall Kimberton Hills Cam-
the auditorium phill Village, Kimberton, Pennsylvania 1976-1978.
is flanked by multi-pitched, multi-level roofs (figs. 34-35). Inside,
two broad, a rectangular stage area is connected to a specially
attached shaped, two-story auditorium space, which is
pillars with
freely sculpted
capitals (fig.
33). From
1963 into the
late 1980s de
Ris Allen also
designed 8 or
9 residential
houses and
s e v e r a l
33. Joan de Ris Allen Chapel detail, Fountain w o r k s h o p s
Hall Camphill Village, Copake, NY 1968- 36. Joan de Ris Allen Rose Hall, interior Kimberton Hills
at this same Camphill Village, Kimberton, Pennsylvania 1976-1978.
surrounded by single-story areas for lobby, meeting
In 1976-78 de RisAllen designed a large hall for Camphill room, dressing rooms, and restrooms (fig. 36). Since
VillageKimberton Hills in Kimberton, Pennsylvania, her return to the U.S. from Ireland in 2002 she has
poetically named Rose Hall (or The Hall of Dawn continued to design new buildings in various locations,
and Twilight). Rose Hall remodeled and replaced an including her collaborative work with Camphill
existing art studio Architects on the
and apartment 2007 Christian
and consists of an Community
auditorium with Chapel in
stage and separate Hillsdale, New
raised recess for York (fig. 37).
altar, caretakers
apartment, The most prolific
meeting room, of the American
and storage. anthroposophical
Its exterior is architects was
finished in rose- 34. Joan de Ris Allen Rose Hall Kimberton Hills Camphill Village, Kimberton, Walter Leicht
red stucco with Pennsylvania 1976-1978. (1920-1997).
40. Walter Leicht High School, Green Meadow Waldorf School,
37. Joan de Ris Allen, Wolodymir Radysh, and Lothar Haasis Chestnut Ridge, NY, 1972.
(Camphill Architects) Taconic-Berkshire Christian Community as only "abbreviated" anthroposophical forms.
Chapel, Hillsdale, NY 2002-2007
Leaving his native Austria for New York City in 1938 Although only a sampling of his numerous
at age 18, Leicht found his first job at the Threefold buildings can be mentioned here, surely one of his
Vegetarian Restaurant. After working on numerous most outstanding early projects was the complete
large-scale architectural projects with the office of design of the Green Meadow Waldorf School in
Gustave Iser in New York from 1946 to 1969, he Chestnut Ridge. Beginning in 1956 with the design
of the kindergarten building (whose two opposite
ends feature a projecting, "prow-like" gabled and
angled window-wall with dynamically projecting
eaves; fig. 38), Leicht proceeded through the years
to create a complete campus complex, including
the Elementary School Building (1966 and 1968),
Gymnasium (1970), High School Building (1972),

38.Walter Leicht Kindergarten, Green Meadow Waldorf School,

Chestnut Ridge, NY, 1956.

opened own office in Spring Valley in 1969, where

he continued his commercial design work along
with, increasingly, anthroposophical buildings.
Leicht's wide-ranging work gave a great boost to the
development of anthroposophical enterprises in the
United States, although too often financial constraints
of clients led him to describe many of his designs 41. Walter Leicht Arts Building, Green Meadow Waldorf
School Chestnut Ridge, NY, 1973.

and Arts Building (1973). With angled roof planes

and windows and often irregularly shaped classrooms,
these usually multi-story structures are grouped at
several levels around a central courtyard and related
in appearance through their exteriors of cream-colored
stucco with dark brown wood trim (figs. 39-41).

39. Walter Leicht Elementary School, Green Meadow Waldorf Beginning with the additions to Hilltop House in
School Chestnut Ridge, NY, 1966-1968. 1965-66 and continuing well into the 1990s, Leicht
42. Walter Leicht Ladyslipper Lodge, Rudolf Steiner Fellowship
Foundation Chestnut Ridge, NY, 1983-1984.
designed another series of related buildings with a
similar exterior appearance for the nearby Rudolf 45. Walter Leicht Celandine Medical Building, Camphill
Special Schools Beaver Run (Glenmoore), Pennsylvania, 1987.
Steiner Fellowship Foundation, a community
centered on care of the elderly. Ladyslipper Lodge Pennsylvania, of 1976 (fig. 43); the Gymnasium
of 1983-84, which contains apartments, offices, and Recreation Center of the Esperanza School
medical treatment rooms, workshops, and more, was for the Mentally Handicapped in Chicago of 1987
built on a hillside (fig. 42). This three-story building (fig. 44), a number of buildings in Camphill Village
at Copake, and "Celandine" at Camphill Special
Schools, Beaver Run, Pennsylvania in 1987, a center
for medical treatment (fig. 45). Finally, during the
1980s Leicht completed the design and construction
of the Hawthorne Valley Waldorf School in Ghent,
New York, which had been begun in 1981 by
Nicholas Morrow, who created a scale model and
built the tall central part of the structure (fig. 46).

43. Walter Leicht Christian Community Chapel Devon,

Pennsylvania 1976.

features a wide, single-story central entrance lobby

section in front of a rear two-story section, flanked
by two sloping pentagonal-roofed side wings.
A few other noteworthy buildings designed by Leicht
include his Christian Community Chapel at Devon,

46. Walter Leicht and Nicholas Morrow Hawthorne Valley Waldorf

School Ghent (Harlemville), NY 1980s.

German architect Otto Jger (b.1910), whose daughter

Ina Jaehnig has lived in Denver, Colorado, since the
early 1970s, was responsible for two outstanding
building designs. The Christian Community Chapel
and attached Parsifal Shield Kindergarten in Denver
was designed in 1979 and with the guidance of Rev.
Diethart Jaehnig was completed in 1981 (fig. 47). To the
44. Walter Leicht Gymnasium and Recreation Center, Esper- one side of this wooden building with a low, spreading
anza School (for the Mentally Handicapped) Chicago, IL 1987
and an elaborately shaped, undulating wooden ceiling.
The foyer between kindergarten and chapel leads to
a third section containing kitchen, office, restrooms,

47. Otto Jger Christian Community Chapel and Parsifal Shield

Kindergarten Denver, Colorado 1979-1981. 50. Stuart Buck San Juan Hall, Sacramento Waldorf School
Fair Oaks, California ca. 1982.
roof is a kindergarten wing as a cylindrical volume
with tall arched windows and a roof in the shape of and stairway to the basement, where the Youth Theater
a 3-dimensional 5-pointed star. The larger and taller seats 80-100 persons with nearby lounge, guest room,
chapel is a pentagonal volume with a raised altar area and workshop. Jger's other U.S. building, the striking
Michael Fields Agricultural Research Institute in East

51. Stuart Buck Administration/Library Building, Sacramento

48. Otto Jger Michael Fields Agricultural Research Institute Waldorf School Fair Oaks, California, ca. 1987.
East Troy, Wisconsin, completed 1990.
Troy, Wisconsin, was completed in 1990 (fig. 48). The
at the base end of the pentagon and a trapezoidal bold design integrates parabolic curves into a structure
vestry off to one side. It seats 80 persons and features that relates to
tall narrow angular windows, wood-paneled walls, surrounding
rural farm
and provides
r e s e a r c h
meeting rooms,
and other spaces.

Beginning with
52. Stuart Buck Simplified groundplan, Linden P h i l a d e l p h i a
49. Stuart Buck Philadelphia Hall, Rudolf Steiner College Fair Hall, simplified groundplan, Sacramento Wal- Hall completed
Oaks, California, completed 1982. dorf School Fair Oaks, CA, compl. 1997. in 1982, a long
assembly hall seating language with the
220 per-sons at Rudolf traditional California
Steiner College (fig. Spanish Mission
49), Stuart Buck building style, com-
of Fair Oaks, bining irregular poly-
California, designed gonal volumes and
an original complex unusually angled
of buildings for the roof planes with such
nearby Sacramento features as a long
Waldorf School up arcaded porch and an
through the mid- angular bell tower.
1990s. This included
San Juan Hall, a 53. Stuart Buck Linden Hall, Sacramento Waldorf School Fair Oaks, Califor- During the later
large pentagonal-plan nia, completed 1997. 1990s Canadian
classroom completed architect H. S.
around 1982 (fig. 50); the Administration/Library (Bert) Chase has worked to expand Buck's original
Building com-pleted around 1987 (fig. 51); and Linden work at Rudolf Steiner College, beginning with his
outstanding 1999 design for Stegmann Hall, in which
he attempted to embody the respective educational

54. H.S. (Bert) Chase Stegmann Hall, Rudolf Steiner College Fair
Oaks, California, completed 1999.

Hall completed in 1997, a large auditorium with stage/

gymnasium (seating 1,100), foyer, bathrooms, storage, 56. H.S. (Bert) Chase Interior Auditorium, Stegmann Hall, Ru-
dolf Steiner College Fair Oaks, California, completed 1999.
locker rooms, offices, and large arts classrooms (figs.
52-53). The latter two stucco-surfaced buildings impulses of Waldorf teacher training and education
impressively integrate an anthroposophical form- in the arts within two contrasting wings one curved
and protective, the other angular and awake each
flanking a taller central eurythmy/performance

55. H.S. (Bert) Chase Entrance, Stegmann Hall, Rudolf Steiner 57. H.S. (Bert) Chase Norton Administration Building, Rudolf
College Fair Oaks, California, completed 1999. Steiner College Fair Oaks, California, completed 2002.
58. H.S. (Bert) Chase Norton Dormitories, Rudolf Steiner Col- 61. Jonathan Rose High School Building, Great Barrington Wal-
lege Fair Oaks, California, completed 2002. dorf School Great Barringotn, Massachusetts, 1984.
To conclude this too cursory a survey of architectural
efforts, we should briefly mention a few other
significant building designs: Pine Hill Waldorf School

59. H.S. (Bert) Chase (with Steve Guest) High School, Sacra-
mento Waldorf School Fair Oaks, California, compl. 2005
hall (figs. 54-56). Chase followed this with the
Norton Dormitory/Library Complex completed 62. Jim Zanetto Davis Waldorf School Davis, CA, compl. 1992
in 2002: three large dormitory buildings, a small
in Wilton, New Hampshire, designed by James
administrative structure, and Norton Hall, a library
Chapman and Howard Chittenden and constructed
and student commons area (figs. 57-58). In 2005 a
1984-1988 (and reconstructed in 1990 after a
tragic fire; fig. 60); the high school building of the
Great Barrington Waldorf School in Massachusetts
designed by Jonathan Rose and finished in 1984
(fig. 61); the Spanish Mission-related, stucco-covered
rammed-earth Davis Waldorf School in California
designed by Jim Zanetto and completed in 1992

60. James Chapman and Howard Chittenden Pine Hill Waldorf

School Wilton, New Hampshire, 1984-1988, reconstructed after
fire in 1990.

complex of three large high school buildings were

completed for the Sacramento Waldorf School, with
local architect Steve Guest assisting Chase with
the execution (fig. 59). Chase has designed other
significant projects in Canada, such as the Vancouver
Waldorf School and the chief building of the 63. Eve Olive Scale model for Emerson Waldorf School Chapel
Hesperus Fellowship Community north of Toronto. Hill, North Carolina, ca. 1986-1987.
(fig. 62); the Emerson Waldorf School in Chapel
Hill, North Carolina, designed by Eve Olive to be
constructed in three phases, beginning with the east
wing constructed 1986-87 (fig. 63); and the angular
redesigns of several buildings at the Kahumana
Community in Hawaii designed and constructed by
Florian Sydow in the 1980s and 1990s (fig. 64).

North American awareness of anthroposophical

architecture was much advanced by the showings
of The Goetheanum: Rudolf Steiner's Architectural
Impulse, the enormous exhibition of photographs,
drawings, and scale models assembled in Sweden
and accompanied by a 132-page catalog. With
assistance from many anthroposophists and
academic architectural historians, the exhibition
was circulated by the Center for Architectural &
Design Research (directed by David Adams) to
seven major venues across the United States from
1982 to 1985, including the National Academy of
Design (with a related lecture by Hagen Biesantz
at the Guggenheim Museum in New York City),
Harvard University, Cranbrook Museum, Washington
University, and the Pacific Design Center. However,
the wider development of architectural projects
inspired by anthroposophy continues to be hampered
both by lack of finances and lack of architects.

64. Florian Sydow Buildings at Kahumana Community Hawsaii, 1980s and 1990s.