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^ . i.



Published Axitumn. 1923

Printed in Great Biitain by

Billing and Sons, Ltd., Guildford and Eshek


It was as long ago as December, 1913, when Major

Fletcher was staying with me in
my camp at Meir,

in Asyut province, that he and I first discussed the

possibility of bringing out together a popularly

written account of life as led by the inhabitants of

ancient Thebes, I supplying the text and he the


Upon the outbreak of the Great War idea


we entertained of such an undertaking was ably


given However, the interest aroused by


the late Lord Carnarvon and Mr. Howard Carter's

discovery in the Valley of the Tombs of the Kings

brought the old project back to our minds and

when Major Fletcher was approached by Messrs.

A. and C. Black on the subject of producing a book

about Luxor, to which he was to supply the trations,


he at once wrote to me asking me to do

what I had often talked about doing with him in

the past. Hence this book, which it is hoped will

convince its readers that Egyptology is not a dreary

study, but is full of human interest "

is, in fact,

concerned rather with hfe and beauty than with

mummies and other dusty trophies of death.

To Professor Sir W. M. FHnders Petrie and other

friends I tender
sincere thanks for kindly mitting

me to use
illustrations from their published


In conclusion, let me
that it will give me no

little satisfaction if this small volume, so admirably

illustrated by Major Fletcher's pencil drawings,

succeeds, as
it is intended to do, in increasing the

interest of the general public in Ancient Egypt, and

incidentally, in adding to the list of subscribers


to the Egypt Exploration Society, under the

auspices of which a great part of research work


in Egypt has been conducted.



Table of Dates - - - - - x


Life in Ancient Luxor -

- - -


How Thebes became the Capital of Egypt -



Thebes, the World's First Monumental City -



Some Great Kings in Time of War - -



A Famous Queen - - -


Poems, Songs, and Romances _ _



Some Funerary Temples - - - -


Bibliography ------

Index --.-_. 195

" "





I. Medinet Habu - - _


II. Luxor Ferry - -


III. Floral Columns, Karnak 8

IV. Great Hypostyle Hall, Karnak -


V. Great Hypostyle Hall, Karnak -


VI. Temple of Khons, Karnak - -


VII. Sacred Lake, Karnak -


VIII. Colonnaded Court, Temple of Luxor -


IX. Hypostyle Hall, Temple of Luxor -


X. Nefretiri . - - _ -

XL Head of a Young Man -


XII. Native School -

_ . -

XIII. The Nile at Luxor - - - -


XIV. Wife of Ramesses II. -


XV. Deir El-Bahri -


XVI. Deir El-Bahri .




XVIL Ramesseum 120

- - - - -

XVIIL Ramesseum 129

- - - - -

XIX. Hypostyle Hall, Ramesseum 136

- -

XX. Ramesseum 140

- - -
- -

XXI. Medinet Habu

. - _

XXII. High Gate ob^

Ramesses III. 152
- -

XXIII. Colossal Statue, Thebes 161

- - -

XXIV. Tombs of the

Kings 168
- . .

Sketch-Map of the District on p.


There alsojifty line illustrations inserted

are throughout
the text.


2900-2475 B.C.

Fourth Dynasty, 2900-2750 b.c.

Fifth Dynasty, 2750-2625 B.C.

Sixth Dynasty, 2625-2475 B.C.



Seventh and Eighth Dynasties, 2475-2445 B.C.

Ninth and Tenth Dynasties, 2445-2160 B.C.


2160-1788 B.C.

Eleventh Dynasty, 21 60-2000 b.c.

Twelfth Dynasty, 2000-1788 b.c.

r2000-1980 B.C., alone.

Amenemhet I. 2000-1970
^;^ ^.^j^ ^ j^.g g^^

r 1980-1970 B.C.,
with his father.

Sesostris I. 1980-1935 B.C.J 1970-1938 b.c,

tl938-1935 B.C., with his son.

ri938-1935 with his father.

Amenemhet II. 1938-1903 B.C.]
1935-1906 b.c, alone.
1 1906-1903. B.C., with his son.

f 1906-1903 with his father.

Sesostris II. -.r^r.^ -.oo^
1906-188/ B.c|jc)03_i887

Sesostris III. 1887-1849 B.C. Uncertain period with his son.

r Uncertain period with his father.

1 o^n 1 of\^
Amenemhet III. 1849-1801
period with his son.

Amenemhet IV. 1801-1792 B.C. Uncertain period with his father.

Sebknbfbure' 1792-1788 B.c

In accordance withBreasted, "
A History of Egypt." London,
1906, pp. 597/0//.


1788 -
1580 B.C.


ThirteeJith to Seventeenth Di/nastiesand the HyksoSj

1788-1580 B.C.


1580-1167 B.C.

EighteenthDynasty^ 1580-1350 B.C.

Ahmose I. 1580-1557 B.C.

Amenhotpe I. 1557-1536 B.C.


Dhutmose I.

Dhutmose II.
1536-1447 B.C.

Dhutmose III

Amenhotpe II.- 1447-1420 B.C.

Dhutmose IV. 1420-1411 B.C.

Amenhotpe III. 1411-1375 B.C.


1375-1350 B.C.


Nineteenth Dynasty, 1350-1205 B.C.

Haremheb 1350-1315 B,c.

Ramesses I. 1315 1314 B.C.

Seti I. - 1313-1292 B.C.

Ramesses II. 1292-1225 B.C.

Mebneptah 1225-1215 B.C.

Amenmeses 1215 B c.

Siptah -
1215-1209 B.C.

Seti II. 1209-1205 B.C.

Interim of Anarchy, 1205-1200 B.C.

Twentieth Dynasty, 1200-1090 B.C.

Setnakht 1200-1198 B.C.

Ramesses III. -
. _ 1198-1167 B.C.

Ramesses IV. -Ramesses XII. -

1167-1090 B.C.

?4,,.;i "


05 H

w ^





The first question that anybody would ask who

wanted to know something of the Hfe led by the

ancient inhabitants of Luxor " or Thebes as it was

called by the Greek and Latin writers "

would in

all probability be :
What sort of houses did they
live in ?" So I to begin the first chapter

of this book by giving as briefly as possible what

will, I hope, be a satisfactory answer to this by no

means unintelligent question.

Excavations have shown us that an Egyptian
town presented much the same appearance in

ancient as in modern times. There were the same

narrow streets and the same sort of houses, the

latter constructed of mud-brick, sometimes washed


or colour-washed, and consisting, in the

case of well-to-do folk, of a ground floor and one

or two stories. A painting in the tomb


chapel of a certain Theban royal scribe named

Dliutnufer, who flourished some time about the

1450 B.C., depicts just such a two-storied

house, that of the royal scribe himself (see Fig. 1).
It will be seen that flightsof stairs lead from one

floor to another and on to the flat roof, where, as

at the present day, are placed domed granaries

made of mud. No doubt, then as now, alongside
of the granarieswas stacked the household fuel "

bundles of brushwood and maize- stalks and cakes

of cow-dung. The roof in ancient, no less than in

modern, Egypt was the women's favourite resort,

the place where they not only gathered to gossip

and enjoy the air, but also to do a great deal of

their work, spinning,sewing, and even cooking.

The ground floor of Dhutnufer's house, it will be

seen, is given up to the kitchen, and also to rooms,


where men and women are engaged in ning

and weaving. These workpeople are either

members of Dhutnufer's household, or else that

individual let out the greater part of the ground

floor of his house to a weaver, who used the rooms

as his business premises.

On the first floor were Dhutnufer's own ments,
where he also received his friends. The

women's quarters, as in a modern Egyptian house,


occupied the top floor. It will be noted that the

actual rooms shown by the artist are of fine dimen-

the ceilings being supported on columns,
doubtless made of wood.

Fig. 1. "
Dhutiiufer's House.

{After ^'Ancient Egypt, in. By the courtesy of Professor Sir W. M.
Fli'iulers Petrie.)

In respect of its furnishing and decoration, such

a house as that of Dhutnufer would, though less

magnificent, have been very much like one of the

larger mansions now to be described.

The excavations of the Egypt ExplorationSociety


and the Deutsche Orient -

Gesellschaft at El-

Amarna have laid bare the remains of some once

splendid houses, doubtless similar to those that

belonged to the great nobles and officials of ancient

Luxor, and resembling in many respects the

dwellings of the great pashas and beys of to-day.

Such houses stood each in the midst of an enclosure,
often covering a large area, surrounded by high,
sometimes crenellated, walls of crude brick (see
Fig. 4). To this enclosure admittance was gained
from the street by an imposing gateway, outside

which, on a couple of low brick benches, sat a small

of servants, whose business it was to vise

the ingress and egress of members of the

household and of clients, and to attend to the wants

of visitors. Such a group of servants is regularly

to be seen sittingbeside the entrance to a pasha's
residence in modern Cairo.

In one corner of the enclosure were the great

man's stables, cowsheds, storehouses, and granaries
for wealth in those days consisted not in money
but in produce "
and close to them the quarters of

the male servants. In an entirelydifferent part of

the grounds was the residence of the wife's female

attendants and those ladies who found favour with

the master of the house, but did not hold the


frieze, which generally took the form of floral

garlands or festoons, a bunch of dead waterfowl

being occasionallyrepresented hanging head wards


between each pair of festoons, a foretaste of

the still-life pictures of the seventeenth century

Dutch painters! Sometimes, too, the wall-space
of these rooms was broken by a painted recess, or a

couple of such recesses, resembling somewhat the

kibleh in a mosque, and perhaps serving a religious

as well as a decorative purpose.
Of the pillaredapartments, one generally lay on
the north side of the house (Room 3 of the plan)
and one on the west side (Room 9), the northern

room being a favourite resort in summer and the

western in winter. These two rooms had large

windows down one wall "
the outside wall of the

house in either case "

filled with stone gratings,
which broke the strong light in an agreeable


Between these two apartments, the north and

west galleries,
as they might well be called, lay two

other pillaredrooms, evidently reception or dining

rooms, the one (Room 8) probably intended for

the entertainment of guests (see Fig. 3), and the

other (Room 16) reserved for the use of the

family. In either dining-room there was a dais, on


which possibly were placed chairs for the master

of the house and for the principal persons among

those who partook of a meal in his company.

There was also a stone platform, built against one

of the walls, with a stone screen at the back, and

Fig. 3. "
A Pillared Reception Room.

{After *'
Journal of Egyptian ArcJweoloqy," viii. By the co^irtesyof
Professm' Feet and Messrs. C. L. Woolley and Netvton.)

on this people performed their ablutions, for the

ancient Egyptians indulged in a great deal of rather

elaborate washing both before meals and at other

times. A hollow was cut in the platform to

receive the large jar which contained the ablution


water. The jar is shown in the adjacent cut

(Fig. 3) standing in position.

These two dining-rooms were Ht by grated
windows set high up in the walls, and their ceilings
rose well above the roof of the upper-story rooms,

which did not extend above these two apartments.

In the dining-room used for guests were a number

of doors, including two fine foldingdoors, admitting

to the two pillaredgalleries,the private dining-
room and other rooms, and also to the staircase

leading to the floor.

In either dining-room there was a receptaclein
the floor for the portable hearth or brazier, which,

as in the modern Egyptian house, was used in the

cold weather, the fuel employed being charcoal.

The rest of the ground floor was taken up by

two bedrooms (Rooms 21 and 27)" the bed standing
on a low dais in a recess "
and a number of smaller

rooms. These and the bedrooms had no windows,

and hght could only have been admitted through

the doors and through gratings above the doors.

in in-
But whatever light managed to get was

tensifled by the whitewashed walls. It should be

noted that either bedroom had a bathroom and

lavatory attached to it (Rooms 22, 23, and 28, 29).

Some of the smaller rooms (Nos. 14, 15, 17, and



y%H-^i rA^A:~7


Krectrd by Dhutinosc HI. Oiif showing the papyrus plant of Lower E^ypt,
ami thi' othir the lilies of Upper Egypt. (Soc p. 5S foil.)

18) were certainly store-rooms, being furnished

with broad shelves placed on brick supports. The

rest may have been used as sleepingapartments by

less important members of the household, relatives

and confidential servants. The kitchen was a

separate building all to itself

There was at least one upper story, which was

probably given entirely,or in the main, to the


women. Certain of the upper rooms were pillared

like those downstairs.

Such a house was beautifullythough simply nished.


The floors of the principalrooms, which

were of unburnt brick or tiles,appear to have been

covered with matting, on which brightlycoloured

rugs or carpets were also sometimes laid. sionally

such covering was dispensed with and the

floor was painted,though never, so it would seem,

with the beautiful designs,described in Chapter III.,

which were employed for the decoration of the

floors of the royal palaces.

The more important rooms no doubt contained

a number of chairs and stools, the best of these

being made of ebony, or other precious woods,

inlaid with ivory ; or else the wood was overlaid

with gold and sometimes inlaid as well with richly

coloured glaze plaques. The chairs and stools often

had seats woven out of palm-leaves,looking exactly

like the cane seats of our modern chairs, and on

these were laid cushions covered with leather or

some woven material.

People reposed at night on couches, the legs of

which, as also the legs of the chairs, were carved in

semblance of those of a lion.

Other articles of furniture were boxes and caskets,

often elaboratelycarved, gilded,and inlaid,in which

w^ere kept clothing and jewelry.

A large portion of the enclosure surrounding a

great house was laid out as a formal garden (see

Fig. 4). Part of such a garden was often, as in

modern Egypt, given up to trellised vines, the

remaining space being occupied by ornamental and

fruit-bearing trees. There was also generally a

pond in the garden, sometimes more than one,

overshadowed by clumps of and other


swamp-loving plants and bushes. In the pond

itself grew lotus flowers, among which swam duck

and other water-fowl, and also all manner of fish.

A love for nature animate and inanimate seems

to have been a marked characteristic of the ancient

Egyptians. A wealthy man gathered into his gar-


all the plants and flowers he could obtain ;

indeed, as we shall see in a subsequent chapter.


certain of the Pharaohs brought strange trees,

shrubs, and plants from abroad, and planted them

in the gardens and parks attached to the royal

palaces and the temples. Near the pond or ponds
in the garden a gaily painted wooden pavilion was
often erected, in which the master of the demesne

could sit either alone or accompanied by wife and

friends, and unobserved watch the antics of the

water- fowl as they swam and dived among the

water-lilies, preened their feathers on the bank, or

sat in their nests amid the reeds. This love of the

Egyptians for nature appears in the floral wall-

decorations in their houses, but especiallyin the

paintingsand reliefs with which they adorned their

tomb-chapels and the royal palaces.

It was not in his garden only that the Egyptian
gentleman practised the cult of the open-air life.

Among his favourite pastimes were fishing and

fowling, and hunting the hippopotamus, in water,


swamp, and river, and big-game shooting in

the desert.

When Ashing for sport the ancient Egyptian

generally employed a double-bladed harpoon, and

the artist,who represented his patron indulging in

this form of amusement, shows

always flatteringly
him, as in Fig. 5, just in the act of hoistinghis har-

poon out of the water with a great fish transfixed

on either bhide ! Wiien wielding this formidable-

looking weapon the noble or gentle harpooner

stood in the middle of a boat made of papyrus
reeds cunningly fastened together. He is always
depicted accompanied by one or more male dants,

often a son or two as well, and nearly always

' it^-T"

Fig. o. "

Egyptian Gentleman Fowling and Fishing.

{After Wilkinson, "

Manners and Customs of the AncieiU Egyptians.'')

one or more of his ladies "

his wife and a daughter
or two. He used a similar boat and was similarly
accompanied when he was fowling. Standing in

the middle of the frail-lookingcraft (seeFig. 6), we

see him hurling his throw-stick at the cloud of

birds hovering above the dense papyrus thickets,

which down to the water's edge.

Sometimes when out for a day's fowling the

ancient sportsman took a cat with him, the animal

having been trained to catch birds and bring them

to its master (see Fig. 6). These fishingand fowl-

Fig. G. " A Fowler burling his Throw-Stick.

[After Wilkinson. )

ing scenes are attractive. On tlie surface of

the bright blue water float beautiful lotus flowers

together with their flat circular leaves, and in

and out amid their stalks swim fishes great and
small with wonderful iridescent scales. The

thickets swarm with birds of all kinds,

which wade in the shallows, or fly overhead, or sit

on their eggs in their nests, or hover protectingly

above their half-Hedged young. Among the birds

are to be seen butterflies and dragon-flies.

The ladies are dressed in their best clothes and

wear brightly coloured ornaments. The wife is

sometimes depicted standing beside her lord, often

with her arm lovingly cast round his waist "

a rather ill-timed display of affection ! Often, too,
she sits quietly in the bottom of the boat with the

other ladies, and contents herself with embracing

the marital ankle ! The ladies generally hold

bunches of lotus flowers, and they may also be seen

carrying the birds that have been brought down

by the well-aimed throw- stick. In a well-known

Theban tomb-chapel picture a young girlis sented

leaning over the side of the boat and ing
a blue and white lotus flower to add to the

nosegays carried by the older female members of

the party.
The ladies seem to have accompanied the men

even when they engaged in the dangerous sport of

hunting the hippopotamus. A painting in one of

the Theban tomb-chapels (Fig. 7), now, unhappily,

completely destroyed, shows us the royal herald.

Litef, standing up in one of the usual papyrus boats,

and in the act of hurhng his harpoon at one of these

monsters. A we learn, was attached to the


blade, so that when the great beast had been trans-

Fig. 7. "

Hunting the Hippopotamus.

(A/t er Wilkinson. )

fixed the blade could still be controlled by the rope,

which could be drawn in or let out as the situation

demanded. In the picture in question the animal

has already been pierced three times, and Intef


^' """h'


View "-lf)\vn centra! aisle towards obelisk of Dbutmose I. (Sec i"p. 60 fivll.)

Part of Thebaii Wall-Painting depicting Desert Chase.

Fig. 8. " a a

[After Wilkinson.)

Here certain tomb-chapel reliefs depict them as

entertaining one another with vocal and mental


music and with dancing.

The women's in the
quarters, especially house of

a great noble or high official,where there would

have been, particularlyin the later Imperial Age,

a number of concubines, were doubtless, as they
are at the present day, hotbeds of intrigue. Indeed,
fairlyfull details of a harm conspiracy,got up by
the women of a very exalted household, the hold

of no less a person than the Emperor

Ramesses III., are preserved to us in certain

contemporary state documents.

One of Ramesses Ill.'s queens, we learn, plotted

to make away with the king, who was now an old

man and evidently in a bad state of health, her

object being to place her own son on the throne.

Various members of the royal household, some of

them employed in the personal service of the

Pharaoh, were implicated,chief among them being

the liOrd Chamberlain and a royal butler.
The Lord Chamberlain managed to acquire a

number of wax figures of gods and men, and also

some magical writings,all of which he succeeded

in smuggling into the harm. By means of these,

it was supposed, the palaceguard could be bewitched

and enfeebled, and thus the plot would not be

discovered and foiled.

Wives of certain of the officers who kept guard

over the gate of the harlm were drawn into the

plot,and were prevailed upon to convey messages

to persons outside the palace precincts namely, "

male relatives and friends of the Jiarwi inmates,

who were urged to stir up the people of Luxor

against the old Pharaoh. It is evident that what

was aimed at was a revolution in the capital co-


with the murderous coup d'etat within the

royal palace.
But, despite all precautions,information reached

the ears of those who were still faithful to their

lawful sovereign that a plot was brewing. Perhaps

one of the conspirators thought better of it and

turned king's evidence, for the authorities evidently

were furnished with a long list of names, and all

the known to be implicated in the spiracy

were arrested. A special tribunal was

appointed to try the criminals, and those found

guilty of the charges brought against them were

executed or else allowed to commit suicide.

At this period of Egyptian history,the end of

the Second Empire, the population of the capital

was as mixed as that of modern Cairo, and many

of the highest positionsabout the Court were held

by foreigners. Wealth, luxury, and the influx of

foreigners from the conquered countries, had

thoroughly corrupted the Egyptians of the upper

classes, and it is not surprisingto learn that even

members of the specialtribunal were susceptible


outside influence. The State documents, from

which the account of the conspiracy and trials given

above has been derived, inform us that two of the

judges, after their appointment to the special

tribunal, took part in a drinking bout with some of

the accused women and one of their male federates,


and two officers w^ho were responsible

for the safe-keeping of the prisonersjoined in the

revels ! The two judges and officers in question

were brought to trial for this gross misconduct, and,

being found guilty,were sentenced to have their

noses and ears cut off. One of those thus mutilated,

unable to bear the misery and disgrace inflicted on

him, took his own life.

But this deals with the shady side of Egyptian

domesticity. As a matter of fact, the ordinary
husband and wife seem to have lived on the most

affectionate terms with one another. Both in

statuary and in reliefs and paintingsthe husband

and wife are constantly depicted as sitting or


standing side by side, she often with an arni thrown

lovingly round his shoulders or waist. Husband,

wife, and children all sat together at meat, and

there was not that strict seclusion of women that

is such a marked feature of modern Egyptian social

life. As we shall see shortly,men and women sat

side by side at banquets and other entertainments,

and engaged one another in lively conversation.
It has already been pointed out that ladies panied

their husbands and male relations when

tliey went fishing, fowling, and hippopotamus

What the relations of a man with his wife might
be, even in the late Imperial Age, is revealed to us

in a letter wTitten by a widower to his dead spouse,

the document being now preserved in the Museum

at Leyden.
Some time after his wife's death the man fell sick

and his medical adviser apparently informed him

that she was annoyed w^ith him for some reason or

other, and was making him ill. The sick man,

therefore, composed a letter to the excellent ghost

of the dear departed, and having, doubtless, first

read it aloud in the tomb-chapel on the occasion of

one of the periodicalcelebrations therein of the

funerary liturgy,fastened it to the wrathful lady's


portrait-statue.By so doing, it was felt,the letter

was bound to reach her.

What ivrong have I done thee, he asks, tJiat I

should be in this evil plight in which I now am ?

What have I done unto thee that thy hand should be

set against me, seeing that I have done thee no

wrong ? From the time that I was with thee as

husband until to-day, vohat have I done unto thee

that I have had to conceal ? I will stay in thy

presence by means of the words of my mouth, in the

presence of the nine gods of the West (the gods of

the world of the dead), and one shall judge between

thee and this letter -which speaks with thee, namely

this complaint. What have I done unto thee ? Thou

wast my wife when I was a and

stripling, I was ever

with thee, , . .
When I exeixised any I
office was

with thee. I never left thee nor made thy heart

sorrowful.But see, thou dost not make my heart glad,

thereforeimll I have the law of thee and one shall

discern rightfrom wrong. He then points out to

her how he magnified her in the eyes of his under-


Behold, when I zvas instructor of the officers

of Pharaoh's host and chariotry,I rnade them come

and bow themselves down before thee, and made

them bring all good tilingsto lay down in thy

presence. He again emphasizes the fact that he

never had anything to conceal from her, insists

that he was always a faithful husband, and boasts

that in all his dealings with her he never gave

cause for anyone to find fault with him. As the

years went by and he was promoted, his duties

kept him more and more in close attendance on

the Pharaoh and prevented him from being tinually


in his wife's company " indeed, he was often

compelled to be absent from home for considerable

periods on end. But despite all that, / sent thee

my oil, my bread, and my clothing,and it was

brought to thee. I did not send it elsewhere (that

is, to another woman). When he was away on

duty with the Pharaoh his wife fell sick and died,
but he insists that he never once failed to do all

that an affectionate husband could do in the cumstance


Behold, he complains, thou dost not

know the good I have done thee. I sent to know how

thou didst fare, and when thou was sick of the sick-

that thou hadst, I sent thee a chiefphysician,and

he prescribedand he did that which thou didst say

should be done. When I accompanied Pharaoh on a

journey to Upper Egypt, thoughts were ever with


thee, and I passed my stay of eight months without

eating and drinking like a man. When I reached

Memphis, I petitionedPharaoh, and I betook me to


where thou art (where the wife lay dead), and I be-

zvailed thee ecvceedinglij

along with mif Jiousehold in

front of mij dwelling. I gave clothingof Upper

Egyptian linen to wrap thee in, and I caused much

clothingto be made for thee, leaving no good thing

for thee undone. Now, behold, I have spent three
years until noiv, rcjuainingas I am and not entering
into a house (not getting married ?),though it is

not becoming that one like vie should be made to do so.

. . .
Behold, thou knowest not good from ill! But

one shall decide between thee and me ! The end of

the letter is rather amusing. The sick man thinks,

perhaps owing to his previous knowledge of the

lady,that cajolerywill pay better with her than a

threat of judgment to come. So he ends his letter

as follows : Behold the sisters in the hou^e "

/ eiiter

not in unto one of tJiem !

If love of husband and wife was a feature of

family life in Ancient Egypt, still more so was the

love of a son for his mother, a thing that is still

most noticeable among the modern Egyptians,the
mother always occupying the first place in her son's

The followingadmonition addressed by the Sage

Ani to his son Khenshotpe might be the words
of any good Egyptian father of to-day : Double

the portion of bread tJiat thou givest to thy mother,

and support her as site once supported thee (in her
womb). In thee she carried a heavy burden and

she handed it not to me "

1, your father, could
not assist her in carrying thee). When thou wast

born afterthine {appointed) months, she carried thee

yet again about her neck, and for three years she

suckled thee. . . .
She placed thee at school when

thou wast instimcted in writiug,and daily she waited

there with bread and beer^ {for thee)from her house.

When thou art a young man and takest to thee a

wife,and hast thine own household, keep beforethee

how thy mother hath borne thee and how she brought
thee up in all manner of ways. May she not cause
of thy neglect)bring evil upon thee by lifting
up her hands to God, and he would hear her cry.
This love for the mother did not exclude the

mutual affection of father and son. As is quite

evident from the inscriptions,it was the wish of

every Egyptian father that his son should succeed

him in his office "

should sit on his seat after he was

and it was a son's duty to cause his father's

gone "

name to live. In fact, piety to both parents was

not to cease after death, and among the admonitions

* The staple food of the ancient Egyptians of both sexes

and all ages and ranks.


of the sage Ani, from which a quotation has ah-eady

been made, we find the following exhortation :

Offe?'water to father and

tJtij thy mother who rest in

the Westei'n Valley (the Theban necropolis). Leave

not that undone, so that thy son do the like for

The custom of pouring out a libation of water at

the graveside still survives in Upper Egypt and

Lower Nubia, and is regularlypractisedon Friday,

the INluhammadan Sabbath.

How deeply an Egyptian son could love his

father comes out very clearly in an inscription

which is to be found in the tomb-chapel of a

certain noble, who flourished during the latter

part of the Sixth Dynasty, about 2500 B.C.

Though the inscriptionwas composed a thousand

years before the period with which this book deals,

yet the passage in question so admirably illustrates

the point raised that I shall hardly do amiss in

quoting it : / caused myseJf to be buried in one

tomb witJi this Dan (the father of the speaker),in

order that I might be with him in one place ; not,

however, through lack of means for making two

tombs ; but I did this in order that I might see this

Dau daily,in order that I might be with him in one


It is the aim of the writer of this book to

eradicate from the minds of the general pubHc the

quite erroneous idea that the Ancient Egyptians

were a gloomy people, people who were always
brooding over death and preparing for the day of

burial. On the contrary, they were a most cheerful

and pleasure-lovingfolk, as are most of the dwellers

in the sunny Mediterranean lands. As we shall

see, they loved a good song, a good story, and were

much addicted to the drinking of wine and beer.

Among them were men of resource and courage,

as well as artists, poets and religious thinkers.

The pillared halls and reception-rooms of the

wealthy must have been constantly furnished with

hilarious guests, for, like their modern descendants,

the ancient inhabitants of the Nile Valley were

much given to and

hospitality, thoroughly enjoyed
entertainingand being entertained.

Thanks to the numerous paintings in the tomb-

chapels,it is no very difficult matter to reconstruct

a Theban banquet, which would have taken place

in one of the pillaredrooms "
either the north or

west gallery,or the dining-room. The men and

women sat side by side on cushioned chairs, among

the former being included members of the clergy,
who are to be recognized by their shaven heads

(see Fig. 9). Before they began to eat and drink, the

guests, each in turn, extended their hands over a

basin held by one attendant, while another poured

water over them from a ewer. Having wiped their

hands on the napkin with which they were each

Fig. 9. " A Thebaii Dinner- Party.

{After Wilkinson. )

provided, they were fumigated with incense and

their heads were r.nointed with liquid scent or else

with a lump of per.'umed grease. As the incense-

laden air of the crowded reception-room became

warmer and warmer, and the feasters got more and

more heated with eating and drinking, the grease

melted and ran down over their clothes and emitted

what was considered to be a pleasant perfume.

Often in picturesof banquets the portions of
the guests' white hnen clothes are represented as

covered all over with yellow streaks, to indicate

where the liquefiedgrease has trickled down from

their brows ! The female guests are nearly always

depicted as crowned with a garland of lotus petals
and as having inserted a bud or full-blown flower in

the curls of their wigs just above the forehead, for

in ancient Luxor great wigs, like those in vogue

among our ancestors in the days of Charles 11. and

William and Mary, were worn by both sexes.

The pictures also represent most of the guests as

holding a lotus flower in one hand and occasionally

as presenting it, or else a choice fruit,to a fellow

guest to smell or taste respectively. The lotus

flower seems to have played somewhat the same part

at an ancient, as the cigarette does at a modern,

Egyptian entertainment.

If the banquet took place after sunset, the room

would have been illuminated by means of oil lamps

placed on tall pottery stands. These lamps were

shallow cups or saucers furnished with one or more

floatingwicks, the luminant being crude castor oil

with salt put in it to keep the flame from smoking.

As Mr. F. LI. Griffith's recent experiments in

head represent her as saying : Give me eighteencups

of wine. Behold I should love {todrink) to ness.

3Iy inside is as drij as straiv I In a Theban

paintmg (see Fig. 10) a lady is depicted as being

on the verge of collapsing altogether under the

influence of the merry wine-god, and her robe has

slipped off her shoulder. An attendant comes

hurrying up with a receptacle,but alas ! she is just

Fig. 10. -An Unfortunate Incident at a Theban Dinner-Party.

{After Wilkinson. )

too late. Since such an episode as this is not quently


found depicted on the walls of a tomb-

chapel, it was clearly regarded as a triflingaffair,

the usual occurrence at a feast. So there was no

scandal and no horrified pause in the proceedings.

The flautists continued to breathe their soft

melodies, the harpers still smote the chords, and

the dancers leapt more wantonly than ever, while


y^4^^^ Vur'^l


View looking through the pylon to the avenue ot sphiuxos

(See p. 62.)

the musicians sang : Come, songs and musk are

before thee ; set behind thee all cares ; think only

upon gladness "
until the day cometh that thou shall

go to the land xvhich loveth silence. "

Carpe diem "

was certainlythe motto of the ancient inhabitants

of Luxor. It cannot surely now be said that the

Egyptians were a dull and gloomy people and that

Egyptology is an inhuman study ! Nay, the tians

were a most cheerful un-Puritanical people.
There was indeed no room for Mrs. Grundy when

they made merry ! No wonder that the wise Ani

thought it necessary to warn his son against the

evils of alcoholic excess : Boast not that thou canst

drink a pitcherof beer. Thon speakest,and an intelligible


utterance comes from thy mouth. If thou

fallestdown and breakest thy limbs, there is no one

to offerthee a hand. Thy companions in drink stand

up and say, "Away with this sot! "

If there cometh

one to seek thee in order to question thee, he findeth

thee lying on the ground and thou art {as helpless)
as a littlechild.

But the Theban youths seem to have their

own way, and paid scant heed to the prating old

! Accordingly we find a teacher writing
reproachfullyto a fast young scholar of his as

follows: They tell jue that thou dost forsake writi?ig,


a7id dost hanher after pleasures. Thon from


street to street, -vcJiere (?) it smells of beer, to tion


{?). Beer, it scares men {from thee), it sends

thy soul to perdition. Thou art like a


steering-oar in a ship, that no

heed to either

side. Thou art like a

shrine without its god, a

without bread. Thou sittest with the wench

. . .

and art besprinkled with scent; thy garland of

flowers hangs about thy neck and thou drummest on

thy paunch. Thou dost reel and {then) fallest face

dorvnwards, and art besmirched with dirt.

So the heedless youths of ancient Egypt were as

unwiUing to be studious and take the advice of

their moraHzing elders as are

the youths of to-day

and of all and all countries.




During the Fourth Dynasty, that is to the


earher part of the period known as the Old dom,


a period of about 400 2900 B.C. to

years "

2475 B.C., according to the usually accepted dating

the of the Pharaoh was absolute ; the


government of the country was entirely vested in

him, even the office of vizier being held by his

eldest son. Under the kings of the Fifth Dynasty

this absolutism of the Pharaoh underwent some

modification. A new family, probably assisted by

other noble families, attained the kingly and


one of the resulting changes was that the office of

vizier was no longer the perquisite of the crown

prince, but was bestowed a distinguished


subject. Breasted has suggested that some sort of

bargain was made between the heads of the two

most influential families in Egypt, by which

the one received the crown and the other the


During the Fifth Dynasty also the of

the different provinces into which Egypt was

divided began to assert themselves. By the mencement


of the Sixth Dynasty, about 2625 B.C.,

Egypt had developed into a feudal state, the while


local governors having become great nobles,

each firmly entrenched in his own domain and

exercising an hereditary claim upon it. Under a

strong energetic monarch like Piopi I. the new

system would have seemed harmless enough, for

the local barons supplied him with all the troops

and artisans he required for his expeditions and for

the execution of public w^orks. But the evil side

of the system immediately became manifest under

a weak sovereign. Piopi IL, the last king of the

Sixth Dynasty of whom anything positiveis known,

ascended the throne at the age of six and reigned
for at least ninety During the latter part
of his reign his grasp on the sceptre doubtless

slackened and the power of the feudatories grew

apace. Piopi IL's immediate successors seem to

have been too weak to keep their vassals in order,

as were also the shadowy kings of the two next

dynasties,the Seventh and the Eighth, who are said

to have been descendants of the old royal house,

and to have still retained Memphis as their capital.

are free with their tongues. When their mistress

speaks it is irksojue to the servants. Again : Good

things are in the land, yet mistresses of noble houses

Would that we had something to eat /"

Yet again we read : Great ladies, who were

tnistresses of goodly things,give their children in

exchange for beds. The children of princes are

dashed against walls. The offspringof desire are

laid out on the high ground. . . .

The poor man

is full ofjoy. Ever^y toivn says,

Let us suppress
the powerful among us'' This is Bolshevism four

thousand years before Lenin and Trotsky !

It was, of course, a great time for the clever and

unscrupulous speculator,and this ancient Egyptian

revolutionary period produced its crop of nouveaux

riches as well as its '*

new poor." He ivho once

possessed no property is ?iozv a man of wealth. The

poor of the land have become rich. He idio had no

dependants is now a lord of serfs. . . .

He who never

built for himselfa boat is now a

possessor of ships.
He who once possessedthem looks at them, but they
are not his.

Taking advantage of the internal disorders vailing


throughout the country, a horde of Asiatics

called 'Aamu (see Fig. 11) by the Egyptians "

invaded Egypt and occupied the Delta, a calamitous


event that is described by Ipuwer as follows :

The Desert the

(i.e., desert-dwellers)is throughout
the land. The provinces are laid tvaste. A foreign
tribe from abroad has come to Egypt. Ipuwer tells

us how the Delta is overrun by the Asiatics : The

Fig. 11. "

A Party of 'Aamu.

{After Newberry, Beni Hasan.^')

tribes of the desert have replaced the Egyptians

everywhere. Nowhere are there Egyptians. . . .

Behold the Delta is in the hands of those who know

it not as those who once knew it. The Asiatics are

now skilled in the arts of the Marshlands.

Trade with abroad was, of course, at a standstill.

No longer, laments the do men sail north-


xvard By bios. What shall do tlien for cedars


to we

for our mummies, vcith the 'produce of which priests

are buried, and with tlie oil of ivhich chieftains

embalmed as far off as Crete ? They come no more.

Gold is lacking . . .
all handier efts are at an end.

Towards the end of the work Ipuwer laments

that Re', the sun-god and creator, the prototype of

all earthly kings, had suffered mankind to multiply

upon the earth, and had not, when he saw men's

evil nature, suppressed them once and for all and

prevented the propagation of further trouble and

sin : It is said (of Re) that he is the herdsman of all

men ; there is no evil in his heart. When his herds

ai^efew he passes the day to gather them together, , , ,

But would that he had perceived mens nature in the

firstgeneration, then he would have suppi^essedevil ;

he would have stretched forth his hand against it.

But men desired to give bii^th,and so sadness grexc

up and needy people on every side. Ipuwer then

bewails the fact that there is now no earthlyking

who, in his capacity of son of Re', might, a very

god incarnate, restore order and bring prosperity

again to a distracted nation : There is no pilot.
Whei^e is he to-day ? Doth he sleep perchance ?
Behold, his might is not seen.

* the foot of Lebanon.

A Syrian port at



'A c


Q 73




%^w e
'5: ";"

-*"*" "

'r. '



Two of these Seventh to Eighth Dynasty kings,

Xeferkauhdr and Neferirkerc' II., have left records

showing that their authority was recognized in

Upper Egypt. But this authority was quite

transitory. After the lapse of some years, during
which time baron waged war on baron, the powerful
lords of Herakleopolis,the modern Ehnasiyeh el-

Medineh, gradually fought their way to a position

of authority,and at last one of them was able to

assume the Pharaonic titulary,becoming the

founder of the line of kings comprising the Ninth

and Tenth Dynasties. The Herakleopolitans

maintained their supremacy, perhaps, for some

hundred years or more, their monuments being

found as far south as Coptos, and even at the first

cataract. But after that another noble family came

to the fore, the barons of the Thebaid, whose

originalhome was Hermonthis, the modern Erment,

but who at an early stage in their upward career

made their headquarters at Thebes. They were

the ancestors of the Eleventh and Twelfth Dynasty

kings, and laid the foundations of the Theban

hegemony which was to last for more than a

thousand years.
When we are once more in possession of a

consecutive series of historic documents, we find


that the power of the Herakleopohtaii Pharaohs is

on the decHne and that they and their Theban

vassals are contending for the supremacy.

During the period of the Herakleopohtan nation,


despite the foreign occupation of the Delta

and continual warfare with the south, art and

especiallyliterature seem to have flourished ; indeed,

some of the most remarkable Egyptian literary

works that we possess appear to date from this

age. The art is distinguished by a remarkable

naturalism, similar to that which characterizes the

reliefs and paintings, of a somewhat later date,

which decorate the tomb-chapels of the feudal

lords of Cusse,* a domain that was well within

Herakleopohtan territory.Contemporary decorated

tomb-chapels of the barons of Asyut also exist, indi-


of the prosperityand wealth of this district and

period. The reliefs decorating these last- mentioned

tomb-chapels, however, are crude as compared with

the characteristic work of the Herakleopohtan

sculptors,their style for some reason or other being
akin to that of the more or less contemporary
productions of the Theban ateliers.

Certain assertions occurring in the inscriptions

^ See A. M. Blackman, "The Rock-Tombs of Meir,"
vols, i.-iv. (London, 191 5-2^.)

fortune of the Thebans was not lasting,for they

soon regained Abydos and probably a considerable

stretch of territoryto the north of it as well.

A very interestingliterarywork of this period,

entitled "The Instruction which King Akhthoi

made for his son JNIerikereV'gives us a lot of valuable

information as to contemporary happenings. King

Akhthoi speaks of trouble in the Thinite nome or

province "
the province in which Abydos was

situated "
and this he ascribes to his own faulty
policy. He is here doubtless referringto his final

loss of that town ; he certainly owns to loss of

territoryin the southern extremity of his dominions.

Taking advantage of his quarrel with the

Thebans, the Asiatics in the Delta appear to have

caused Akhthoi considerable trouble. Accordingly,

we gather, he made with the southern federacy,

acquiesced in his losses, and turned his

attention to his northern frontier.

He seems to have inflicted a defeat upon the


Asiatics, for in the "

Instruction he mentions that

he plundered their cattle and carried off captives. In

that same composition his son Merikere' is advised to

strengthen the fortifications of Athribis, the modern

Benha, a town not far north of Cairo, a statement

showing that during the latter part of the Tenth


Dynasty the Asiatics held the

practically whole of

the Delta. Merikere' is also advised by his father

to build castles along his northern frontier and so

protect his territoryfrom further invasion. Akhthoi

also recommends his son to be content with what

he has got and not attempt reprisals

on his southern

neighbours. Akhthoi points out that owing to

the cessation of hostilities between him and the

Thebans, trade between Upper and Middle Egypt

has revived, and red granite is being imported from

Aswan to the northern capital.

But this advice points only too clearly to the

growing weakness of the Herakleopolitan rule, and

Merikere was probably the last of his line to

become Pharaoh.

That the Herakleopolitan supremacy was rapidly

passing we likewise learn from the in
the tomb-chapel of Baron Akhthoi of Asyut, who

flourished under King Merikere', the prince to

whom King Akhthoi's "Instruction" was addressed.

An insurrection broke out and Merikere' had to fly

for refuge to his loyal vassal at Asyut, who put
down the rebellion and restored the Pharaoh to his

throne. After this outburst Baron Akhthoi seems

to have passed the rest of his days rulingin peace

over his domain.

But this Akhthoi's successors were unable to

maintain their resistance against Thebes, and when

Asyut finally fell to the forces of the warlike

Southerners, the Tenth Dynasty came speedily to

an end.

The kings of the Eleventh Dynasty, seven in all,

gradually extended their but it was not till

Amenemhet L, the founder of the Twelfth Dynasty,
obtained the throne, that the Asiatics were finally
driven out of the Delta. Amenemhet, it would seem,

was vizier of his immediate predecessor Menthotpe

IV., the last king of the Eleventh Dynasty, and he

must either have dethroned his royal master or

else, what is more likelyin view of what we know

of his character, contrived, thanks to his high posi-

to seize the crown at his death.

The accession of Amenemhet does not necessarily

imply the rise to kingly power of a new family ; on

the contrary, there is reason to that he


belonged to the same royal house, but to a younger

branch of it.

The kings of the Eleventh Dynasty, tliough they

had made Thebes their headquarters, were ently,

as already stated, of Hermonthite origin,

and they were devoted to INIont, the local divinity
of their ancestral home. The family, or branch of

the family, to which Amenemhet belonged, had

become in a particularsense associated with Thebes,

and had a specialveneration for Amun, the god of

that city. Since the earthly kingship was vested

in a Theban family, the divine

kingship naturally was vested in

the Theban god, just as it was,

as a matter of fact, vested in

Khnum, the god of Herak-

leopolis,during the rule of the

two Herakleopolitan dynasties.

Accordingly the Theban Amun

(see Fig. 12), like the leopolitan


Khnum, was fied


with the Heliopolitan sun-

god, the State-god of Egypt

from time immemorial (see ^^^s- i^- " Amun of
below, '
and became
, _ " " ,

{After Erman, ''

Amunre'. Thus under the kings ^^^-^ des agyptischen
of the Twelfth Dynasty Thebes

attained the religioushegemony of Egypt. On the

other hand, it was not, as later under the kings of the

Eighteenth Dynasty, made the civil capital,though

its newly acquired religious importance entitled

it to that position. The reason for this was that

Amenemhet and his successors found that it was


politicallymore suitable to have the centre of

administration further north, and accordingly they

founded a called
fortress-city Ithtdwi, *'
Seizer of

the Two Lands," in the neighbourhood of the

modern Lisht and just north of the Fayum (which

became very important during this dynasty), that
is to say, halfway between the two previous capitals,
Memphis and Herakleopohs.
During the reigns of the first two Amenemhets

and Sesostrises the feudal system still continued,

the barons governing their domains in pendence,


though rendering dues and service tary

and otherwise) to the central government.
Under Sesostris IL the feudal lords reached the

height of their wealth, magnificence, and power,

and were a serious menace to the reigning house at

Ithtowi. Under such conditions great national

undertakings were almost impossible, for the

revenues were largely diverted from the central

treasury into the pockets of the feudatories.

Sesostris II.'s successor, Sesostris II L, was a man

of immense strength of character, masterful, an

able administrator and organizer,and possessed of

considerable military ability. He is, in fact, the

first Imperialist of whom we have any record.

Fully alive to the danger that threatened the


/^2 Its



Reliefs on walls largely the work of Tut'enkhamun, (See p. 64.)


he gained the confidence and control of the soldiers,

who must soon have hegun to transfer to him the

allegiancethey owed to the feudatories. The king

thus forged a weapon with which he was not only
able to smite and subdue the Sudanese, but put
down the semi-regal independence of the nobles.

During his reign we see the hereditary territorial

ruler becoming, or being replaced by, the town-

mayor, while the host of officials that once thronged

the local magnate's court and administered his

domain became responsible only to the central

authority at Ithtowi.

The feudatories once abolished, the king had the

entire resources of the country at his disposal,and

he promptly proceeded to utilize them for prises

of national utility. Forts were erected at

strategicpoints in Nubia, temples were built, or

enriched with gold utensils and statuary.

Sesostris III., however, was largelyoccupied with
wars in the south and in organizing his newly
acquired territoryand his newly instituted cracy.

It was his successor, Amenemhet III., who

carried out those immense engineering and tural

undertakings, which were the glory of the

period and marked the apogee of Middle Kingdom


After the death of this last-mentioned Pharaoh

the power of the dynasty rapidly dechned, and the

country was once more plunged into the state of

disorder and civil strife that had prevailed when

Amenemhet 1. had seized the reins of government

some two hundred years previously.

Professor Eduard Meyer thinks that the feudal

barons, who had seemingly been crushed out of istence


by the strong Sesostris III. and Amenemhet

III., were, owing to the weakness of the latter's

successor, Amenemhet IV., once again able to raise

their heads, engineer a successful rebellion, and

avenge themselves on the family of their former

subjugators by bringing the dynasty to an end.

Thereupon, as after the fall of the Sixth Dynasty,

baron waged war on baron, and one usurper fought
his way to the throne only to be hurled from it by
another. Moreover, now as then, a horde of Asiatics

poured into the Delta, where they not only tained


their positionfor hundred but

over a years,
at one time extended their sway over the whole oi

Egypt. These Asiatic conquerors, the Egyptian

historian Manetho tells us, were called Hyksos by
his countrymen, a word meaning "
shepherd- or

more properly "herdsman-kings." Manetho also

relates that the Hyksos effected the conquest of the


country "
without a battle," and that they were

savage and cruel, 'i'he ease with which the

Egyptians were overcome and subdued is not

only to be explained by the fact that the land was

in a state of turmoil due to the breakdown of the

central government and the existence of civil strife,

but also to the invaders possessing a new, and to

the Egyptians terrifying,

engine of war "
the horse-

chariot. Till that time, it must be borne in mind,

no wheeled vehicles and no horses had ever been

seen in the Nile Valley.

The regular Egyptian troops consisted of fantrym

armed with large heavy shields, battle-

axes and and the kind of fightingin which

they excelled was the pitched battle in massed

formation (Fig. 14). The Asiatic archers could

dash hither and thither in their chariots, pour a

hail of arrows on the massed Egyptian troops, and

at the same time avoid hand-to-hand fighting,in
which the Egyptians would doubtless have had the

better of them. Such tactics would have inflicted

heavy losses on the Egyptians and at the same time

have had a most demoralizing effect upon them, for

they would have been quite unable to retaliate.

Their enemy's losses, on the other hand, would have

been comparatively slight. When once panic had


Fig. 14. "

Egyptian Heavy-armed Troops.
{After Wilkinson.)

seized upon the Egyptians and their serried ranks

had been shattered, the enemy archers dashing in

and out among them in pursuit would liave


completed their demoralization. After one or two

such engagements the Asiatics would have manently

established their moral superiority,and
the Egyptian spiritof resistance would have been

utterly broken. Doubtless what Manetho meant

by the words "
without a battle was that nothing
in the nature of what the Egyptians were tomed

to regard as a battle had been fought, that

is a hand-to-hand battle between opposing masses of

heavy-armed troops.
The Hyksos established their headquarters at

Avaris, a fortress-city
probably built on the same

site as that occupied later by the Nineteenth

Dynasty cityof Pi-Ra'messe, "House of Ramesses,"

the Pelusium of the Greeks. From here they

ruled over the whole of the Delta, and also

exercised authority over Upper Egypt, where a

native dynasty, with its capital at Thebes, tinued


to exist in a state of vassalage to the


During the latter half of the Hyksos domination,

which is supposed to have lasted for over a hundred

years, the native kings at Thebes were constantly

attempting, with varying fluctuations of success

and reverse, to assert their independence.

The body of one of these Theban kings,a certain

Sekenenre', is preserved in the Cairo Museum.

This king was evidently slain in the thick of a fight.

A blow from a battle-axe has cleft his left cheek,

laying bare the teeth and splittingthe jaw-bone.

Another blow from the same weapon has penetrated
deep into the skull, so that the brain has exuded

over the forehead. There is also a wound above

the right probably the work of a dagger or

and the teeth have bitten through the tongue
in the death
Probably this Sekenenre' is the native king
mentioned in the tantalizinglyfragmentary tale,

which relates how the Hyksos suzerain at

Avaris sought the occasion of a quarrel with his

vassal at Thebes, sending him a messenger to

inform him that his overlord's sleep at Avaris was

disturbed by the noise of the hippopotami in a

pond at Thebes "

they permit me no sleep,day and

night the noise of them is in my ears. Evidently

the Hyksos king was successful in his attempt, and
the fightingended disastrouslyfor the Thebans, for

not only was Sekenenre slain in battle, but, at the

beginning of his successor Kamose's reign (see

below, pp. 84 the
foil.), Hyksos held the country as

far south Cusse. There is to that

as reason suppose

previously the Theban dominion had extended as


far north as Eshmunen, so evidently the ing

that cost the Thebans the hfe of their king
also caused them a considerable territorial loss

as well.

But, as we shall see in Chapter IV., under

Kamose's leadership the tide turned definitelyin

favour of the Thebans, and the war of liberation

was finallybrought to a triumphant conclusion

by Ahmdse I., the founder of the Eighteenth

Under the kings of the Twelfth Dynasty Thebes

had become the religiouscentre of Egypt, its god

Amun being identified with Re'- A turn of Helio-

polis, and so attaining the positionof state-god.

Ahmose not only restored to Thebes its religious
hegemony, but also made it the capitalcity of the

newly re-founded Empire. Except for the greater

part of the reign of Akhenaton, who for religious
reasons made his capital at El-Amarna in Middle

Egypt, Thebes retained this great position un-


till the end of the dynasty "

namely, for

more than two hundred years. Even during the

Nineteenth and Twentieth Dynasties, that is to say

during a period of two hundred and fiftyyears,

when for strategicalreasons Pi-Ra'messe became

the residential city of the Pharaohs, Thebes still


remained the religiouscapitalof the Empire, and

also in many respects the civil capitalalso. Thus

for well over four hundred years Thebes may be

said to have been the chief centre of civilization,

the world's imperialcity.



As has been pointed out in the foregoing chapter,

the real greatness of Thebes "
not inaptly called by
Professor Breasted the world's first monumental

city " only dates from the beginning of the

Eighteenth Dynasty, when Ahmose, after driving

the Hyksos out of Egypt, made that city the

administrative as well as the religious centre of the

reconstructed kingdom. But from his time onwards

Pharaoh of the Imperial Age added to its


splendours, building a new temple, or adding to or

reconstructing one that already existed, setting up

a towered gateway here, or splendid statues, or

obelisks, there. The great temple of Amun at

Karnak alone has ten such gateways, not including

those of the smaller temples grouped around it.

Thebes, therefore, well deserved the epithet


assigned it by the poet Homer.

Part of building at Karnak erected by the


famous Dhutmose III., about whom more will be

said in Chapter IV., is shown on Plate III. The


two which
granitepillars once helped to support the

roof are of unusual beauty and design. One plays


the lily,the badge of Upper, and the other

the papyrus, the badge of Lower Egypt.

Not far off lies the great festival hall of the same

king, measuring one hundred and forty-fourfeet in

P'ig.15. " Some of the Botanical and ZoologicalSpecimens brought to

Egypt by Dhutmose III.

(After Mariette, ^'


width and fifty-

two in depth. The roof is supported

on twenty columns in two rows and thirty-two

square which
pillars, divide the building into five

aisles. The columns are shaped like tent-poles,

and it was evidently the architect's intention to

reproduce in stone a huge tent, such as is still

erected in modern Egypt on the occasion of festivals

for the reception of guests and for the performance

of religiousceremonies therein. Attached to this

hall are a number of rooms, in one of which are the

well-known representations of trees, plants and

animals (see Fig. 15) which Dhutmose III. brought

back from Palestine after his third campaign, and

placed in a combined botanical and zoological

Magnificent as were the architectural ments

of the Eighteenth Dvnastv Pharaohs at

Karnak, they were completely surpassed by those of

Seti I. and Ramesses IL of the succeeding Dynasty,

whose gigantic columned hall (see Plates IV.

and \'.) ranks as one of the wonders of the

world. This hall is one hundred and seventy feet

long and three hundred and thirty-eightfeet wide,
and it covers an area of six thousand square yards.
The roof was upheld by one hmidred and tlnrty-
four columns, arranged m sixteen rows. The

columns in the two central rows are higher than

the rest, and their capitals represent the fully

expanded umbels of the plant, while those
in the other rows have bud-capitals. The two

central rows of columns forming the nave are

seventy-nine feet high. The roof of the nave is

higher than that of the aisles on either side" the

columns there being only forty-six feet high "


enabling the hall to be lit by clerestorywindows


filled with stone gratings (see Fig. 16). The walls,

ceilings,and columns of the hall are decorated with

inscriptionsand reliefs,all once brilliantly coloured.

Even now, though partially ruined and with its

colouring vanished or dimmed by age, the building

Fig. 16. " Great Columned Hall at Karnak.

{After Mas^pero, Archeologie egyptienne.")

is extraordinarilyimpressive : but in its pristine

condition it must have been overwhelmingly
Xot only the interiors of Egyptian temples were

decorated with painted reliefs and inscriptions,


all the outer walls as well, and also the towered


gateways. In fact, the public buildingsof Thebes,

temples and palaces alike, must literallyhave
blazed with colour.

Some idea of the brilliance and magnificence of

Imperial Thebes is conveyed to us by certain

passages in an inscriptionof Amenhotpe III.,

describinga great towered gateway or pylon which

he erected, that now known as the third Karnak

pylon, and standing behind the great hall of Seti I.

and Ramesses 11. just described. We are told that

two stelge of lapis-lazuli

were set one on either
side of the entrance, and that the door itself was

overlaid with gold and encrusted with lapis-lazuli

and precious stones. The floor was overlaid with

silver, and the fastened

flag-staffs to the face of

either tower (see below, p. 66) overlaid with gold,

so that they shone more than the heavens. In front

of the pylon, to w^hich an avenue of sphinxes led

up from the river, was erected a colossal statue of

Amenhotpe, twenty cubits in height. A similar

avenue of sphinxes, be it noted, also the work of

Amenhotpe III., connected Karnak and Luxor

temples (see Plate VI.) which are about a mile and

a half apart, and yet another, the work of Haremheb,

led from the temple of Amun's consort Mut to the

tenth pylon of the temple of Amun himself.


After that vast conglomeration of buildings,the

temple of Amun at Karnak, the most magnificent
structure in Egypt is surely the temple of Luxor.

The name by which it was more usually known to

the ancient Thebans was Lpet-Isut(Elect of Places),

but it also bore the designationof Southern Harlm

of Aimin. This temple, as we now know it, is

mostly the work of Amenhotpe IIL,the Louis XIV.

of ancient Egypt. Early in his reign, about

1410 B.C., he pulled down the old temple, which

dated from the time of the Twelfth Dynasty, about

2000-1800 B.C., and erected in its place a new

sanctuary and the usual surrounding chambers,

which latter consist of the sanctuaries of the co-

templar divinities and rooms in which special

ceremonies were performed, or in which the sacred

vessels and vestments were stored. In front of

this building he constructed a columned hall, later

adding a magnificent colonnaded forecourt "


finest in Egypt. Even in their decay the nades


(see Plate VIII.) still impress one with their

beauty, and they form one of the fairest visions ever

conjured up by an architect's imagination, and

materialized by him in enduring stone.

Amenhotpe III. also began to build in front of

his great forecourt yet another hall,a

pillared colossal

mil 1 1!


From a colossal group in the Temple of Luxor. (See p. 65.)


structure. But alas ! this great undertaking was

never carried out, for the Pharaoh died and none

of his successors attempted to complete the work.

Only the central aisle was finished, the magnificent

sandstone columns of which (see Plate IX.), the
tallest hitherto erected in Egypt, tower above the

rest of the temple.

These columns of the central aisle,fourteen in

number, their capitalsrepresentingthe outspread

flowery umbel of the papyrus plant, are no less

beautiful than they are tall,the proportions being

perfect. They would have been considerablytaller
than the columns supporting the roof of either of

the side aisles,so that the hall would have been lit

by grated clerestorywindows, as is the great hypos-

tyle hall of Seti I. and Ramesses II. at Karnak.

In front of the unfinished hall Ramesses II. structed


a very large colonnaded court, to which

admittance was gained by a great pylon. Before

this pylon, which is decorated with reliefs illustra-


of Ramesses' war with the Hittites, were set

up six colossal statues of that Pharaoh, two sitting

and four standing,and in front of them again two
pink granite obelisks, one of which has been

removed and re-erected in the Place de la corde


in Paris.


On the face of each tower of the pylon are to be

seen the vertical grooves for the reception of the

tall wooden masts, a feature of every Egyptian

temple "
from the tops of which fluttered blue,

green, white, and red flags(seeFig. 17).

"ig. 17." A Pylon with its Flag-Staffs.

{After Wiedemann^ "
Das alte Agypten^\)

The south end of Ramesses II. 's court is decor-


with standing colossi of that king, arranged

between the columns in the first row. All except
one, which is of black granite,are executed in red

granite,and they all are about twenty-three feet

high. On either side of the doorway leading from


this court into the unfinished hall of Amenhotpe III.

is erected a seated colossal statue of the king in

red granite, with his beautiful queen Nefretiri

standing beside him (see Plate XIV.).

It has already been stated that the temple of

Luxor bore as an additional name that of Southern

Hartm of Amun, a name requiring some tion,

which may well be given at this juncture.
The idea prevailed among the ancient Egyptians
that the Pharaoh was the actual physical son of the

sun-god Re'- A turn, the god of the cityof Heliopolis,

the capitalof Egypt in pre-dynastic times. Owing
to the great influence, religiousand political,

by Heliopolison the rest of Egypt, Re'-Atum

became for all time the Egyptian State-god, and

was regarded both as the first king of Egypt and

also as the prototype of all subsequent kings. The

Pharaoh was not only considered to be the son of

the sun-god, but was also the embodiment of that

god on earth. Accordingly when Thebes became

the capitalof Egypt and the Theban Amun was

identified with Re'-Atum, the Pharaoh was regarded

as the son and earthly embodiment of Amun.

The wife of the ancient king of Heliopoliswas

of Re'-Atum,
high-priestess and in this capacity,
and also in that of wife of the sun-god's embodi-

ment, was identified with the goddess Hathor, the

sun-god's wife. She was therefore regarded as

earthly consort of that god, and it was through her

that he became the physical father of the Pharaoh.

Later, when Amun was identified with the sun-

god and consequently attained the position of

State-god of Egypt, the Theban Pharaoh's wife

became Amun's earthly wife and was designated

God's TVifeof Amun.
Incorporating himself in the reigning Pharaoh

the sun-god, or the god Amun identified with him,

had intercourse with the and so begat the
heir to the throne. How this took place is narrated

by the priestlyscribes of the Imperial Age in the

following words : This august god Amun, lord of

the Thrones of the Tvco Lands {i.e.,
Karnak), came,

uchen lie had made his mode of being the majesty of

this her husband, the king of Upper and Lower

Egypt N. They (i.e.,the combination of god and

king) found her as she slept in the beauty of her

palace. She aivoke because of the savour of the god,

and she laughed in the presence of his majesty. He

came to her straightivay. He was ardent for her.

He gave his heart unto her. He let her see him in

his form of a god, after he came before her. She

rejoiced on beholding Ids beauty ; Jus love it went


ordinate to her, and whom we know to have been

attached to the house of the Gods Wife at Thebes,

were, in view of their close association with Hathor,

regarded as Amun's (originallythe Heliopolitan

sun-god's) secondary wives or concubines, the wife

of the high-priest of Amun bearing the title of

Chief of the Concubines, Luxor Temple, the

Southern Harlm of Amun, was probably the quarters


of these concubines, and it was here also

possiblythat the union of the god and queen was posed

to take place,perhaps on the occasion of the

annual New Year's procession (see just below and

pp. foil.)
to that temple from Karnak. This, if the

suggestion is correct, would account for the rence


in one of the several rooms grouped around

the sanctuary of Luxor temple, of a series of reliefs

illustrative of the divine conception and birth of

the Pharaoh. A similar series,decorating a wall in

the temple of Hatshepsut at Deir el-Bahri, will be

discussed in Chapter VII.

In a chapter professing to describe some of the

glories of ancient Thebes, an account must be

given of the great festival of Opet in honour of

Amun, celebrated annually on New Year's Day,

when the god went in solemn procession from his

temple at Karnak to his Southern Harlm at Luxor.


A series of reliefs, occupying the walls on either

side of Amenhotpe Ill.'s court at Luxor, vividly

depictswhat took place at this festival. The reliefs

were executed during the reign of Tut'enkhamun,

but were usurped by his next successor but one,

Haremheb, who everywhere replaced his predeces-

name with his own.

Proceedings began with the presentationof food-

and-drink offeringsto Amun, his consort Mut, and

their son Khons, in their respective sanctuaries in

the great temple of Karnak. The first of the series

of the reliefs in question shows us the heaped-up

offeringtables standing before the shrines ing

the images of these three divinities, and Tut-

'enkhamun burning incense in front of one of them,

namely that containing the image of Amun.

The ordinary Egyptian shrine, like those here

depicted, was in the form of a boat, which was set

on an altar-like stone pedestal, the place in the

sanctuary where the pedestal stood being designated

the great place. In the centre of the boat- shrine,

covered with a veil, was the cabin containing the

image ; such an image was as a rule quite small "

sixteen inches to four feet in height "

and made of

wood. Poles were attached to the boat so that it

might be carried in procession,the number of priests


who supported it varying from eight to twenty-four,

or even twenty-six (see Fig. 19). The boat-shrine

was undoubtedly in the first instance an accessory

of the Hehopolitan sun-cult, for the sun-god was

conceived of as voyaging in a ship across the sky by

day and through the underworld by night.

Fig. 19.^ "

Boat- Shrine carried by Priests.

{After Lepsius, iJenkmdler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien ".)

It might here be pointed out that the priesthood

at every Egyptian temple was divided into four

watches, or, as the classical writers designatedthem,

pkylce. These watches are named after the four

quarters of a ship,the bow, stern, starboard, and

larboard watch, names assigned in mythological





From Tut'enkhamun's reliefs in the Temple of Luxor. (See p. 71.)

texts to the four watches into which the crew of the

sun-god's celestial ship was divided. It was dently


the priestsof the Heliopolitansun-god who

were first divided into four watches bearing these

names, for, as already pointed out, the sun-god in

particularwas associated with a ship or boat, and

his priests may well have been regarded as his


Offering having thus been made to the Theban

triad, the prieststook the sacred boats out of the

sanctuaries where they stood, and, raisingthem up

so that the poles rested on their shoulders, carried

them out of the temple and down to the river in

solemn procession,twenty-four priestssupporting

each boat. In front of and behind each boat

walked a flabellifer (his flabella or ceremonial fan

being exactly like those carried beside the Pope on

great occasions), on either side,in addition to

the twenty-four priests,walked a pair of officiants

clad in panther-skin vestments. At the head of

each of the three groups of attendant- and bearer-

priestswalked a thurifer with a thurible of burning

incense. The king himself followed the principal
boat-shrine, that of Amun, on foot. At the head

of the whole cortege marched a trumpeter and a

drummer (Fig. 20).


On reaching the water's edge, the boat-shrines

were placed on board large vessels, which were

towed by rowing-boats, and also by companies of

men on the river bank, until they arrived opposite

the temple of Luxor.

The ships on which the shrines were placed

were often magnificent
in design and tion.

has left us a tion
of a ship which he

caused to be structed

for the veyance


of Amun on

the occasion of monial


voyages such

Fig. 20 "Trumpeter and Drummer that uudcr disCUS-

neading a Religious Procession.
sion. It was fashioned
, ., ",." .
[A/ter yvilkmson.)
of new cedar -
which his rnajesfycut upon the hill country of To-

Nuter (Lebanon), and which vcas dragged over the

mount ains of Retenu by the piinces of all foreign

countries. It is made very wide and long ; never was

made the like thereof(aforetime).It is overlaid with

silver and invcr ought with gold throughout. The

great slwine {i.e.,the baldachin amidships under


hands in time to the music. On arrivingopposite

Luxor the boat-shrines were taken out of the

ships, hoisted on to the shoulders of the priests,

and, with the trumpeter and drummer leading the
way, were borne in procession into Luxor temple,
the musician-priestesses,
Amun's earthlyconcubines,
dancing and rattlingtheir sistra in his honour.

Fig. 21. "

Negro Drummer and Dancers.

{After Wilkinson.)

Having entered the temple, the divine visitors

were presented with a plentifulsupply of food-

and- drink offerings,which were consecrated and

solemnly made over to them by the king himself

Then, in the evening, they and the accompanying

cortege returned to Karnak by water and river

bank in much the same order, and amid the same

display of rejoicing,as when they had set out for

Luxor in the morning.

Festivals like these were celebrated with a great

deal of eating and drinking and general jollifi-

and the temples were speciallyendowed in

order to supply the hosts of visitors and worshippers,

who flocked thither on such occasions, with the

food and liquor wherewith to make merry and be

glad in the god's honour.

An ancient inscriptiondescribes such a festival

in the following terms : IVie gods of heaven shout

for joy, shout for joy. . . .

The Hathors "

musician-priestessesimpersonating that goddess)
beat their single-membrane drums. . . .
The habitant

are drunk with wine, chaplets of floxvers

are on their heads. The sailor -folk {i.e.,the
crews of the ships that have conveyed the god
and his attendant walk
divinities) joyously about,
anointed with the finest unguent. All the children

rejoice . . .
from the rising to the setting of the


Drunkenness was, it must regretfullybe fessed,


a Egyptian conception
characteristically of

happiness and an almost essential part of the

rejoicingsat a religious festival. This is well

borne out in part of a popular Theban still

preserved to us, which runs as follows : How happy
is the temple of Amunre\ even she the temple
personifiedas a woman) that spendeth her days in

festioityxdth the king of gods idtliin her. . . .


is like to a woman drunken^ who sitteth outside the

chamber^ with loosened hair. . . .

The Egyptians are, and they ever have been, an

intensely conservative people, and it is not at all

surprisingthat this festival of Opet, despitereligious

and other changes and the passage of hundreds of

years, still survives in Luxor. The western side

of the first colonnaded court of Luxor temple, that

erected by Ramesses 11. is occupied by a mosque

to which a school is attached (see Plate XIL), the

containing the tomb of the Sheykh Yusef


Abu'l-Haggag, the local patron saint. Once a

the fourteenth day of the Muhammadan

month of Sha'ban, the festival in honour of this

saint is celebrated. A great procession passes

through the principal streets of Luxor, stations

being made and prayers recited at the domed tombs

of various other local saints. The chief feature of

this processionis the brightlypainted and beflagged

boat of Abu'l-Haggag, placed in a cart to which

are attached, and thus dragged by the faithful

through the streets. The accompanying procession
consists of gaily caparisonedcamels, soldiers, mem-

of various religiousconfraternities, musicians,

reciting the
dancers, fiklJis Kuran, and troops of

citizens" men, women, and children "

all singing
a hymn in honom' of the saint.*

The close resemblance of the ancient and the

modern festivals to one another is most able,


and must be something more than a mere

coincidence ; in either case, it will have been

noticed, the composition of the procession is almost


There are, however, two noticeable differences

between the ancient and modern methods of

celebratingthe festival. Firstly,the sacred boat is

dragged along on a wheeled cart, not carried high

on the shoulders of priestlybearers or towed up
and down the river ; and secondly,in which respect
they show themselves superior to their pagan

ancestors, the masses of the people nowadays do

not drink to drunkenness.

In the days of the great emperors the wealth of

the known world flowed into Egypt. The bours


of the Delta were crowded with ships of

every nationality,loaded with merchandise and

with the tribute and presents of subject and

friendlystates. These ships often, too, it appears,

sailed right up the Nile to the Theban docks and

"^ See les

G. Legrain, "
Louqsor sans Pharaons," Paris,
1914, pp. 81-91.

there disgorged their Furniture overlaid

with gold or fashioned of precious woods inlaid

with ivory,chariots encrusted with gold and silver,

horses of the purest breeds, bronze and


Fig. 22. "

Fragment of a Painted Ceiling.
{After a drawing by the Author from a jjhotograph.)

armour inlaid with gold, gold and silver vessels of

rare design,multicoloured and elaboratelypatterned

fabrics, the choicest produce of the fields,gardens,

vineyards, orchards, and pastures of Palestine and

Syria, incense, sweet-smelling woods, perfumes,

silver and gold from Asia and the Sudan "
all these





Constructed amoug the half-buried columas of the great forecourt, Tc:nple of Luxor.
(See pp. 78, 175 foil.)

scene of family life, the king and queen seated on

chairs, and their children standing at their parents'

knees or squatting on brocaded cushions placed on

the carpeted floor.

Fig. 23. "

Painted Pavement from tlie Palace of Akhenaton.

{After Petrie, "

El-Amarna." By the courtesy of the author.)

The decoration of the columns in many a royal

saloon was executed in brilliant glazed inlay as

well as in paint, and a great deal of goldfoil was

also employed. At El-Amarna this inlay-work
took the form of convolvulus plants, or gadding
vines, which trail over the shafts of the columns in

riotous profusion, a wonderful adaptation of the

realities of nature to the exigencies of design.

In Harnesses III.'s palace at Tell el-Yahudiyeh
in the Delta, now alas ! completely destroyed, the

walls of some of the apartments, instead of being

frescoed, were decorated with glazed plaques.
Thousands of rosettes for inlaying, and a number

of wonderfully coloured tiles, representing captives

of many nations, are all that survive of a once

most beautiful building.

To one passing Thebes on his way up or down

the Nile a wonderful must have unfolded

itself. For a considerable distance on either bank

of the river one temple or palace after another lifted

itself up above the trees of the surrounding gardens,

the brilliance of the buildings being only enhanced

by their green setting. Rising high as the towered

gateways, the tapering gold-capped obelisks pointed

finger-likeat the cloudless sky, and in the blazing
sunlight of the orient they shone, as the Egyptians
themselves said, like the sun in the horizon of heaven,
so that the two lands are flooded zvith their rays.

^ See Maspero, "Art in Egypt,'' London, 1912, plate

facing 184 also Petrie, "
A History of Egypt," iii.
p. ;

(second edition), London, 1918, p. 160.



One of the most interesting documents discovered

in recent is the so-called Carnarvon Tablet


No. 1, found by Lord Carnarvon in a plundered

tomb at Thebes in the 1908."^ It consists of

a wooden board covered on both sides with stucco,

and bearing on the obverse face a remarkable

historical text, which deals with an episode in the

expulsion of the Hyksos or Shepherd- Kings. The

episode in question occurred in the reign of Kamose,

the immediate predecessor of the great Ahmose I.,

the founder of the Eighteenth Dynasty.

The opening depict Kamose sitting in
his palace at Thebes and taking counsel with his

courtiers and officers. He is described as waxing

indignant at the thought that the Asiatics not only
the whole Delta, but Upper Egypt as far

south as Eshmunen, while Nubia, which the Theban

^ See Alan H. Gardiner in Journal of Egyptian Archw-

ology^ iii., pp. 95-110; Battiscombe Gunn and Alan

H. Gardiner, op. cit.^ v., pp.



kings of the Twelfth Dynasty had conquered and

held to the fourth cataract, is now ruled over by


a local chieftain ! To ivhat end am I cognizant of

it, this power of mine, Kamose bitterlyexclaims,
idien one prince is in Avaris (the Lower Egyptian
capital of the Hyksds) and another in Nubia,
while I sit in league with an Asiatic and a negro

each man with his slice of this Egijpt ? . . .

Behold, lie (the Asiatic foe) holds Esltmunen, and

no man is at ease, wasted through servitude to the

Such a situation was unendurable to Kamose.

/ idll with him, he cries, a?id rip his

grapple open

belly; desire is to deliver Egypt and to smite the

Asiatics. But the great men of his council urge

caution. They are all for safety, and they point

out on the one hand how^ strong the enemy is, and

on the other hand that, after all, their positionis

not as intolerable as the Pharaoh has represented,
for Elephantine (the modern Aswan) is strong, and

the middle part [of Egypt) is with us as far [north)

as Cusce;* also they are permitted to cultivate

lands outside their ow^n domain, and they can send

their cattle to pasture in the Delta. No, they

maintain, let things be, and only fight if attacked.

* The modern El-Ixusiyehin Asyut province.


This counsel of "
safety first found no favour with

the patriotic Pharaoh. We are told that these

advisers were displeasing

in the heart of his inajesty.
[Behold, Ixdllfight^with the Asiatics. Success

will come. . . .
The entire land [shallacclaim me

the povcerfulruler^^within Thebes, Kamose, the pro-


of Egypt.
The king accordingly decided on a forward

policy, and, says he, 1 sailed down stream as a

champion to overthrow: the Asiatics by the command

of Amun . . . my army being valorous in front of

me like a blast of fire.
Kamose evidently took the enemy by surprise,
for he succeeded in shutting up the Hyksos army
under the command of a certain Teti, probably the
son of the Hyksos king, in the town of Nefrusi, just
north of Eshmunen, and cutting off their retreat.

Having accomplished this, / spent, he says, the

night in my ship,my heart being glad.

The attack delivered next day w^as completely
successful. When day dawned I zcas on him as it

ivere a hawk. . . .
I overthrew him, I destroyed Ids
zvall,I slew his folk,I caused his wife to go down to

the liver bank (so as to take her back in triumph to

Thebes in one of his galleys). My troops ii:ere like

lions with their spoil,with slaves, herds, fat, and


honey, dividing up their possessions,their hearts

being glad.
By such vigorous action as this Kamose played
his part in the great and protracted struggle for the

liberation of Egypt.
Kamose's successor Ahmose carried on and

brought to a successful conclusion the work of

clearing the Hyksos out of Egypt. This plished,


he invested Sharuhen in Judah, where the

Asiatics had entrenched themselves, and, having

taken the city after a six-years' siege, finally
destroyed any hopes they may have entertained of

reconquering the country they had been so igno-

miniously compelled to evacuate.

Dhutmose 1., the third king of the Eighteenth

Dynasty, was a hard-bitten campaigner like Ahmose,

the founder of that line. In the second year of

his reign he led his army into Nubia to punish the

turbulent desert tribesmen in the southern half of

the province,who had started to attack and plunder

the Egyptian fortresses and trading settlements

which had been established on either bank of the

Nile from Aswan to some distance south of the

second cataract.

The expedition set out from Thebes in ships,and

arrived at the first cataract some time in February,

or early in March, only to find that the canal

through the cataract had become blocked with

stones. As immediate action was urgent, Dhut-

mdse was not wilhng to wait w^hile the canal was

being reopened. Accordingly his admiral, Ahmdse

by forced a through the rapids.

name, passage
Later on in the as we learn from his graphy,
inscribed on the walls of his tomb-chapel
at El-Kab, Ahmdse again distinguished himself
/ showed bravery in his (the king's)presence in the

had water, in the of the ship through the

cataract "
the second
(i.e., cataract).
In early April somewhere between the second

cataract and Tangur "

Tangur lies about seventy-
five miles south of the cataract "
a battle took place,
in which, Admiral Ahmdse tells us, the king
engaged a rebel Nubian chieftain in hand-to-hand

combat. Mis 3IaJesty was enraged thereat like a

panther. His Majesty shot, and his fi?\st


stuck in the neck of that fallen one. The official

account, engraved a rock on the island of

Tombos, which lies just above the third cataract,

describes the result of this expedition in the ing


terms : He hath overthrown the chief of the

Nubians ; the negro is limp and weak by reason of

his grip. . . .
The Nubian nomads have fallenfor

fea7\ tJiroivji dozv7i throughout their lands; their

their valleys.
stencil,it fills Their months are (dis)
coloured {with blood) like {the spouts of) rain-

On Tombos Dhutmose built a fort and furnished

it with a garrison.Thence he returned slowly north-


reorganizingand inspectingthe country, the

Nubian chief, whom he had slain, hanging head

downwards at the prow of his ship. When he

reached the first cataract he ordered the old canal

to be cleared, and sailing

through it in triumph "

corpse of the Nubian chief still decorating his

galley proceeded
on his way back to Thebes.

The most remarkable account we possess of an

Egyptian Pharaoh in time of war is to be found in

the so-called Annals of the great Dhutmose III.,

who has not inappropriatelybeen designated the

Napoleon of the Ancient Orient. These annals,

which are engraved on a wall in the temple of

Karnak, hard by the beautiful floral columns shown

on Plate III., are mere extracts from elaborate

records kept by a certain Thaneni and entered by

him upon leather rolls. / folloivedthe king of
Upper and Lower Egypt, Menkheperre (Dhutmose
III.),Thaneni tells us. / beheld the victories of the

king which he won in every foreign land, ...



recorded the victories which he ivo7i in every foreign

land, putting them in writing according to the facts.

During Dhutmose's joint reign with that markable


woman Hatshepsut, about whom more

will be said in Chapter V^., Egypt seems to have

lost her hold on her dominions in northern Palestine

and Syria. The local dynasts of these regions,

whose subjection had been begun by Ahmose, and

completed by Amenhotpe L and Dhutmose I.,

became restive under petticoat government, and,

forming a coalition under the powerful ruler ot

Kadesh, they broke into open rebellion. As soon

as the queen was dead, Dhutmose began to prepare

for the reconquest of northern Palestine and Syria,
and, late in the second year of his sole reign,
April 19, 1479 B.C., we find him marching with his

army from Tharu, the last Egyptian town on the

north-east frontier. Nine days later, April 28, he

reached Gaza, a city one hundred and sixty miles

distant from Tharu, and proceeding from thence

along the Palestinian seaboard, arrived, possibly on

May 10, at Yehem, a town some ninety miles

distant from Gaza and situated on the western


slope of that range of mountains at the

northern end of which rises Carmel.

Meanwhile the king of Kadesh, having marshalled


his forces, advanced south to oppose the Pharaoh,

and took up his positionat JNIegiddo,
a fortress- town

in the plain of Esdraelon, on the north-east side of

the Carmel ridge.

A day or two after reaching Yehem Dhutmose

heard from his spies that the enemy were at

JNIegiddoin force and intending to make their stand

there. Accordingly on May 13, probably early in

the morning, he called a council of war. The

annals profess to give us some of the actual words

which the great king addressed to his officers on

this occasion. N^ozv that wretched enemy ofKadesh,

having come and having entered into Megiddo, is

there at this moment. He has gathered to himself

the chiefsof all the countries that were subject to
Egypt as far as Naharin. . . .
He has said, so

one relates, "

/ am ready to fightagainst his majesty
(the king of Egypt) here in Megiddoy Tell ye me

that which is in your hearts.

Now there were three roads to JNIegiddofrom the

place where Dhutmose held his council of war, one,

a dangerous route, which made a straight line for

that city by way of 'Aruna, and two other easier,

but more roundabout, roads, leading respectivelyto
the north and south of it. Evidently in the course

of his speech Dhutmose had expressed his intention


of going by the middle road, for the officers are

represented as replying : How is it possible to go

upon this road, which gets narrower ? It is ported


that the is there, standing the

e}iemij upon
outside {of the pass), and they are numerous. Will

not horse go behind horse, and the troops of the

people (the infantry)likewise ? IFill our vanguard

be fighting,xvhile our rearguard waits here in

'Aruna without fighting? 1'hey that the

Pharaoh should go by one of the two easier roads,
and not cause them to march this difficult

This plea for caution appeared to be little short

of rank cowardice to Dhutmose, who blazed forth

in indignation: 1 swear as Re loves me, as father

Amun praises me, as nostrils are furnished with

lifeand good fortune, my majesty will proceed upon

this 'Aruna road. Let him who will
among you go

upon these roads whereof ye speak. Let him zvho

will among you in the followingof majesty.
go my
Let them not say the fallenfoe, ivhom Re'
abhors, "Does his majesty proceed upon another

road because he fears us .?" That is idiat they will

Dhutmose's officers, stung by this rebuke,
promptly repHed : May thy father Amun, lord of

Kar)i(ih\ wit/uN Luxoi\ do according to thy desire !

Behold, we tvill folloiv

thy majesty xvhithersoever thy
majesty goeth ! TJie servant is behind his lord.

The council broke up and the king gave the

order to advance, and the army reached 'Aruna on

the evening of May 13. We are informed that

during this march Dhutmose put himself at the

head of his troops, for his majesty swore an oath,

saying: **
1 will not suffer my victorious troops to

go forth in front of me in this place.'' Accordingly,

his majesty determined to go forth in fi^ontof his

troops himself. Every man was made to know

idiere he was to march, horse being behind horse,

while his majesty was at the head of his troops.
During the night of the 13th the Egyptian army

encamped at the town of 'Ariina, which lay way


along the 'Arima road, but was on the move

again early the next day, the king, with a statue of

the god Amun carried beside him, again leading

the host. The Egyptians had to proceed in single
file along the narrow road, and when the king and

the vanguard reached the mouth of the pass,

where it opened out into the plain opposite
Megiddo, the rearguard was still at 'Aruna. His

officers besought Dhutmose to check his advance

till the whole host was clear of the defile. They


said unto his majesty, "

Behold his majesty goes

forth with his victorious troops, they have filledthe

valley. Let our victorious lord hearken unto us

this once. Let our lord guard for us the rear of his
troops and his people. JFlien the rear of the host

comes forthfor us, then we will fight these Asiatics,

then we shall not be carefulfor the rear of our host.'''

Dhutmose wisely acceded to this request and

guarded the approach to the while the main

body of the troops filed through the gorge along
the narrow mountain road. Just at noon the last

of the host had emerged from the and the

whole body of troops moved forward together,
reaching the bank of the river Kina at 7 o'clock.

At that of the it is still daylight in

season year

Palestine, and so there was time for the troops to

before darkness fell. The Pharaoh's tent


was pitched, and the command was issued to the

: Prepare yourselves, make ready your


for one is to advance to fight with this

wretched foe at daybreak. Dhutmose then went to

seek in his tent, the staff officers and other

members of the royal entourage were supplied with
provisions,while to the sentries on their rounds

w^as addressed the exhortation "

Steady, steady !

Watchful,watchful! A guard
special was set about

tion of submitting to a siege, for the victorious

troops immediately gave themselves up to looting,

and so lost the opportunity of taking Megiddo there

and then, as the annalist bitterly complains.

However, a goodly spoil was obtained ; horses,

Fig. 24. "

An Egyptian King fighting in his Chariot.

{After Garter-Newherry ,
Toonb of Thutmosis IF.")

chariots of gold and silver, together with the

silver-wrought tent of the king of Kadesh, and as

for the enemy warriors, we are told that they lay

stretched out like fishesin the corner of a net.

Having made an inventory of the spoil,the

army gave itself up to jubilationand gave praise
to Amun for the victory xcJiich he had given to his

" ^" -T^ ,-. -4K-"w"*"* .^^^

/hii4ei^ X


Figure standing beside the colossal statue of tht^ king. (See p. 67.)

son this day, and they cheered the king,extolling


But what Dhutmose wanted was neither booty
nor cheers, but the capture of Megiddo, and he

urged on his army to the assault. He pointed out

that all the revolted dynasts were within those

walls that confronted them, and of course their

capture would mean the smashing of the federacy


once and for all. It is the captm^e of a

thousand cities,the capture of Megiddo, he lated.

Capture ye thoroughly,thoroughly!
However, for some reason or other, no direct
assault seems to have been made on the fortress.
The Egyptian army beleaguered it instead, rounding

it with earthworks and cutting down all

the pleasant trees growing in the neighbourhood,
either to form a sort of palisadeor else to support
the heaped-up soil and stones. In course of time,
probably after the lapseof a month or so, Megiddo
was starved out and surrendered. Also of
the dynasts who had not been shut within
the city walls came and made submission to the
Pharaoh. But the king of Kadesh had escaped
before Megiddo had been completely invested, and
it was not till after four more years of preparatory
campaigns that Dhutmose was able to attain his

main objective,the capture of Kadesh, which he

accomplished in his sixth campaign, taking it not

by siege but by assault.

Amenhotpe II. seems to have been as famous a

fighting man as his predecessor, Dhutmose III.,

on the receipt of the news of whose death Syria

promptly revolted. The energetic Amenhotpe
immediately marched againstthe rebellious dynasts,
and, meeting them in battle earlyin May, 1447 B.C.,

at Shemesh-Edom, in northern Palestine, gained a

great victory. His majesty^so the official account

of the battle informs us, furnished an example of

bravery there ; his majesty himselffought hand to

hand. Behold he was like a -eyed lion,smiting

the countries of Lebanon. We learn also, on the

same authority, that in this engagement hotpe


took with his own hand eighteen prisoners

and sixteen horses.

On May 12 he crossed the Orontes, probably at

Senzar, and then made for the Euphrates. After

making this crossing, Amenhotpe engaged in a

hand-to-hand conflict with some enemy chariotry.

The already-quoted inscription tells us that his

majesty raised his ar^m in order to scan the horizon.

Then his inajesty descried some Asiatics coming on

horses in chariots
{i.e., drawn by horses),advancing

at a gallop. Lo, his majesty was decked with his

accoutreTYients of war. . . .
They (the Asiatics)
retreated when his majesty looked at one of them.

The is
inscription much broken at this point, but
we gather that the king attacked the foe with his

Fig. 25. " A Pharaoh carried in Triumph through the Streets of Thebes.

{After Lepsius.)

and captured at least one Asiatic, together

with his chariot, horses, and accoutrements, the

last consisting of a coat of mail, two bows, a

quiver full of arrows, and a corselet.

During this campaign Amenhotpe entirely

crushed the revolt, and brought back with him

to Egypt seven of the revolted Syrian dynasts.


He went to Thebes by river, and, as he drew

near the city, these unfortunates were suspended
aHve, head downwards, from the of his
vessel. Passing along the streets of his capital

Fig. 26. "

The Pharaoh sacrificingPrisoners of War in the Presence of
a Divinity.

{After Lepsiits.)

in triumph (see Fig. 25), he proceeded to the

temple of Amun, where, by way of expressing his

gratitude to the god for having given him the

victory,he sacrificed with his own hand the seven


with the Peleset and Thekel were the Denyen

(Danaoi), Sherden, Weshwesh, and Shekelesh.

All these peoples were forcing their way south

both by land and sea, probably being driven

forward by the pressure of other migrant peoples

in their rear. By the beginning of Ramesses III.'s

reign the Peleset and their confederates had pushed

their way down into northern Syria as far as the

upper waters of the Orontes, and their ships were

actually creeping up the mouths of the Nile and

harrying the Delta ports and the fertile lands

adjacent thereto.
The Libyans had invaded the western Delta

in the reign of the Nineteenth Dynasty Pharaoh

Merneptah, and had been thoroughly defeated.

But during the period of anarchy that intervened

between the death of that Pharaoh (about 1215 B.C.)

and the accession of Ramesses III. (about 1198 B.C.),
the Libyans plucked again and started
up courage

plundering and harrying north-western Egypt, just

as they had done in the past before they felt the

weight of the Pharaoh's hand. Growing bolder

and bolder, they now, under their king Thermer,

determined upon an invasion on the grand scale,
with the intention of permanently occupying and

settling down in Egyptian territory. To make


more certain of accomplishing their aim, they made

common cause with the sea-rovers, some of whom

joined their land forces. A great combined attack

was made on Egypt both by land and from the sea,

and Ramesses, who had been preparing for this slaught,


engaged them in battle near the fortress-

town named (later,of course) Usei^mare -Miamun is

Chastise!^ of the Libyans. A joint land and naval

action was fought, in which the Pharaoh displayed

great personal valour. He is described as being a

youth like a gryphon ...

a bull ready for battle ;

his steeds were like hawks. The Libyans are said to

have been slain in their places in heaps before his

horses, Ramesses being like 3Iont (the warrior-god)
. . .
charging into hundreds of thousands, mighty in

valour, stretchingthe bow, and shooting the arrows

whithersoever he will. The invading hordes were

thus totallyrouted, twelve thousand being slain,

and a thousand or more taken prisoner. The

hostile fleet was destroyed, all the ships being sunk

or captured.
The captives and a vast amount of booty were

brought to the palace to be displayed before the

king, who inspected them from the balcony, the

nobles and courtiers standing below and acclaiming

their victorious sovereign. A certain number of

the prisonerswere sacrificed by the king to Amun,

who had granted him the victory.
Security was thus restored to the western Delta,
where there had been no security for years, and

Ramesses boasted that a woman could now walk

abroad as she pleased with her veil raised and suffer

no molestation.

But the sea-rovers who had rendered naval and

military assistance to the Libyans in the western

Delta, were no more than the advanced guard of the

mighty host pressing on into Syria. The Syrian

dynasts were quite unable to resist the whelming

flood of invaders " a concourse of nations

on the march. All the Hittite country in northern

Syria was overrun and the Hittite power in that

region broken for ever. Still further south the

kingdom of Amor was overwhelmed and devastated.

Conjointly with their advance by land, these semi-

barbarous hordes attacked by sea with their midable


fleets,ravaging the coast towns of western

Cilicia and of the north Syrian littoral. Those they

attacked seem to have been so stricken with terror

that only a feeble resistance was put up.

Ramesses IIL alone kept his head and, deter-

to defend his Empire, prepared for the

coming onslaught w^ith great energy. He fortified


f "?
r -J

-4 T





-. "_

"IffPtffl^ -^^^^"i?'


General view of Queen Hatshepsut's temple at Thebes. (See pp. 128, 135, 162 foil.)

his Syrian frontier and having equipped a large

and powerful fleet, distributed it the
various Syrian ports which were included in his

dominion. He tells us in one of the long scriptio


still to be read on the walls of the temple

of Medinet Habu, how he caused the harhour-

niouths to be equipped like a strong wall with ships,


galleys,and barges. They were manned

completehjfrom bow to stern with valiant wai^riors

bearing their arms, soldiers of all the choicest of

Egypt, being like lions roaring upon the mountain-

tops. ...
/ was the valiant Mont, stationed before
them, that they might behold the graspings of my
hands, {even the hands of) the king of Upper and

Lower Egypt, Usermare, son of Re, Ramesses-

Prince-ofOn. I behaved as one who stiides boldly

forward, one who is conscious of his might, far-
reachingof arm, xvho rescues his ti^oopsin the day of

Ramesses led his army in person into Syria and

threw all his forces against the invaders. Exactly
where the battle was fought is not known, but

it is not likelyto have taken place further north

than Amor. The Medinet Habu reliefs show us

the Pharaoh's troops breaking through the enemy's

lines and plundering their ox-carts, in which the


barbarous northerners conveyed their women,

children, and goods.

Having won this important land battle, the

energeticking hurried to the sea-coast to take part

in a naval action, which was fought between his

navy and the fleet of the sea-rovers off one of the

Phoenician ports. On each Egyptian vessel were

stationed a number of the famous Egyptian archers,

whose effective shooting decimated the forces on

board the enemy ships before they could get

alongside to board the Egyptian ships. Egyptian
archers were also stationed on shore, and, under
the king'spersonaldirection, poured a hail of arrows

on to the hostile fleet (see Fig. 27). The Egyptian

ships then made for the ships of the enemy, which

had now been thrown into confusion, and the

troops proceeded to board them. The above-

quoted inscription
at Medinet Habu thus describes

the naval fight: Asfoi^ those who assembled befoi^e

them (the Egyptians) on the sea, the fullfiame (the
Egyptian fleet) confronted them at the harbour-

mouth, and a wall of metal (the Egyptian infantry)

enclosed them upon the shore. They were dragged,
overturned, and cast down upon the beach ; they were
slain and heaped up from stern to bow of their vessels,
everything was cast the water. As for the

to settle with his subjects in the rich Delta

lands. "
JVe will settle in Egypt.'' So spake they
zvit/i one accord, and they continuously entered the

boundaries of Egypt. At the end of the eleventh

year of Ramesses III. these Meshwesh began

seriouslyto invade the fertile plainsof the western

Delta, just as they had done in the days of

Merneptah, some forty to fiftyyears before, and

proceeded to invest an Egyptian fortress called

Hatsho', lying about eleven miles from the edge of

the western desert. Ramesses engaged the enemy

in battle outside this fortress, from the walls of

which the Egyptian archers poured down a structiv


hail of arrows. Caught between two fires,

the invaders were routed and fled, and in their

flight had to pass another fortress, where they

proved an easy target for the archers stationed on

the walls, and suffered further casualties. Ramesses

drove the invaders right out of Egypt and back

into the wilderness from which they had issued.

Meshersher, king of the JNIeshwesh, and his father

were captured, more than two thousand of the

enemy were slain, and an equal number were made

prisoners, a quarter of them being women. All

these unfortunates were enslaved, men, women, and

children alike, and were branded with the royal


victor's name. Some were handed over to the

captains of archers and turned into mercenary

soldiers, and nearly a thousand were appointed to

tend a herd of cattle belonging to the god Amun.

This was the last war of the last of the great

Egyptian War- Lords, who, if the official accounts

are to be believed, himself figured conspicuously in

the fighting. The heart of his majesty was enraged,
even as {that of) Baal in heaven ; his whole body was

endowed with strength and might. He betook self


. . .
to lay hold of multitudes on his right hand
and on his left,
meeting their very selves, advancing
like an arrow against them to slay them. His

strength was mighty, like that of his father Amun.

Keper (the father of the Meshwesh king) came to

salam . . .
he laid dovcn his arms together with his

soldiers. He cried at the top of his voice to beseech

his S071S aid. Paralyzed (?) were his feet and his

Imnds, and he stood stiffin his place. He the

Pharaoh) is the god tvho kneiv his (Keper's)inmost
thoughts,even his majesty, who came down upon
them (the enemy) like a mountain of gi^anite. They
were crushed, laid out, brought down to the gi^ound,
their blood zvas all about them like a flood, their

bodies crushed on the spot, trampled upon. . . .

Happy are his (the Pharaoh's) counsels, his plans


have been achieved. He returns to his palace, his

heart cheered. He is like a rapacious lion roaring,

\^froin whom] the goats flee away "

the king of Upper

and Lower Egypt, Usermare'-^Iiamun, son of Re\

Ramesses- Prince -of -On. As for Egypt "


hearts iTJoice at seeing his victories they exult with


accord over
the plight [pfthefoe\


The three most remarkable of those able

rulers who constitute the Eighteenth Egyptian
Dynasty are undoubtedly Dhutmose III., Queen

Hatshepsut, and Amenhotpe IV. (otherwise known

as Akhenaton, or, to be more correct, Okhnaton).

Some idea of Dhutmose's military and of

his strength of character can be gained from what

has been said about him in the previous chapter,

while the quotations from Amenhotpe I V.'s famous

hymn in Chapter VI. will reveal something of the

charm of this extraordinary Pharaoh's personality

and of the magnitude of his achievements in the

field cf religion and thought. The aim of this

chapter is briefly to set forth the life and works of

Hatshepsut, perhaps the greatest woman that the

Near East has ever produced, certainly the first

woman-individualist in history "

the first woman

who attempted to show that woman can rival man

in political life, and in some spheres even



Dhutmose L, who has appeared in Chapter IV". in

the guise of a somewhat ferocious warrior, had two

wives, the hereditaryprincessAhmose (a descendant

through her mother of the great Nefretiri, the wife

of king Ahmose I.),and Mutnofret (a daughter of

Amenhotpe L, but not an hereditary princess that "

is to say, not of solar rank). By Queen Ahmose

Dhutmose had a daughter, Hatshepsut, and by

Mutnofret a son, who afterwards became mose

II. Hatshepsut was not only Dhutmose I.'s

elder child, but also the hereditaryprincess of the

blood royal.
Towards the end of his reign,when Hatshepsut
w^as aged about twenty-four, Dhutmose I., appar-

having fallen into a feeble condition of health,

associated his daughter with him on the throne and

proclaimed her his successor "

nay, more, he actually

had her crowned as ruler of Egypt during his time

; indeed, this association virtuallyamounted to

the king's abdication. Such a proceeding as this

was unheard of, for hitherto no woman had ever

occupied the throne of the Pharaohs, except

perhaps the shadowy Nitokris, who is supposed to

have reigned in her own right at the end of the

Sixth Dynasty, a period, however, of anarchy and


lX ^*o _;. ,


"^i\-~'" "^--'T^


View towards Karnak from the so-called Birth-Hall iii the temple of Hatshepsut.
(See p. 162.)

fortune that they bestow, and they encompassed her

with their protection. 0?ie led the other, and they

weiit round about her every day. They said ''Wel-

welcome^ daughter of Amunf Behold thou

thine administj^ation in the land. Thou dost dispose

it. Thou dost 7rsto?T what is decayed in it. Thou

inakest thy monuments in our temples. Thou

the food-tablesof
suppliest him who begat thee'' {i.e.,
Amunre'). These divinities, having enumerated

all her achievements and good works, "

they speak
as though she v^ere accomplishing,or had already
accomplished, them as actual ruler "
then promise
her the reward of length of days and happiness,
assuring her at the same time that her boundary
will be as wide as heaven, exte7iding to the limits of
the twilight.
We are told that on one of these journeys to

the north she visited Heliopolis,the religiousand

centre of Egypt in early times, its god,
Re'-Atum, the sun-god, as pointed out in

Chapter II L, being regarded as the first king of

Egypt and the prototype of all Egyptian kings,

while the Pharaoh on his part was considered to be

the actual physicalson of the sun-god "

that god's
embodiment on earth.

Every Egyptian Pharaoh, it would seem, in


order to legitimizehis rule, had to visit Re'-Atum

in his temple at Heliopolis,there to be recognized

both as his offspring and as king. Accordingly
Hatshepsut would have the world to understand

that she, too, had received this recognition at the

hands of the sun-god at Heliopolis,and a series of

reliefs "

unhappily much defaced "

in the middle

colonnade of the temple of Deir el-Bahri depicts

the queen's visit there.
We see four divinities leading Hatshepsut into

the presence of Re-Atum, the sun-god, who

welcomes her and promises her the everlastingyears

of Horus, and that she shall lead the flat lands of
Egypt, and make tributary the {foreign) hill-

countries, while she lives like Re',

The diadems of Upper and Lower Egypt are

then brought to be placed on her head by Horus

and Seth, who represent respectively the Lower

and Upper country (see Fig. 28), and who establish

the two mistresses^ on her brow, and she assumes tJie

diadems namely the Upper and Lower Egyptian


crowns, which are united for Jier.

The actual ceremony of crowning over, the

/. e., the two crowns personifiedas the two tutelary
goddesses of Lower and Upper Egypt, namely, Uto and


queen's official names are proclaimed, and Thoth

and Seshat, the god and goddess of writing and

enumeration, are depicted recording these names in

their books.

Fig. 28." Horus and Seth Crowning an Egyptian King.

{After Wilkinson.)

We next see the queen, arrayed in the royal

robes and regalia,and invested with the insigniaof
her high office,being conducted into the presence

of AmuM of Thebes, now identified with Re'-Atum.

This scene is, of course, a Theban innovation,

designed to associate the god with the

ancient traditional coronation ceremonies which

had originatedin Hehopohs. Amfin promises her

all health and all happhiess,and the food which is in

this land. He tells her, moreover, that he has given

her all the flatlands {ofEgijpt)and all the {foreign)
hill countries. All that the suns disk in heaven

encompasseth are under thy control, i^hiie thou livest,

even as I love thee.

While Amun thus addresses her, the "
souls of

the prehistorickings of Nekhen (the old capitalof

Upper Egypt), Buto (the old capital of Lower

Egypt), and Heliopolis,who are depicted kneeling

behind the queen, shout their greetings, and vie

with the great gods in their assurances of long life,

good fortune, health, and happiness.
Another relief in the temple of Deir elBahri

and the accompanying inscription,are definitely

historical, and represent and describe the tion
of Hatshepsut to the great men of the country

by her father, Dhutmose I. The old king, who is

seated upon a canopied throne set upon a dais, lays

his hands on his daughter, who turns round to face

the assemblage in front of her (see Fig. 29). In


the accompanying inscription

we are told that the

majesty of this her father beheld her ^

how very godlike
her form ivas, how pre-eminent her mind. He noted

how wisely she gave judgment, and was convinced

that her royal worth was such that she must be

given her due place,and accordingly be raised to

the throne. His

majesty said unto her,

Come thou, thou

glorious one, whom I

have placed in my

arms {i.e.,associated
with me on the

throne), that thou

mayest see thy istration


in the palace,
that thou mayest take
Fig. 29. "
Dhutmose I. presenting
Hatshepsut the Great Men
thy glorious positio7i
of Egypt.
which is thy due, that
[After Naville, Deir el-Bahari. ")
thou 7nayest assume

thy noble office,excellent in thy magic, mighty

in thy strength; that thou mayest have power

over the Two Lands, that thou mayest seize upon

the rebellious, that thou mayest appear gloriously
in the palace, thy brow being adorned with the

double diadem, that thou mayest be happy as my


heii' wJto is born to me, O daughter of the White

Crown,"^ beloved of Uto^j

Dhutmose I. accordingly gave instructions that

all the nobles, high officials,and notables among

the people were to be summoned into his presence,

ill order to issue to them a command, while my

majesty jputs the majesty of this my daughter in his

arms in his palace of the residence.

There then took place a sittingof the king himselj

in a certain pillared hall, while these people (the
notables and other great personages) lay prostrate
m the Court. His majesty said in their presence :

IViis my daughter Hatshepsut, I appoint her to be

my substitute. Yea, she is my successor. She it is who

shall sit on my wondrous throne. She shall give mand


to the people in all placesof the palace. She it is

who shall lead you, and ye shall hearken to her vcord.

. . .
He who praises her shall live,but he who saith

aught evil,blaspheming her majesty, he shall die.'"

This utterance of the king was received with an

outburst of loyal enthusiasm. We are told that

those who had been summoned to hear the mation

kissed the ground at his (the king's)jT^^^ . .

* The of and
crown Upper Egypt, equated with Nekhbet

see above, p. 115, note.

t See ibid.

and xvent out rejoicing. Tlicijdanced^ they shouted

for joIf. The sounds of rejoicingwere heard where,
and resounded through all the rooms of the

royal residence. The soldiers and the crowds

assembled outside the palace took the cry, and


they published, they published, the name of her

majesty as king, "

albeit her vmjesty was still but a

youth" ^forthe great gods inclined their hearts to his

daughter Mahere', and they Imew her to be the

daughter of a god. The crowds kept on shouting :

Anyone who loves her in his hea7^t,who praises her
every day . . ,
he will flourishmore than anything.
Anyone ttho speaks evil against the name of her

majesty, God will straightway ordain his death. Lo,

it is the gods zvho encompass her with protection
every day.
The majesty of this her father, we are informed,
heard that all the people proclaimed the name of this

his daughter as king "

albeit her majesty was still a

youth "
and the heart of his majesty was glad more

than anything. He thereupon proceeded to make

all the arrangements for the coronation, which he

fixed for New Year's Day, for he knew that a nation


on New Years Day is auspicious as the

beginning of peaceful years, and of her celebrating

millions of many jubilees.

The great day in Hatshepsut'slife came at last "

day of the
f/iefi?'st season of Inundation, Nexv Years

Daij^ the beginning of jjeaeeful

years, the day of the
Coronation of the King of Upper and Loxver Egypt,
(the day) of the Union of the Tzvo Lands, the Pro-

eession round the JValls,the Festival of the Diadem.

It would appear that the coronation ceremonies,

the most important of which are schematically
depicted,no doubt in the order of their enactment,
on the north wall of the middle colonnade of the

temple of Deir el-Bahri, were performed in the

palace precincts,a number of specialchapels being

erected for the occasion. The first ceremony was

the lustral washing of the Pharaoh-designate,

had to be made absolutelyfree of all possibleearthly

contamination before the two diadems could be

placed on his head ; these, as has already been

pointed out on p. 115, being regarded by the

Egyptians as the actual embodiments of the desses

Nekhbet and Uto, and their curatorship
reckoned a priestlyoffice. Accordingly a priest,
called the Pillar of his Mother, is seen leading
Hatshepsut into one of the above-mentioned

chapels,which was designated the Great House,

this being the name of the sanctuary of Hierakon-
polis,the pre-dynastic capital of Upper Egypt.

In this chapel a priest,impersonating Yahes, the

god of the West, sprinkled the queen with holy

water, which not only was thought to purify her,
but to endow her with life, stability,
good foi^tune,
health,and happiness,whereby she would be able to

celebi^ate very many jubileeslike Be for ever.

After this preliminary purification,a priest

impersonating the god Horus conducted Hat-

shepsut into another room, which was identified

with the sanctuary of Buto, the pre-dynasticcapital

of Lower Egypt, where he and another priest who
impersonated Seth "
the two, as we have seen,

respectivelyrepresenting the northern and southern

halves of the realm "

crowned her with the white

crown of Upper Egypt.

Hatshepsut then came forth from the chapel,
preceded by four officiants carrying each a sacred

standard, and showed herself to the people in front

of the palace. This proceeding,which was nated

the Union of the Tico Lands, the Procession

round the Walls, going round on the Eastern Side,

commemorated the triumphal procession of Menes,

the first king of the First Dynasty, round the walls

of Memphis, in celebration of his conquest of

Lower Egypt, the event which had brought about

the Union of the Two hands. It is here to be


noted that the words "

Procession round the walls "

are the equivalent of "

Procession round Memphis,"
for the White Walls, the
or simply Walls, was the

old name of that city, "

the great white fortification

m' t=f^
-~-^ t^."-^] 1 "
4 LI O*

Fi^. 30. "

Hatshepsut assumiug the Red Crown of Lower Eg^^pt and
then leaving the Chapel.
{After Navillc. )

walls, which had been erected by Menes himself,

being its characteristic feature.

After this commemorative procession,Hatshepsut

again entered the chapel in w^hich she had been

crowned with the white crown, in order that she

might also be crowned with the red crown of Lower


Egypt. Again she issued from the chapel,preceded

this time by two standard-bearers (see Fig. 30), and
paraded in front of the palace,and with this pro-
the coronation ceremonial seems to have


The Deir el-Bahri reliefs give only a bare outline

of what we have reason to believe was a very

lengthy and elaborate rite. They do not, for

example, depict what was undoubtedly one of

many other coronation ceremonies "

namely, the

letting fly of four birds, usually geese, to carry the

news to the four quarters of heaven that Horus son

of Isis and Osiris has assumed the great c?'otv?i of

Upper and Lower Egypt, that king N. has

iTceived the great crown of Upper and Lower

Egypt (see below, p. 181, and Fig. 48). A ment


containing this information was sometimes

tied round the neck of each bird (see Fig. 31).

During the performance of every ritual act

certain prescribedformulas were recited, and these

sometimes, it would seem, took the form of a

dialogue between the king and the leading priestly

officiants, in which the former was instructed by
the latter as to what his duties would be in his

capacity of son of the sun-god and the earthly

embodiment of that divinity. The gist of one of

these didactic discourses is perhaps preservedto us

by a Latin writer called Nigidius Figulus,who tells

us that before the Pharaoh was crowned he was

charged not to tamper with the 365- days
Calendar (apparentlyfirst instituted in HeliopoHs
in the year 4241 B.C.),being bound by an oath never

Fig. 31. "

Carrier-Birds witli Messages attached to tlieir Necks.

{After Lepsius.)

to intercalate a month or even a day, nor alter the

date of a festival,but perpetuate the 365 days as

instituted by the ancients.

Dhutmose I. must have realized the abnormality

of the situation he had created by making
Hatshepsut Pharaoh, for not long before he died

no doubt to make her positionmore secure "

married her to his son, her half-brother, Dhut-

mose IL, who came to the throne as nominal

Pharaoh when death finallyovertook the sick king.

On the earlier monuments of this joint reign
Hatshepsut is depicted as occupying the ordinary
positionof an Egyptian queen, assistingthe king at

the celebration of the temple liturgyin the capacity

of high-priestess,and otherwise playing a quite
subordinate role. But this was all outward ing,

and did not long prevaileven in representations

so stereotyped as Egyptian temple reliefs. Ere

long such reliefs began to depict her as on an equal

footing with her brother- husband, and when he

died, aged about thirty "

he was a weakling, physi-
and perhaps also intellectually Hatshepsut "

was left sole legitimate ruler at the age of about

thirty-seven,with no one to challenge her right

except a small nephew of about ten years of age,
also named Dhutmose (the son of her husband by
a secondary wife of non-solar rank), who was wards

known to fame as Dhutmose III., and whom

immediately, or not long,after his father's death she

associated with herself on the throne.

Hatshepsut must have possessed unusual ability

and been gifted with great determination and

strength of character. For a woman to have been


developing the vast and newly acquired resources

of her Empire. She devoted herself to architectural

works" restoring those temples that had lain in

ruin since the Hyksos occupation "

and to mercial

enterpriseand exploration.
Hatshepsut's perhaps most famous achievement

was the expedition she fitted out and despatched to

the land of Punt, a country supposed to have been

situated some w^ay down the Red Sea in the region

now called Somaliland, or perhaps even further

south than that. In her temple at Deir el-Bahri,

on the southern wall of the middle colonnade, she

tells us all about this venture in a series of very

beautiful and detailed reliefs accompanied by

explanatory and often most interestinginscriptions.
We are told that the queen was one day making
suppUcation at the steps the steps leading up
{i.e., to

the enthroned image) of the lord of gods, when

a command was heard {issuing)from the Great

Place (the part of the sanctuary where the shrine

stood), an oracle of the god himself,that the ivays to

Punt should he searched out, that the roads to the

myrrh-terraces (i.e.,the hill-sides on which the

myrrh- trees grew) should he opened up, that an

expeditionshould he led over icater and over land, in

order to fetch the marvels from God's- Land for this


- -"""ti^'ili""*



colonnaded forecourt. (See pp. 170 ^oH-)

Osirid pillarsin the second

god xvho her (Hatshepsut's)beauties.

fa.sliioned It

ivas done, the inscription

goes on to say, according
to all that the majestijof this august god commanded,
the queen straightway equipping and despatching
a fleet of five ships. This fleet, so Professor

Breasted suggests, sailed down the Nile from

Thebes, and

then passed
along a canal,
which, it is

supposed, ran

at that time

through the

Wady Tumilat

and connected

the river with

Fig. 32." Perehu and his Fat Wife.
the Red Sea.
{After Naville.)
In due course

the fleet arrived safely at Punt, where the

Egyptians were received in the most friendly

fashion by Perehu, the Puntite chief, and his

wdfe (see Fig. 32). The inhabitants of Punt

were not but Hamites, and they ingly


possessed,as the Deir el-Bahri reliefs show,

much the same facial features and other physical

characteristics as the Egyptians. Perehu's right

leg, it will be observed, is covered from ankle to

knee with metal or ivory rings. His wife is an

extraordinary-looking creature, and it has been

suggested that she suffered from elephantiasis.

As a matter of fact, however, the sculptor has

merely represented for us one of those enormously

fat women, a taste for whom is widespread among
the peoples of Africa, and is not unknown even in

modern Egypt !

It was so long a time since any Egyptians had

been seen in Punt that the natives are represented

in the Egyptian narrative of events as crying out :

Why have ye come hither unto this land which people

knew not ? Did ye come down upon the ways of
heaven ? Did ye voyage over watery over land ?

They then speak flatteringlyof the Pharaoh, and

express a desire to pay their homage to him in

Egypt. The king of Egypt, is there not a way

unto his majesty, that we may live on the breath

which he gives ?
The preliminary interchange of compliments
over, the Egyptian explorers settled down to the

business on which they had come "

namely, the

acquiring of the valuable raw materials and other

commodities produced by this outlandish country,

in return for the manufactured goods they had

brought with them. A tent was erected, we read,

fo?^the kings and his troops in the myrrh-


terraces of Punt beside the great ocean, in

order to receive the of this
chieftains land. There

vcas offeredto them (the native chiefs)bread, beer,

rTT,-rT-,r^T-,.-. , :ti}i uimrrrnnuin


-mum ^ ....

Fig. 33. "
Tlie "
King's Envoy receiving the Puntites.

{After Mariette,
Deir el-Bahari.")

wine, meat, and fimits,every thing which is duced)

in Egypt, according to what had been

ordered at the Court,

The reliefs show us the king's envoy standing

before the tent and receiving the Puntites, who

are bringing the products of their country to


exchange them for some of those bead-neeklaces,

hatchets, daggers, and the Hke, which have been

temptmgly laid out before them (see Fig. 33).

Behind the Puntites is depicted the village or
settlement from which they have issued with their

wares. It was evidentlya thickly-wooded country,

and the huts of the natives peep out from amid

various kinds of trees. These huts are of the

typically African beehive variety, but they are

erected on piles,and access to each was gained by

a ladder. At the bottom of the relief is a stripof
water full of fish, showing that the settlement was

situated close to the seashore or on the edge of

some creek (see Fig. 34). It has been suggested

that the erection of huts on pilesdenotes a swampy

country, but we are distinctlytold that the myrrh-

trees grew on terraces "
that is,on the sides of hills

and the tent mentioned above, and shown in

Fig. 34, was erected in the myrrh-terraces, Mr. H.

Weld-Blundell has suggested to me that the huts

are built on pilesas a protectionagainstwhite ants,

with which Somaliland is infested. There are just

one or two kinds of wood, of which the pileswould
have been made, that these pests will not devour.

Evidently the hatchets, beads, and other gawds

the fancy of the simple Puntites, for the

The fleet had a fair return without

mishap, and finallymoored again at the Theban

docks, where the ships were unloaded. A great

procession was formed, led by the commander of
the expedition,and all the strange products of that

far-off land were paraded through the streets of

the capitalto the palace,where they were formally

Fig. 35. " Loading the Egyptian Vessels with the Produce of Punt.

{After Breasted, "

History of Egypt.'")

presented to the queen. In this processionwalked

a number of the natives of Punt themselves, and it

must have been a wonderful spectacle for the

Thebans, who had never before witnessed such a


Hatshepsut made over to Amim, who had manded


the expedition to be despatched, his share

of the spoils. It is most interestingto learn that

the live incense-trees were

exported especially

him. Deir el-Bahri temple is built in three

terraces, one above the other (see below, p. 1G2),

and on these terraces the trees were planted.

Thus an attempt was made to reproduce the effect

of the natural terraces or hill-slopes of the country

from whence the trees had been brought. / made

for him, Hatshepsut, a Punt in his garden,


according to what he commanded me, at Thebes.

It is large enough for him to wcdk about in.

Hatshepsut's reign, brilliant though it was, seems

to have led to the weakening of the Egyptian

military position in Syria and northern Palestine.

The and her ministers so devoted themselves


to architectural undertakings, exploration, and

other peaceful pursuits, "

forgetting that it is the

strong man armed who keeps his house "

that by the

end of her reign the Egyptians' hold on their

Asiatic dominion was in jeopardy. Her death

too soon, and it Dhutmose the

came none gave

opportunity for which he had been longing during

the tedious of his subordination.


The Imperial Age is no less noteworthy for its

literary than for its military and artistic ments


; indeed, many of the poems

and other positions

then produced are quite equal, if not

superior, to the best work of the preceding period,

the so-called Middle Kingdom, which is generally
regarded as the Classical Period of Egyptian ture.

Certain of the triumphant composed


in honour of the great Emperors' acts of


in war are distinguished by really fine writing, a

good example of such being the ^^ictory Hymn of

Dhutmose III., in which the poet represents the

god Aniun as thus addressing the Pharaoh :

/ have come that I thee to tread down the

may cause princes

of Palestine,
That I
may spread them out under thy feet throughout
their couritries ;

That I cause them to behold thy majesty as a lord of



While thou shhiest in their faces in similitude.





Looking diagonallyacross to S.E. corner. (See pp. 172 foil.)

/ have come that I may cause thee to tread down those who

are in Asia,
To smite the heads of the Syrians of Retenu ;
That I cause them to behold thy majesty equipped
with thine accoutrements.
When thou layesthold on the weapons of war in the chariot.

I have come that I may cause thee to tread down the eastern

To trample on those who are in the regions of To-Nuter ;*
That I may cause them to behold thy majesty as the star

When it scatters its flame in fire,when it givesforth its dew.

I have come that I may cause thee to tread down the

western land,
Crete and Cyprus {?)are in terror of thee ;

That I may cause them to behold thy majesty as a young

Finn of heart, with horns ready, irresistible.

I have come that I may cause thee to tread down them that

are in their marshes,

The lands of Meten% tremble for fear of thee ;

That I may cause them to behold thy majesty as a crocodile.

Lord of terror in the water, unapproachable.

I have come that I may cause thee to tread down them that

are in the islands,

They that are in the midst of the great green sea hear thy

^ See above, p. 133, note.

t Name of a star or constellation. % Unidentified.


That I may cause them to behold thy majesty as the

Who appeared gloriouslyupon the hack of his slain foe.

/ have come that I may cause thee to tread down the Libyans,
The Uthentywf are subject to the might of thy prowess ;

That I may cause them to behold thy majesty as a fierce-

eyed lion,
While thou makest them as corpses throughout their valley.

I have come that I may cause thee to tread down the utter-

ends of the lands,

What the great Encircler (the Ocean) encircleth are held
in thy grasp ;

That I may cause them to behold thy majesty as a lord of

the wing {i.e.,
a hawk),
Who seizeth upon what he seeth, according as he desireth.

I have corne that I may cause thee to tread down those who

are in the country nigh at hand.

To bind the sand-dwellers as livingcaptives;
That I may cause them to behold thee as a jackal of Upper
A master of speed, a runner, traversingthe Two Lands.

I have come that I may cause thee to tread down the nomads

of Nubia,
As far as Shot \ all is in thy grasp ;

I.e..,Horus, the avenger of Osiris.

t Unknown people.
X Unknown region in Nubia.

In the hymn celebrating the heroism of

Harnesses 1 1, when he fought against the Hittites,

we get the nearest approach in all Egyptian ture

to epic poetry.^ We are told how the foe

covered the hills like grasshoppers, and all the

subsequent events, the rout of a division of the

Egyptian army (the division of Re'), their rush

for safety to Ramesses' the panic that seized


on all the troops round about the Pharaoh, "

all are

made to lead to the moment when

up supreme
Ramesses found himself alone in the midst of

the foe :

When his majesty looked behind him.

He marked that two thousand five hu7idred chariots eii-

circled him in his outivard way. . . .

No chief is with me,

No charioteer,
No offoot-soldiery,
Nor of chariotry.
My foot-soldieryand my chariotry have leftme for a prey
unto them (the enemy) ;

None of them stands fast in order to fight with them.

The poet represents him as callingon his father

Amun for aid :

"^ For a full account of the battle see Breasted, "


Records of Egypt," Chicago, 1906, iii.,pp. 1^3-162; "A

History of Egypt," London, 1906, pp. 425-435.



^p/^U/S^J4X .


Side virw of the second court. (See p. 171.)


What is it, then, my father Amun ?

Has a father indeed forgottenhis son ?

Have I done aught without thee ?

If I went or stood still,was it not at thy command ?

Never have I disregarded the decrees which thou hast

How great is the great lord of Thebes!
Too great for the stranger-peoplesto be able to approach

What are these Asiatics to thee, 0 Amun,

Wretches who know nought of God ?

Harnesses, having first enumerated all the gifts

he has bestowed on Amun, draws the god's tion

to his own desperate need, and asserts that he

trusts in him alone :

Have I not made for thee very many monuments.

And filledthy temple with my captives ?
I have built for thee my temple of millions of years.
And given thee my goods for (thy)possession.
All lands togetherdo I present unto thee.
In order to furnish thine offeringwith victuals.

I cause to be offeredto thee tens of thousands of oxen,

With all sweet- smelling plants.
No good thing leave I undone in
thy temple.
I build for thee pylons and myself erect their flag-staffs.
I bringfor thee obelisks from Elephantine,
And I it is that bring the stones.

I cause galleys to voyage for thee upon the sea.

In order to fetch for thee the tribute of the lands.

Mischief shall befallhim who thwarts thy purposes.

But well he fares who understands [?)thee.

One should work for thee with a loving heart.

I call on thee, my father Amun.

I am in the midst of strangers, whom I know not.

All lands have joined themselves together against me.

And I am all alone and none other is with me.

My soldiers have forsaken me.

Not one among my chariotry has looked round for me.

If I cry to them, not one of them hearkens.

But I call, and I see that Amun is worth more to me than

millions offoot-soldiers.
More than hundreds of thousands of chariots. . . .

The deeds of many men are nothing ;

Amun is worth more than they.

I have come hither by the decree of thy mouth, O Amun,
And from thy decree have I not swerved.

Ramesses realizes that though he is far from the

Thebaid, yet Amfiii has heard, and is ready at hand

to help him, enabling him to perform prodigiesof

valour :

/ jpray at the limits of the lands, yet my voice reaches unto

Am n hears me and comes, when I cry to him.

He stretches out his hand to me, and I rejoice.

He calls out behind me : Forward, forward! I am with

thee, I thy father.

My hand is with thee and I am of more avail than a

hundred-thousand men,

I, the lord of victory,who love strength.''

I have found my courage again, my heart swells for joy.
What I am fain to do comes to pass.

I am as Mont, I shoot on the right hand and fighton the

I am in their presence as Baal in his time,
I see that the two thousand five hundred chariots, in whose
midst I was,

Lie hewn in pieces before my steeds.

Not one of them has found his harid to fight.

Their hearts have become faint in their bodies for fear.
Their arms are all become powerless.
They are unable to shoot.
And have not the heart to take their lances.

I cause them to plunge into the water, as plunge the


They stumble one over the other, and I slay of them whom 1

Not one of them looks back and there is none who turns


Whosoever of them fallethliftsnot up himself again.

The Egyptian poet, as Professor Breasted has

pointed out, has a real appreciationof the value of

dramatic contrast. He throws the personal valour

of the Pharaoh into high relief by settingagainst
it the dismay of his charioteer, whose heart fails

him when he realizes the utter loneliness of his own

and his royal master's position:

But when, Menna, my charioteer, saw that a great multi-


of chariots compassed me round about.

He became faint and his heart failed him, and very great
fear entered into his body.

Then said he to his majesty : My good lord, valiant prince,
great protector of Egypt in the day of battle,

We stand alone in the midst of the foe.

Behold, our soldiers and our chariotry abandon us.

Wherefore wilt thou stay until they bereave (us of breath)?

Let us remain unscathed! Save us, O Ramesses T'

Then said his majesty to his charioteer :


Steady, steady thy heart, my charioteer !

I am going in among them even as a hawk strikes.
I slay, hew in pieces,and throw to the ground.
What thinkest thou of these cowards ?

My face grows not pale for millions of them /"

Ramesses, the poet goes on to tell us, dashed in

among the foe with such fury that his discomforted

troops took courage. They rushed in after him

and turned a defeat into a victory, driving the

Hittites into the river Orontes.

On a wall of the Ramesseum (see below, pp. 171

foil.)is a relief depicting the events described in

the poem. We see the routed enemy plunging

into the river and swimming across or strugglingin
the water, while some of them are being pulled to
land by their friends on the opposite bank. A

humorous touch is afforded by a group of figures

comprising the king of Aleppo (see Fig. 36).
This potentate, who was in league with the

Hittites, has just been dragged out of the river,




Second colonnaded court in the funerary temple of Raraesses III.

(See p. 179.)

and his rescuers are holding him upside down so

that he may disgorge all the water that he has

swallowed ! Above the group is written : The

xjcr etched chiefof Aleppo turned upside down by his

soldiers,afterhis majesty hurled him into the water.

Fig. 36. "

The King of Aleppo held upside down by his Rescuers.

{After Breasted.)

After making all due allowance for the poet's

imagination,and for his;desire to please his royal
patron, it cannot be doubted that Ramesses played

great courage and presence of mind in this

crisis. There is something, too, of the spiritof the

heroes of Greek epic in the Pharaoh's vow that


his gallant steeds, Victory-in- Thebes and Mut-is-

content, which had borne him safelythrough the

thick of the fray,should ever after be fed daily in

his presence.

The following poem was written in celebration

of the coronation of Ramesses IV. No doubt

similar verses were sung or recited on the occasion

of the coronation of Hatshepsut (see above,

pp. 121 foil).

What a happy day ! Heaven and earth rejoice^

for thou art

the great lord of Egypt.

Those who hadjled have returned again to their towns, and
those who were hidden have again come forth.
Those who hungered are and
satisfied happy, and those who
thirsted are drunken.
Those who were naked are clad in fine linen, and he who

was dirty is full ofjoy.

Those who were at strifein this land are reconciled.

High Niles have come from their sources that they may
refreshthe hearts of men.
Widows, their houses stand open and they suffer the

travellers to enter.
The maidens rejoiceand repeat their songs of gladness.
They are arrayed in ornaments and they say :

. . .
he creates generation on generation.
Thou ruler, thou wilt endure for ever.''

The ships rejoiceon the deep. . . .

They come to land with wind or oars.

They are satisfied . . .

when it is said :

The King Hekme etre -Miamun again wears the crown.

The son of Re, Ramesses, has received the officeof his

All lands say to him :

Beautiful is Horus {i.e.,the king) on the throne of
Amun who sends him forth,
(Amun) the protector of the sovereign, who presents {unto
him) every land.

A certain number of folk- tales survive from the

Imperial Age, of which the best known is the so-

called "
Tale of the Two Brothers." Two brothers,
Anup and Bata, lived happilytogether tillingtheir
land. But, alas ! one day Bata, the younger and

unmarried brother, was tempted by Anup's wife,

who had for long been in love with him, Bata,
like Joseph of Hebrew fame, resisted the woman's

blandishments, but she, like Mistress Potiphar,

putting on the outraged wife, accused the innocent

youth to her husband, who thereupon tried to slay

him. Bata, poor lad, accordingly fled from his

home with his hot-headed assailant close on his

heels brandishing a knife. In his distress he

appealed to the sun-god Re'-Harakhte, who way

caused a broad stream of water, teeming with

crocodiles, to spring up between the pursuer and the

pursued. The tale then merges into a series of

marvellous happenings, and, though full of interest


to the student of folklore, loses much of the simple

idylliccharm of the beginning.
Another popular tale of this periodis the "
of the Doomed Prince." A son was at last born to

a childless king. The seven Hathors, or Fates,

who came to decree his destiny,foretold that he

would die through a snake, a crocodile, or a dog.

When the child grew up, he set out, like the

princes in our stories,to seek his fortune, panied


by his faithful hound. He came at length

to the far-off land of Mitanni, where there was a

princess whose father had shut her up in a high

tower perched on the top of a hill. Whoever

succeeded in climbing up the sheer walls of the

castle, and reached the window of the room in

w^hich the princess was confined, was to be claimed

her husband.

Our hero, of course, performed this feat, which

other wooers had been essaying for years. The

princessin return saved his life from a snake. But

alas ! the rest of the story is lost, and so we do not

know whether she also rescued him from the

crocodile and the dog. It would be interestingto

know how the ancient story-tellersolved the

problem. Did the prince,by his wife's aid, avoid

his doom altogether,or did he somehow fall a

victim to his own dog ? Perhaps complete versions

of this and other similar stories will be found in the

tomb of Tut'enkliamun !

Now for some examples of love-songs,such as

the Egyptian peasants still sing :

/ will lay me down in my chamber.

For I am sick of the wrong {done me).
My neighbours will come in to see me.

Should my beloved come with them,

She would put to shame the physicians,
For she knoweth my sickness.

A love-sick maiden sings :

It is the voice of the swallow that speaketh ;

It saith : The earth is bright,whither goest thou .^"

Ah ! no, 0 bird ! Thou makest me to sicken.

I have found my lover in his bed and my heart rejoiceth.
He saith to me ; / will not betake me far from thee ;

My hand abideth in thy hand.

I walk to and fro and am togetherwith thee in every pleasant

He makeih me the chiefof the maidens and causeth not my
heart to be sick.

In an unfortunately ill-preservedand rather intelligible


song a young man exclaims :

Ah ! would I were her negress who is her handmaid.

Then would I behold the colour of all her limbs. . . .

Ah ! would I were her signet ring, which is fastened on

her finger. . . .

Another song is supposed to be sung by a girl

making a wreath of flowers. As she pUes her task

she cries :

Blush roses are in it

" one blushes before thee.
I a7n thy firstsister.
I am for thee as the garden,
Which I have planted with flowers,
And all manner of sweet-smelling herbs.
Fair is the water- channel therein,
Which thy hand hath digged,
When the north wind blows cool,
The beauteous place where I walk about.
With thy hand resting in mine.
And my heart satiated with delight,
Because we walk together.
It is intoxication for me to hear thy voice,
And I live because I hear it.
Whenever I see thee.
It is better for me than food and drink.

This is a charming little poem about the sycamore

tree "

personifiedas a maiden "

in the shadow of

which the lovers sit :

The little sycamore, which she (the beloved) hath planted

with her hand,
Which moves her mouth to speak.
The whispering of her leaves is sweet as refinedhoney.
How charming are her pretty twigs. . . .

She is laden with fruits.

Which are red as jasper.

more examples to be cited here. Moreover, as yet

a whole field of literature has not been touched "

the religiouspoetry of the Imperial Age. Much

of this poetry is inspired with the conception of

God as a beneficent being who loves all his

creatures, and who is in close personal relationship

with man, if he will but realize it " a sentiment that

is not apparent to anything like the same extent in

the literature of the earlier periods.

In a hymn to Amunre', preserved in Cairo, that

divinityis said to be :

He who created herbs for the cattle.

And the fruit tree for men ;

Who maketh that whereon live the fishesin the stream,

And the birds who {dwell)in the firmajuent ;

He who giveth breath to that zvhich is in the egg,
And maketh to live the son of the worm ;

He who maketh that whereon the gnats live.

The worms and the flieslikewise ;

He who maketh what the mice in their holes need.

And sustaineth the birds on all the trees.

In another hymn of the same period Amun

appears in the guise of the good herdsman :

Amun, thou herdsman, who early seest after the cows.

Who leadest the patient to the pasture.

The herdsman drives the cows to the pasture ;

O Amun, so thou drivest the patient to (their)bread.

For Ajnun is a herdsman, a herdsman who is not idle.

_-."" ..MQ^im,,^

/^*"/^VT"V' /f"--" V


This buildingat MedTnet Habu imitates the fortress towers of Palestine aiul Syria.
(See pp. 177, 183 foil.)

Amun is also addressed as "

Thou jnlot,who knowest the water !

Amun, thou rudder . . .

Thou experienced one, who knowest the shoals,

Who art longed afterby him who is on the water !

Amun is present when one longsafterhim upo7i the water.

There is a distinct personalrelationsh:;)

sense of

with the god in the concluding lines of the hymn :

0 Amun, I love thee and I trust in thee. . . .

Thou wilt deliver me from the mouth of man

In the day wherein he speaks lies. . . .

1 follow not the care in my heart.

What Amun hath said cometh to pass.

It is to Amun again that the following verses

and defenceless claimant in the
represent a poor
law-courts as appealing:

Amun, lend thine ear to one who stands alone in the court

of justice!
The tribunal oppresseth him !
Silver and goldfor the scribe !
Clothes for the attendants !

But it is found that Amun changeth himself into the viziet,

Whereby he maketh the poor man to overcome.

So it is found that the poor man is justified.

And the poor man passeth by the rich.

The most beautiful in some respects of all extant

Egyptian religiouspoems is the hymn to Thoth in


one of the British INIuseum papyri, that known as

SalUer Papyrus No. 1. Thoth was the god of

writing and recording,and he it was who recorded

in his book the result of the weighing of the heart

at the judgment of the dead before Osiris. He was

also the advocate who had successfullypleaded the

cause of Osiris against Seth at the great trial held

before Re
the sun-god, in Heliopolis.Accordingly,
in the Imperial Age, when, by a process of

democratization, all dead Egyptians were identified

with Osiris, men and women alike looked to Thoth

to plead their cause and obtain a favourable verdict

for them at the great Assize.

The hymn in question is as follows :

0 Thoth, place 7ne in Her77iopolis,*

In thy city,where lifeis pleasant.
Thou suppliestall I need offood and drink.-f
And thou keepest watch over my mouth when I speak.

Ah, may Thoth succour me to-morrow !

Come to me, when I enter the presence of the Lords of

And {so will I) go out justified.

^ The modern Eshmunen, the great Upper Egyptian

centre of the worship of Thoth. The language is probably
t Lit., bread and beer.

J I.e.
the divinities composing the posthumous tribunal.

Thou great dom-pahn, six ells in height !

Thou on whom are fruits !
Stones are in the fruits.
And water is in the stones.

Thou who hringestwater to a place afar off,

Come, deliver me, the silent one !

Thoth, the sweet well for one who thirsteth in the wilderness !
It is closed for him who finds words to say.

It is open for the silent.

The silent cometh and findeth the well."^

The hot-headed cometh "
but thou art choked.

The idea that man is in closer communion with

God and more acceptable to him when he is silent,

is also to be found in the writings of the Sage Ani,

whose sayings on the subject of duty to parents
have been quoted at some length in Chapter I. :

The sanctuary of God, it abhors clamour. Pray with a

loving heart, iri which all the words remain hidden. Then
he doeth what thou requirest; he heareth thy words and

accepteth thine offering.

There can be no more suitable endino^ for this

chapter than some extracts from Akhenaton's

famous hymn to the sun, of which the king, no

doubt justly,claims to be the author, and which so

closelyresembles the 104th Psalm. In it the sun-

The metaphor is taken from the well in the desert,
which is often hidden with pebblesand sand.

god is represented as the All-Father, the source of

all life. He it is who has created the different

nations and assigned them their divers complexions

and languages. He has also provided for their

sustenance, making the Nile to well up out of the

nether world to water the whole land of Egypt, and

settinga Nile in the sky for other peoples, whence

it comes down in rain. He is the All-Seeing One

and is also seen of all. But to Akhenaton alone

has he granted a real measure of understanding of

his divine wisdom and power :

Beautiful is thine appearing in the horizon of heaven.

Thou livingsun, the firstwho lived !
Thou risest in the eastern horizon,
Thou fillest
every land with thy beauty. . . .

When thou goest down in the western horizon.

The earth is in darkness as if it were dead. . . .

Men sleep in their chambers with head wrapped up.

And none seeth the other, . . .

Every lion coineth forthfrom his den,

And all snakes that bite.

Darkness {reigns).
The earth is silent.
For he who hath created it rests in his horizon.

When it is dawn and thou risest in the horizon and shinest

as the sun in the day.

Thou dispellestthe darkness and sheddest thy beams.

The lands of Syria and Ethiopia,

The land of Egypt,
Every man thou settest in his place.
Thou suppliest their needs.

Everyone possesseth his sustenance,

And the length of his days is reckoned.

Their tongues are separate in speech,

And their character likewise.
Their skin is different,
(For) thou distinguishestbetween the peoples.

Thou makest the Nile in the underworld.

Thou br ingest it (up) as thou desirest.
In order to sustain the lifeof the people of Egypt. . . .

All distant strange lands,

Thou makest their sustenance.
Thou puttest for them a Nile in the firmament.
It comes down for them,
It makes wells upon the hills like the great green sea.

In order to water their fieldsin their townships.

How excellent are thy designs, O Lord of Eternity !

The Nile in the firmament, thou givest it to the strange
And to all the wild beasts of the wilderness who go upon
their feet.
(But) the (real)Nile it wells up from the nether world for
Timuris. ...

Thou didst make the sky afar in order to rise therein,

In order to behold all that thou hast made . . .

Cities, townships, fields, and river "

All men
behold thee over against them,

For thou art Aton of the day aloft, . . .

Thou art in heart,


There is none
other that knoweth thee,

Save thy son Neferkheprure Wa-nere (Akhenaion),

Thou niakest him to comprehend thy designs and thy

power. ...


The city of Thebes was divided by the Nile into

two parts, a western and an eastern. The eastern

half was the main city, containing the residential

and business quarters and the great temples of

Luxor and Karnak. The western half, to which

was attached the vast Theban necropolis, seems to

have been largely occupied by the officials, great

and small, who had charge of the necropolis, and

by the host of artisans subordinate to them, whose

business it was to excavate and decorate the tombs

and tomb-chapels and keep them in repair, and to

manufacture and supply the elaborate funerary

equipment, with which every upper

and middle-

class Egyptian of the Imperial Age wished to be

furnished at death. Here also were the workshops

of the embalmers and their residences.

At the foot of the hills and towering cliffs,

which form the background of the Theban plain

on the western side of the river, extends a long

XX [I I.




m"MmmAM". "5t^J?^"*:t*?iJ*"3rv;.




='i^ -^



One of a pair placed at the entrance of the fuixsrarytemple of Ameuhotpe III.

(See p. i8.S.)

line of temples "

the funerary temples of the

great emperors of the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and

Twentieth Dynasties. These splendid buildings,

however, were not only intended to provide for the

posthumous welfare of the Pharaohs who erected

them, but they were also dedicated to the worship

of the State-god, Amun. Apart from the actual

temple buildings, the sacred precincts included

gardens and orchards, ornamental lakes, houses,

cattle-sheds, the dwelUngs of the priests,

and the quarters of the numberless slaves, mostly

foreigncaptives,who worked on the temple estates

as labourers
agricultural or herdsmen, or as masons,

joiners,and the like. As we shall see, to one

temple at least a school was attached, just as

schools are often associated with mosques at the

present day.
Several of the great Pharaohs, Hatshepsut,
Amenhotpe III., Ramesses II., and Ramesses III.,

are known to have built themselves ing,

or in close proximity to, their funerarytemples.
In the ruins of Amenhotpe's palace was found the

beautiful fragment of ceiling decoration figured

and discussed on pp. 80 foil.

In the space of one chapter it is impossible to

describe all the magnificent remains of western


Thebes in any detail. It will be best, therefore,

to devote the following pages to the discussion of

points not usually brought forward in the guide

books or in popular works dealing with Ancient

The most famous, and probably the most

beautiful, of all the royal funerary temples is that

of Queen Hatshepsut, which, like all the others,

was dedicated to the worship of Amun, but also

contained chapels of Anubis, the tutelary god ot

the dead, and the goddess Hathor, in whose cult

women figured so prominently. This temple with

its three terraces, each connected with the other

by an inclined way, and its beautiful colonnades

composed of rectangular and polygonal columns, is

a unique product of Egyptian architectural genius.

It has already been mentioned above how the great

queen placed the incense-trees she had brought

from Punt along the terraces, in imitation of the

tree-clad slopes of Somaliland. A drawing of the

temple as it appears at the present day is to be

seen on Plate XV.

In the southern half of the colonnade, at the back

of the second or middle terrace, are the reliefs ing

Hatshepsut's expedition to Punt. The northern

half (see Plate XVI.) contains the representations


We next see the god and Ahmose seated side

by side and conversing with one another (Fig. 37).

The to Amun 3Iy lord, how
queen says : great is
thy glory ! Splendid is it to behold thy presence.
Thou hast filled
my majesty
with thine excellence. Thy
dew is in all my limbs.

Amun on his part tells

the queen that Hatshep-

sut is to be the name of
this thy soji^ tvJiom I have

planted in thy womb, and

he forecasts for the child

a glorious and happy

reign. This, like all the

other scenes of the series

in question, is depicted
in a symbolical manner.

T^ i'^^^''\^^''
Amun appears
in his
of the rrospective rharaon.

divinC form, not in the

{After Gayet/' Temple dcLouxorr)

guise of the queen's band,


and, in order to indicate the ecstatic and

heavenly nature of the visitation, the pair are

* The masculine word shows that the text is traditional,

and referred to all the Pharaohs, and was not specially

for Hatshepsut.

seated the sign for heaven,

represented as upon
which is raised aloft by two goddesses high above

the bed on which the queen

had been lying.
In subsequent scenes we see Amun bidding
the potter-god,
Khniim, fashion

the body of the

promised child ;

Khniim actually
engaged in ling

the child and

its ha, or double,

on his wheel, while

Heket, his consort,

extends the symbol
fashioning the Unhorn
of life to the child's Fig. 38." Khimm
face (see Fig. 38) ;
{After Gayet.)
and Thoth ing

to Queen Ahmose that she will give birth to

an heiress and daughter of Geb.*

Next come representations of the royal accouche-


and incidents connected therewith. Khniim

and Heket (in the Luxor reliefs Hathor takes the

place of Heket) lead the pregnant to the

* The earth-god and a primasval king of Egypt, in which

capacity he was, like Re', a divine pattern of kingship.


place where she is to be dehvered, the god

assuring her that she who opens thy womb shall be

greater than all {other)kings.

During the actual birth, which takes place in the

presence of Amtin and other divinities,the queen

sits on her couch, and four goddesses, presided over

P'ig.39. " Birth of the Sun-God's Human Heir.

(After Gayet.)

by Meskhent, the goddess of birth, offer her their

assistance in the capacity of midwives (Fig. 39).
In addition to the greater divinities already
enumerated, a number of genii, including the
souls "
of the pre -dynastic kings of Upper and

Lower Egypt (see p. 117), are depicted kneeling in

two rows and offeringthe queen the symbol of life.

In the middle of these two rows are the symbols of


protection,good fortune, life,stability,

and millions

of years,* and in the lower row, at the foot of the

bed, the figures of the grotesque demi-god Best

and the hippopotamus-goddess Taweret.J These

symbols and figuresreally constituted the decora-

Fig. 40. "

H.ithor presenting the New-Born Child to Amun.

{After Gayet.)

tion of the bed, appearing regularly as carvings on

the foot-boards of extant couches and on the sides

and backs of chairs. The way in which the last-

mentioned divinities are here depicted admirably

"^ In the Luxor relief here reproduced the sign for stability
is omitted.

t Generally depicted as a dancer wearing a lion-mask.

X The goddess of the enceinte.


illustrates the Egyptian idea with regard to the

of such decoration it ensured the actual

purpose "

presence of the beings represented, who would

extend their protection to those who reclined or

sat on the couch or chair.

The queen safely delivered, the goddess Hathor

presents the child to Amun, whose heart is very

happy (see Fig. 40). After dandling her on his

knee and kissing her, the god appoints divine

nurses to suckle the child and its ka, among them

being the tutelary goddesses of Upper and Lower

Egypt, the scorpion goddess Selket, and the sacred

Hesat-cow identified with both Isis and Hathor.

" " "

In the adjacent cut (Fig. 41) the queen is seen

sittingon her bed with a goddess supporting her,

while in front of her two divinities (cow-headed
in the Deir el-Bahri version of the scene) are

actively engaged in the duty assigned to them.

Below the couch again two sacred cows perform

the same office as the two last-mentioned divinities.

Of the four final reliefs,the two most interesting

represent the gods determining the duration of the

new-born infant's life, "

their decision being entered

in a book by Seshat, the goddess of reckoning "

and Anubis rolling a sieve in front of him. This

last- mentioned practice in connection with the




""" -"v-




View towards upper end of valley.


sieve is trundled about so that when the child

grows up he may be able to run quickly."^

The next funerary temple that must engage our

attention here is that of Ramesses IL, commonly

called the Ramesseum, of which unfortunately
only about half survives.

The inner face of the great towered gateway or

pylon "
the outer face is just a jumble of fallen

stones "
is covered with reliefs illustratingor lating

to Ramesses' war with the Hittites. On

the northern tower the enemy chariotryare ing


into the Egyptian camp ; on the southern tower

Ramesses, single-handed, drives the routed foe

before him into the river Orontes, the feat talized


in the poem quoted above on pp. 141-144.

Of the outer court, lying behind the pylon, and

once colonnaded, only fragments of the west wall

remain, in front of which, broken in pieces,lies a

giganticgranite statue of Ramesses. ^Vhen plete


and erect it stood nearly sixty feet high and

weighed about a thousand tons (see Plate XVII.) !

The second court, which is somewhat better

preserved, was colonnaded on all four sides. On

the north and south sides were two rows of

papyrus-bud columns, while on the east and west

p. 88.
^ "
Ancient Egypt," 1915,

sides was a single row of rectangular pillarswith

so-called Osirid statues of the Pharaoh in front,

and, on the west side of the court only, behind the

corresponding number of columns like

those above mentioned. Some of the columns in

the northern half of the court are still standing, as

Fig. 42." The Battle of Kadesh.

{After Breasted.)

are also some of the pillarsdecorated with the

Osirid statues, all the statues except one, however,

being now headless (see Plates XVIII. and XX.).
On the lower part of the northern half of the

east wall of this court is yet another representation

of Ramesses' great achievement at the battle of

Kadesh. The adjoining cut (Fig. 42) is a drawing


of the northern portion of the rehef, wherein the

Pharaoh is seen charging the fleeingand prostrate

foe. Fig. 36 on p. 145, which shows the king of

Aleppo being held upside down by his soldiers,

and fugitivesswimming across the river and being
pulled out by their friends on the other side, is a

drawing of part of the southern half of the same

relief. Close to the group of figures engaged in

resuscitatingthe king of Aleppo stood the Hittite

monarch in his chariot "

the relief is badly damaged
just here "
with eight thousand footguards drawn

beside him. Above them is depicted the

walled city of Kadesh, surrounded by two moats

(see Fig. 43).

The portion of the same half of the wall is
devoted to a representationof the great annual
harvest festival,about which more will be said in

connection \vith a similar relief in the funerary

temple of Ramesses III. (see below, pp. 179 foil.).
Three stairways led up to the western colonnade,
which was raised on a sort of terrace. On either

side of the central flight of steps was a colossal

statue of the king in red granite, fragments of

which still strew the ground. Three doors in the

wall at the back of this colonnade admit to a great

hypostyle hall, the roof of which was borne on

forty-eightcolumns. The nave, consistingof three

aisles, is higher than the side-aisles,and the space

Fig. 43. " Hittite Soldiers and the Walled City of Kadesh.

(After Baikie, "

The Story of the Pharaohs ")

between the two roof levels is occupied by grated

clerestory windows. Many of the columns in the

side aisles have disappeared, together with most of

the once gorgeous colouring; but, despiteits ruinous

condition, the hall is still most impressive,as can be

plainly seen from the drawings on Plates XVII.

and XIX.

On the southern half of the east wall of this hall

Fig. 44. "

The Attack on Dapur.

[After Lepsius.)

is a well-preserved relief depicting the storming

of the Hittite fortress of Dapur (see Fig. 44).
Ramesses II. in his chariot dashes in among the

flying enemy who flee towards the city,against the

walls of which the Egyptian troops are already
placing their scaling-ladders. Some of the fugitive
Hittites, it will be noted, are being hauled up into

the city by means of ropes, the gates having been


shut upon them. A similar incident occurred, it

will be remembered, after Dhutmose's defeat of

the Syrians outside Megiddo (see above, p. 95).

Behind this large hall are two much smaller halls.

The first of these has a ceiling decorated with

interestingastronomical representations; the second

is half destroyed. The sanctuary and its surround-


chambers, as also yet another columned hall,

have been completely destroyed.
Some of the ruined brick buildings,which still

surround the temple on three sides, were evidently

magazines and offices, others being possibly the

dwellings of the priests. Included among them

was a school, the proof of the existence of which

lies in the fact that a number of flakes of limestone

covered with writing in ink "

ostraca is the

technical term "

have been found scattered about

the ruins, and in

especially a small rubbish mound.
These ostraca were the "
slates of the Ancient

Egyptian schoolboys,who, when they had shown up

their writing exercises and had had them duly
corrected, threw them away, just as we should

throw away used-up sheets of foolscap. On these

ostraca are found choice passages from well-known

literaryworks, which the boys were madie to write

out, perhaps at dictation, both in order to teach


them the very difficult and complicated Egyptian

script,and also to familiarize them with the

literarylanguage and so give them some idea of

Evidently the schoolboys of the second lennium

B.C. were just as stupid and neglectful as

those of to -
day. The following admonitions,
among many others of a similar character, were

regularlygiven to the Theban boy to write out by

way of an exercise in calligraphy,and also, no doubt,
to improve his mind : O tiTiter, be not idle,be not

idle, lest thou be soundly chastised. Set not thine

heart on pleasures or thou wilt come to destruction.

Write with thine hand, read with thy mouth, and

ask counsel of those who know more than thou. . . .

Pass not a day in idleness, or thou wilt be beaten.

The ear of a boy is in his back, he listens when he is

beaten. . . .
Write on, sicken not of it. Be tive,

hearken to my words. Thou wilt find them

profitable. Such excellent sentiments are not

surpassedin modern copy-books !

The best preserved of all the mortuary temples,

with the exception perhaps of Hatshepsut's at Deir

el-Bahri, is that of Ramesses III., the largestof the

of three temples at Medinet Habu, of which

the other two date, the one from the Eighteenth

Dynasty,^'and the other from the Saite Period (see

Plate I.). Harnesses surrounded his temple with

crenellated walls eighteen metres high and over

seven metres thick, the total area enclosed measuring

two hundred and ten by three hundred and thirty-
five metres ; within the walls was included the

above-mentioned Eighteenth Dynasty temple.

Fig. 45, a restoration by the German archaeologist
Holscher, shows what the temple and its surround-

appeared like when intact.

We will first confine our attention to the main

temple buildings, closelyresemble in plan
the Ramesseum. A pylon admits to a court with

a colonnade on the north and south sides,that on

the south forming the facade of Ramesses' palace,

which was built along this side of the temple.
Three doors in the wall behind the southern nade

admitted to the palace,and in the centre is a

large balcony window, where the Pharaoh would

show himself to his subjects on specialoccasions

[cf, p. 103). Ramesses tells us that this palace
was like the great house of A turn (the sun-god)which
is in heaven. The columns^ door-posts,and doors

were overlaid
of gold (i.e., with gold). 2^he gi^eat

balcony window for the appearance (ofthe king) was

* Restored and enlarged by the Ethiopian and Saite

Pharaohs and by the Ptolemies,


of gold "
that is to say, the decorations around the

window were overlaid or encrusted with the precious

metal. A second pylon at the back (west side)of
the court admits to another court, which is colon-

on all four sides (Plate XXI.). The great

hall of twenty-four columns, the cultus- chambers

on the north, and the store-chambers on the south

side of it,as well as the rooms behind it "

two smaller hypostyle halls, the sanctuary and its

associated chambers "

are now all roofless and in a

very ruinous condition.

The inner face of the first pylon is decorated with

reliefs the
illustrating war which Ramesses III.

waged with the Libyans in the eleventh year of his

reign, and which has been discussed above in

Chapter IV., pp. 108 foil. On the outer face of the

second pylon are reliefs and referringto

his victorious campaign in Syria againstthe league
of northern nations (see above, pp. 104 foil.).
The part of the walls behind the nades
in the northern half of the second court are

devoted to a representationof the great harvest

festival,yearly celebrated in honour of Min and

apparentlyalso in commemoration of the Pharaoh's


In the first scene (Fig.46) we see the Pharaoh

carried in processionfrom his palace to the temple


of ]\Iin. He is seated in a canopied litter,elabor-


decorated, which is borne on the shoulders of

twelve of his sons. Flabellifers walk in front of,

behind, and beside him. Behind the litter and its

bearers walk courtiers, high officials,and soldiers,

and in front of it three priests,two of whom burn

incense and the third recites from a book. They

^ m^^^tiit?^^'^?^^:^^^^-"^- .e^J".^Vi^":Vi^"ISl^

Fig. 46. "

The Pharaoh carried in State to the Temple of Miii.

[After Wilkinsmi.)

are preceded by more courtiers and officials,the

whole processionbeing headed by a trumpeter and

a drummer, and men rattlingcastanets.

Having arrived at the temple of Min, a fertility
god and the
originally local divinityof the not far

distant city of Coptos, the king made offering to

him. This done, the image of Min was placed on

a litter draped with a large cloth or carpet which

almost swept the ground, and carried in procession

by a number of priests,while other priestswalked

alongsideof and behind the image carrying flabellse,
emblems, and shrines (Fig. 47). Immediately in

front of tlie Utter marched the Pharaoh, preceded

by a white bull (the sacred animal of Min), the

queen, an officiant recitingfrom a book, and a long

Fi^. 47. "

The Image of Min carried on a Litter.

(After Wilkinson.)

line of priests carrying standards, cultus-vessels,

and statues of the king and his ancestors.

The processionhaving reached the scene of

the so-called "terrace" of the Temple of

Min, priestslet fly four birds to announce to the

four quarters of heaven that Horus son of Isis and

Osiris has assumed the great crown of Upper and

Lower Egypt; the king Harnesses III. has assumed

the great a'own of Upper and Lower Egypt (see


Fig. 48). The Pharaoh is next shown (Fig.49) ing


a sickle in his hand and making offeringfirst of a

newly reaped sheaf of speltand then of one of barley ;

a prieststands ready to take either sheaf from the

royal hand. At this performance the king, in his

capacity of Horus, is said to be reaping barleyfor

Fig. 48." The Birds flyingto the Four Quarters of Heaven.

{After Wilkinson. )

his father " i.e.,for Osiris "

thereby, as Dr. A. H.

Gardiner points out, vindicatinghis title to the ship

and his patrimony as son of Osiris.* While

the Pharaoh was thus engaged a lector recited

formula? from a book, and the queen also sang or

"^ "Journal of
A. H. Gardiner, Egyptian Archa?ology.'
ii.,p. 125.

repeatedsome hymn or whereby

spell, she is said to

make the king triumph over his eneviies.

The outside of the temple walls, be it here noted,

are covered with most interestinghistorical reliefs,

commemorating for the most part the wars of

Fig. 49. "

The Pharaoh oifering a Sheaf of Barley.

(After Wilkinson. )

Ramesses III. Thus the naval battle, figured on

p. 107, is on the outside north wall of the second


Perhaps the most interestingbuilding at Medinet

Habu is the so-called High Gate, which, instead of


the usual pylon, forms the entrance to the temple

precincts. The walls of the two towers composing
the gate are almost straight,and have not that

batter which is such a distinctive feature of the

walls of the ordinary pylon. The space between

the towers gets narrower and narrower as one

passes inwards, and finally,as can be seen in

Fig. 45, and Plate XXIL, they are united by a

third tower, in the middle of which is the gateway.

The towers consisted of a ground floor and two

upper stories, the latter lit by windows, once filled

with wooden gratings and commanding a ful


view of the Nile Valley. In the foreground lay

the tree -encircled lake (see below, p. 187) and

the wide expanse of fertile fields stretching end-


north and south ; in the near distance the

glimmering waters of the great river, and eastern

Thebes with its gorgeous temples ; and behind all

these the precipitous hills of the Red Sea desert,

pale and wan-looking in broad daylight,but glow-
like amethysts in the rays of the settingsun.
Just below the windows
first-story on the inner

face of the two flankingtowers are curious brackets

decorated with the heads and shoulders of foreign

captives, and on them once stood statues of

Ramesses smiting his enemies.


outside the building were coloured.

brilliantly The

dooi^s, we are told, wei'e of gold and copper in

beaten woi^k. Its towei^s were of stone soaring

heaveiiwards, adorned and carved with the chisel.

The cultus-image of Amun was adorned with real

costlystones like the horizon^ and when it appeared in

men rejoicedto behold it. Many of the

vessels employed in the service of the god were of

finegold, and there were others of silver arid copper

without number. The temple treasury, still per-


preserved, was filled with gold, silver, and

every costlystone by the hundred thousand.

The temple had its own flotilla of ships on the

river, and these came laden with barley and wheat

for transport without cessation to its granary, which

consequently was always overflowing with grain.

As for the fieldsbelonging to the temple and its herds,

their multitudes were like the sand of the shore.

The funerary temple of Amenhotpe III. was

similarly endowed and equipped. Its barns, the

Pharaoh asserts, contain good thingswithout number.

. . .
Its cattle are like the sand of the shore, they
make up millions. . . .
Its storehouse is filledwith
male and female sei^vants, with the children of the

princes of all foreign countries which his majesty has

captured. ...
It (the temple) is surrounded with

settlements of Syrians, colonized with the children of

Not far from the walled -in precinctsof his temple,
in order to secure to it a constant supply of water,

Ramesses III. excavated a great lake, which was

planted vcith trees and vegetation like the Delta.

Within the precinctswere gardens and places with

arbours, filledwith fruits and flowers. There was

also a pool, supplied with lotus flowers (see Fig. 45).

Such a pool seems to have been as essential an

adjunct to a funerary temple as to one entirely

dedicated to the worship of the gods. Thus the

precincts of Amenhotpe III.'s funerary temple

contained a pool full (of wate?'),like a high Nile, the

lord offishand fowl.

The descriptionbequeathed us by Ramesses III.

of his great temple at Medinet Habu givesus some

idea of the almost overpowering magnificence of the

public buildings of western Thebes, a magnificence

which had, however, reached its culmination some

two centuries earlier in the already twice mentioned

funerary temple of Amenhotpe III., utterly stroyed,


alas ! by that vandal Merneptah in his

search for a plentifuland cheap supply of building

material wherewith to erect his own funerary
temple. An avenue lined with statues of jackals "

the tutelary divinity of the necropohs was the

jackal-god Anubis "

led from the river bank to the

vast pylon admitting to the colonnaded forecourt.

The pylon, the towers of which were furnished with

the usual staffs

flag- vcr ought vciih gold, bore the

name Amun -has -received -his -sacred -bar que (i.e.,

boat -
shrine) ; for, besides serving as the main

entrance to the temple, the pylon was intended

to be used as a halting-place or station for the

processional image of Amunre', when, on the

occasion of the yearly funerary festival called

the Festival of the that god

Valleij, was conveyed
across the river to visit the divinities of the West

" i.e.,of the necropolis.

Two colossal portrait-statues of Amenhotpe,
either seventy feet high and fashioned out of a single
block of sandstone, were set up before the pylon,
and with them also a pair of obelisks. The two

statues are the well-known colossi of Memnon (see

Plate XX III.), the northern one being the famous

Vocal iVIemnon." According to certain of the

Classical writers, this statue emitted a musical note

at the time of sunrise,a phenomenon first recorded

by the geographer Strabo (who flourished about

20 B.C.) and only noticed, by the way, after the

upper portion had been shattered and splitofl* by


an earthquake in the early days of the Roman

Emph'e. When the statue had been piously,

though somewhat crudely, restored by Septimius

Severus, it ceased to be "

vocal altogether. These

two mutilated statues are practically all that remains

of the once glorious building, which, in the words

of the Pharaoh himself, teas an eternal everlasting

fortress of good ichite sandstone zcr ought zcith gold
thronghoiit. Its floor, he goes on to say, is overlaid

with silver, and all its gates xcith gold. It abounds

in statues of the king juade of granite from AsuTin,

of wonderful stones, and all kinds of splendid eostly

stones. These particular statues, it would seem,

were those set up in the colonnades of the court.


The place where the king stood, when he cated

at the celebration of the litursfv, was marked

by a great sandstone stela, thirty feet high and

inlaid with gold and costly stones, which now lies

prostrate and broken behind the colossi. No

wonder that it was said of the whole glittering

edifice that // resembles the horizon of heaven with

Re rising therein.

Baedecker, K. : Egypt and the Sudan, 1914, pp.


Benson, M., and J. Gourlay : The Temple of Mut in Asher. London,


Birch, S. :
Facsimile of an Egyptian Hieratic Papyrus of the Reign
of Ramses III., now in the British Museum. London, 1876 ;

pis. iv., lines 1-4, 6, 1 11, 12 ; v.,

lines 1-3.

Blackman, A. M. : A Xew Chapter in the History of Egyptian Art

in Discovery, iii., pp. 35-40.

Libations to the Dead in Modern Nubia and Ancient Egypt, in

The Journal of Egyptian Archceology, iii.,pp. 31-34.

The Position of Women in the Ancient Egyptian Hierarchy, op.

cit., vii., pp. 8-30.

Priest, Priesthood (Egyptian) ; Purification (Egyptian) ; Worship

(Egyptian), in Hastings, Encyclopcedia of Religion and Ethics.

The Rock Tombs of Meir, i.-iii. London, 1914-15.

The Sun-Cult in Ancient Egypt, in .\ature, April 14 and 21, 1923.

Borchardt, L. : Vorunters-uchung von Tell el-Amarna in Januar, 1907,

in Mitteilungen der deutschen Orient- Gesellschaft, No. 34, 20-28.
Ausgrabungen in Tell el-Amarna 1911, op. cit.. No. 46, pp.

Ausgrabungen in Tell el-Amarna 1911-12, op. cit.. No. 50, pp.


Ausgrabungen in Tell el-Amarna 1912-13, op. cit., No. 52, pp.


Breasted, J. H. : A History of Egypt. London, 1906 111-501.

; pp.
Ancient Records. Chicag-o, 1906; i., "" 391-414, 640-748;
ii., "" 1-37, 67-80, 221-242, 246-295, 391-443, 450-451, 783, 785-
797, 883 889, 917; iv., "" 35-113, 189, 190, 192, 193, 416-456.

The Cambridge Ancient History. Cambridge, 1923; i.,pp. 284-315.

Daressy, G. : La Grande Colonnade du Temple de Loujcor, in Memoires

publies par les Membres de la Mission archeologique frangaise au

Caire, viii., pt. 3. Cairo, 1894 ; pis. i.-xvi., pp. 380-391.

Notice explicative des mines de temple de Louxar. Cairo, 1893.

Notice explicative des ruines du tempk de Medinet Habou. Cairo,



Davies, N. de G. : The Bock Tomhs of El-Amarna. London, 1903-1908 ;

vi.,pi.xxvii., pp. 29-81.
The Tomb of Xakht at Thebes. New York, 1917 ; pis.x., xv.-
xvii.,xxii.-xxiv.,pp. 55-59, 66-69.
The Tomb of Puyemre at Thebes. New York, 1922 ; i.,pis.vii.-
xi.,xli.,xlii.,pp. 45-57.

Duemiclien, J. : Altdgyptische Tempelinschriften. Leipzig-,1867 ; ii-,

pi. xx.wiii.,lines 16-19.
Historische Inschriften. Leipzig, 1867-1869 ; i., pis. xv., xvi.,
lines 25-34, xx., line 3 ; ii.,pi. xlvi.,lines 22-24.

Egyptian Hieratic Papyri in the British Museum. London, 1923; ii.,

Erman, A. : Aegypten und aegyptiscliesLeben im Altertum, neu bear-
beitet von Hermann Ranke. Tiibingen, 1923 ; pp. 175-230, 263-

Die Literatur
Aegypter. Leipzig, 1923 ; pp. 109-119, 130-

148, 197-216, 243-245, 296, 299. 305, 307, 309, 311-313, 315,
320-322, 325-335, 346-348, 355, 358-362, 377, 878, 380-883.
Der syrischeFeldsug Amenophis II. , in Zeitsvhrijtfilr iigyptische
Sprache, xxvii., pp. 39-41.
Zur (igyptischenReligion,op. cit.,xlii.,pp. 106-109.
Gardiner, A. H., and N. de G. Davies : The Tomb of Amenemhet.

London, 1915 ; pis.i.-ix.,

xv., xvi., xviii.,xxi., pp. 26-67.
Gardiner, A. Literary Works
H. : New
from Ancient Egypt, in The
Journal of Egyptian Archcpology, i.,pp. 20-36, 100-106.
The Defeat of the Hyksos by Kamose : The Carnarvon Tablet,
No. I.," op. cit.,iii., pp. 95-110.
The Delta Residence of the Ramessides, op, cit.,v., pp. 127-138,
179-200, 242-271.
Gauthier, H. : Le Temple d'Amada. Cairo, 1913 ; pp. 22, 23, lines

Gayet, A. : Le Temple de Louxor. Cairo, 1894 ; pis.Ixiii.-lxvii.

Gole'nischeif, W. : hieratiques, Nos.
Les Papyrus1115, 1116A, and

1116B de I'Ermitage imperial St. Petersbourg, 1913, pis.ix.-xiv.,


E. Hymne a Ammon-Ra des Papyrus egyptiens du Musee de

Grebaut, :

Boulaq. Paris, 1874.

Greene, J. B. : Fouilles ejcecutees a Thebes dans rannee 1855. Paris,
1855 ; pi.ii.,lines 20-24.

Griffith, F. L. : The Inscriptions of Siut and Der Rtfeh. London,

1891 ; pis.11-15, 20.

Gunn, B., and A H. Gardiner : New Renderings of Egyptian Texts:

II. The Expulsion of the Hyksos, in The Journal of Egyptian
Archceology, v., pp. 36-56.

Holscher, U. : Das hohe Tor von Medinet Habu. Leipzig, 1910.


Amun, processional image of, 188

'Aamu, 38, 39 Southern Harlmoi, 64, 67, 70

Ablutions, 7 statue (portable)of, 93
Abu '1-Haggag. the Sheykh, 78 temple of (at Karnak), 62, 64
Abydos,'43, 44 temple of (at Pi-Ra messe), 63
Ahraose I., 56. 58, 84, 87, 88, 112 Amunre 47, 114, 132

Ahm5se, Admiral, 88 Anarchy, 37

Ahmose, Queen, 112, 163, 164, 165 Ani, Sage, 25, 155

Akhenaton, 56, 81, 111, 155, 156, 159 Anubis, 162, 168, 188

Akhthoi, Baron, 45, 46 Anup, 147

Akhthoi, King, 43, 45 Archers, Asiatic, 52

Aleppo, King of, 144, 145, 172 Egyptian, 106, 108

Amenemhet I., 46, 47, 51 'Aruna, 91-94
Anienemhet III., 50, 51 Asia, 137
Amenemhet IV., 51 Asiatics, 38, 39,44-46, 51, 54, 84, 86,
Amenhotpe I. 90 94, 98, 99

Amenhotpe II., 98-101 Askalon, 139

bow of, 100 Aswan, 85, 87, 189

Amenhotpe III., 74 Asyiit, 42-46

avenue of sphinxes of, 62 Athribis, 44

colonnaded court of (at Luxor), Attendants, female, 4, 17

71 Atum, 178
columned hall
of, 64 Avaris, 54, 55, 85
unfinished, 65, 67 Avenue (lined with statues of jackals),
funerary temple of, 186, 187 187

inscription of, 62 B

palace of (at Thebes), 81, 161 .

Baal, 109, 143

statues of, 62, 188 Balcony (of royal palace), 103, 178

temple (at Luxor),

of 64 Banquets, 22, 28, 30
Amenhotpe IV., Ill Bata. 147
Amor,' 104, 105 Bathroom, 8
Amun, 62, 69, 71, 75, 92, 95, 96, 109, Bedrooms, 8

134, 136, 140-142, 163, 164, Beehive huts (of Puntites), 132

166, 168 Beer, 28, 31. 33, 34

as good herdsman, 152 Benches (of brick), 4

as protector of poor and less,

defence- Benha, 44

153 Bes, 167

as skilful pilot, 153 Birds (let flyas carriers of news), 124,

as State-god, identified with sun- 181

god Re -Atum, 47, 5*5, 67, 68, Birth, divine (of the Pharaoh), 70,
117, 161 163

cattle belonging to, 109 Boat (of papyrus), 13, 15, 16

Chief of the Concubines of, 70 (of Sheykh Abu '1-Haggag), 78
concubines of, 70, 76 Boat-shrine, 71, 73, 74-76, 188

cultus image of, 186 Bolshevism, 38

God's Wife of, 68-70 Boxes, 10

prisoners .sacrificed to, 100, 104 1 Bread and beer, 23, 154

1 95

Breasted, Professor, 35,58, 101,129. Dancing-girls, 31

143 Dapur, Hittite fortress of, 174
Bureaucratic government, 49 Dau, 27
Buto. 75. 117, 122 Daughters, 17

Byblos, 40 Deir el-Bahri, temple of Hatshepsut

C at, 70, li3, 115, 117, 121, 128, 135,
Cairo, 4, 44
Delta, 39, 42, 44, 45, 51, 54, 79, 83-
Calendar, 125
85, 102, 104, 107, 108, 187
Calligraphy, exercise in, 176
Dendereh, temple of Hathor at, 69
Cam^ses, 101

Captives, 100, 103, 108, 109, 141, 161, Denyen, 102

Deutsche-Orient-Gesellschaft, 4

Dhutmose L, 87-90. 112, 117-119, 125

Carmel, 90, 91

Carnarvon, Lord, 84
Dhutmose IL, 112, 126
Dhutmose IlL, 89-98, 111, 126, 127,
tablet, 84
135, 136, 175
Carpets, 9
annals of, 89
Caskets, 10
festival hall of, 59
Cat. 14
Dhutniifer, 2
Cataract, first,87
Diadems (ofUpper and Lower Egypt).
fourth, 85
115, 121 ; see also under "
Cattle-sheds, 161
Cedars. 40 Dining-room, 6, 8
Division (of Egyptian army), 140
Ceiling, painted, 5, 81, 161

Chairs, 9, 28 Dom-palm, 155

Draughts, of, 185

Chariot, 52, 80. 95, 96, 98, 99, 140, game

Drinking, 28
142, 143
Drammer, 73, 76, 180
Charioteer, 140. 143, 144
negro, 75
Chariotry, 98, 140, 141

Cilicia, 104
Drunkenness, 32, 77, 79
Civil strife,51
Concubines, 17
Conspiracy, 19, 20 Egypt Exploration Society, 3
Coptos, 41, 180 Ehnasiyeh el-Medineh, 41
Coronation, 120. 121, 146. 163; cf. Eighteenth Dynasty, 56. 58, 84, 87,
179 161
Couches, 10 Eighth Dynasty, 41
Cows, sacred, 168 El-Amarna, 4, 5, 56, 81, 82
Cowsheds, 4 Elephantine, 85, 141
Crete, 40, 137 Eleventh Dynasty, 46, 47
Crow^n, red (ol Lower Egypt), 123 El-Kab, 88
white (of Upper Egypt), 122 Enclosure (around house). 4, 5
Crowns (ofUpper and Lower Egypt), Erment, 41
115 Esdraelon, 91
Cusfe, 42, 55, 85 Eshmunen, 56, 84, 86, 154

Cushions, 10, 82, 137 Euphrates, 98

Dais (in reception-room), 6 Fat taste for, 130
Dakhleh, oasis of, 169 Father, love of son for, 26, 27
Dancers, negro, 75 Fayum, 48
Dancing, 19 Festival, 76, 77

Festival, funerary, 188 Hatshepsut, 90, 111-135, 146, 161,

of the Valley. 188 163
Feudal state, 36 funerary temple of (at Deir el-
system, 48 Bahri). 70, 162.170
Feudatories, 36. 49, 50 Hatsho, i08
Fifth Dynasty, 35 Hearth, 8
FirstDynasty, 122 Heket 165

Fishing, 12 Heliopolis, 56, 67, 114. 115. 117, 125,

Flabellse. 181 154
Flabellifer, 73, 180 ennead of, 163
Flags (decorating pylon),66 Ilatshepsut'sreception by the
Flag-staffs,62, 66, 75, 141, 188 sun-god at, 163
Fleet, Egyptian, 106, 129, 134 temple of Atum at, 69
Floors, 9 Herakleopolis, 41, 47, 48
Folk-tales, 147 Herakleopolitan art, 42
Fourth Dynasty, 35 supremacy, 41-46

Fowling, 12, 14 Herakleopolitans, 41

Frieze, 6 Hermonthis, 142
Furnishing, furniture, 9, 80 Hermopolis, 154
Herodotus, 101
G Hesat-cow, 168
Game, 17 Hierakonpolis, 121
Garden, 10, 12 High Gate (at Medlnet Habu), 183
botanical and zoological,60 High-priestess, queen as, 126
(of a temple), 63, 135, 161, 187 Hippopotamus, 12, 15, 16
Gardiner, Dr. A. H., 182 Hittite land, 139
Garland, 30, 34 Hittite 172
Gaza, 90 Hittites, 65, 104, 140, 144, 170
Geb, 165 Holscher, Dr.. 178
Geese (as carrier-birds),
124 ; see also Horus, 115, 122. 124, 139, 181, 182
under "Birds" Houses, 1, 4
Gezer, 139 Hunter, 17
God's-Land, 128-133 Hunting, 12, 17
God's Wife ; see under Amun Husband and of, 21-25
wife, relations
Granaries, 2, 4 Hyksos. 49, 51, 54, 55, 58, 84-87, 128
Grease, perfumed, 29
Great House, 121
Guests, 29
Image (of a divinity),71
Incense, 29, 73, 80, 133
-trees, 133. 162
Hamites. 129
Intef, 16
Ilaremheb, 71
Ipet-Isut, 64
19, 20
Ipuwer, 37-40
royal, 185 181
Isis, 124, 168.
-favourites, 185
Israel. 139
Harpoon, 12
Ithtowi, 48, 50 ,
Harvest festival, 179
Hathor. 68, 69, 162, 168 K
of (at Dendereh),
temple 69 Ka, 165
(wife of Re-Atum), 69, 70 Kadesh, 90, 91, 96-98, 172. 173
Ilathors, 77 battle of, 171
the seven, 148 Kamose,'55, 56, 84-87

Karnak, temple of, 58, 60, 62, 63, 70, Meyer, Professor Eduard, 51
71. 76, 160 Middle Kingdom, 136
Keper. 109 Min, 179
Khargeh, oasis of. 169 image of, 180

Khenshotpe, 25 sacred animal of, 181

Khnum, 47, 165 temple of, 179-181
Khons, 71 Minstrels, 31
Kihhh, 6 Mitanni, 148
Kina, 94, 95 Mont, 46, 95, 103, 105, 143
Kitchen, 2, 9 Mosque, 78
Mother, love of son for, 25, 26
Music, 19
Ladies, 15 Musician-priestesses,69, 75-77
Lake, sacred, 63, 161 ; see also under -priests,75
"Pool" Musicians, 31, 33

(excavated by Ramesses IIL), Mut, 62, 71

187 temple of, 63

Lamps, 30 Mutnofret, 112

Lavatory, 8
Lebanon, 74, 98, 133 Xaharin, 91

Libya, 139 Xapata, 101

Libyans, 102-104. 107, 138, 179 Nature (love of Egyptians for), 12
Lisht, 48 Naval action, 103, 106, 183
Litter, 179-181 Necropolis,Theban, 160

Liturgy, temple, 189 Neferirkere IL, 41

Lotus flowers, 10, 15, 30, 63, 187 Neferkauhdr, 41

Love-songs,149 Nefretiri,67, 112

Lower Egypt, conquest of, 122 Nefrusi, 86
Lustral washing (at coronation), 121 Nekhbet, 115, 119, 121
Luxor, temple of, 62, 64, 67, 70, 74, Nekhen, 75, 117
78, 160, 163 Nesut, 113
M New Year's Day, 70, 120
Manetho, 51, 54 Nigidius Figulus, 125
' "

Masts; see under '

Flag-statfs Nineteenth Dynasty. 56, 101, 161

Matting, 9 Ninth Dynasty, 41

Mayor, 50 Nitokris, 112
Medinet Habu, 105, 106, 176. 183 Nubia, 50, 84, 87, 101, 138

Megiddo, 91-93, 95-97, 175 Nubians, 88

Memnon, 188
Memphis, 48, 122
Menes, 122. 123 Obelisks, 65, 75. 83, 141

Menhotpe IV., 46 Officials (salaried),


Menna, 143 Old Kingdom, 35

Merikere .
44. 45 Opet, festival of, 70. 78
Memeptah. 102, 139, 187 Orchards. 161
J/er^- priestesses,75 Orontes, 98, 102, 144, 170

Meahersher, 107, 108 Osirid statues, 171

Meshwesh, 107-109 Osiris, 124, 154. 181, 182

Meskhent, 166 Ostraca, 175

Me ten, 137 Ox-carts, 105

Ramesses III.,wars of (with Libyans),

102-104. 107-110. 179
Palestine. 90, 98, 136. 139
(with northerners), 104-107
Papyri (in British Museum). 154
Ramesses IV., 146. 147
Papyrus Harris, 63
Ramesseum. 144, 145, 170
Parks, 12
Re 40, 92, 115, 154
Pavilion (in garden), 12 .

Re -Atum, 56, 67. 69, 114, 115. 117

Peleset, 101, 102
Pelusium. 5i high-priestessof, 67
Re-IIarakhte, 147
Perehu. 129
Philistines. 101 Reaping (ceremonial), 182

Reception-rooms, 6, 28
Phyloe (of priests),72
Recess (painted), 6
Physician, 24
Red Sea. 128. 129
Piety (to parents),26, 27
Retenu, 74, 137
Piles, huts on, 132
Roof (resort of women), 2
Pillar of his Mother, 121

Piopi I.. Piopi II., 36 Rugs, 9

Pi-Ra'messe. 54. 56, 63 S

Poetry, religious,152
Sacrificing(prisonersof war), 100
Pond (in garden), 12 SaUier Papyrus yo. i, 154
Pool (adjunct of temple), 63, 187
Scaling ladder. 174
Priesthood, 72
Priests (of sun-god),73
Scholar, 33
dwellings of, 161
School, 26. 161, 175
Prisoners of war, sacrifice
of, 104
Procession (at coronation), 122
Schoolboys, 176
(at a festival), 73-76, 179-lSl
Sea rovers, 103, 104, 106
Punt, 128-131, 133. 162
Selket. 168
Puntites, 132-135
Sentries. 94
Purification (at coronation).122
Senzar, 98
Pylon, 62, 65, 6Q, 141
Septimius Severus, 189
Servants. 4, 9
(in a temple), 186, 187
Harnesses II., 65, 142, 161 Seshat, 116, 168
and Seti I. .
columned hall of. Seshed, 137
60, 62, 65 Sesostris II., 48
(at attack on Dapur), 174 Sesostris III.. 48-51
(at battle of Kadesh). 140-146, Seth. 115, 122, 139, 154
171 Seti I. and Ramesses II., columned
colonnaded court of (at Luxor), hall of, 60. 62. 65
65, 66 Seventh Dynasty, 41
funerary temple of, 170-175 Sharuhen, S7
heroism of, 140 Shat, 138
statues of. 170, 172 Shekelesh, 102
Ramesses '
III.. 19. 102-110, 161. 181, Shemesh-Edom, 98
185 Sherden. 102

funerary temple of, 172, 176-186 Ship (for conveyance of Amun on

palace of (at Medinet Habu), ceremonial voyage), 74

161, 178 Ships, flotilla of (belonging to

palace of (at Tell el-Yahudiveh), temple). 186

83 Shooting, big game. 12
Avars of, 183 Shrines, 71

Sicilians, 101 Thoth, 116, 154, 163, 165

Sieve, ceremonial trundling" of, 168- hymn to, 153

170 Throw-stick, 13, 15

Sikeloi, 101 Timuris, 139. 158

"Sisters," 5. 25 To-Nuter, 74, 133, 137

Sixth Dynasty, 27, 51, 112 Tombos, 88

Slaves, 161 Town, Egyptian, 1

Sonialiland. 128, 132. 162 Trade, 39, 45

Son, 25-27 Treasury (of a temple), 187
"Souls" of Buto and Nekhen, 75, Trumpeter, 73, 76, 180

117. 166 Tut'enkhamiin. 71, 149

Sphinxes, avenue of, 62 Twelfth Dynasty, 46, 47, 64. 85

Spinning, 2 Twentieth Dynasty, 56. 161

Stables, 4

Standard-bearers, 122, 124 U

Standards, 181 Uthentyu, 138

Stools, 9 Uto, 115, 121

Storehouses, 4, 161

Store-rooms, 9

Strabo, 188 Vassals, 36, 37

Streets, 1, 34 Vizier, 35

Sudan, 49 W

Sudanese, 50, 101

Sun-cult, heliopolitan, 72 Wady Tumilat, 129

Sun-god, 47, 72, 114, 115 Wall-painting, 81

wife of, 68 Warships, 105

Syria, 90, 102, 104, 105, 127. 135, 179 Washing (before meals), 7, 29

Syrians, settlements of (belonging to Watches (of priests), 72

a temple), 187 Water, holy, 122

libation of (to the dead), 27
Wax figures (magical), 19

Tangur, 88 Weaver, weaving, 2

Taweret, 167 Weld-Blundell, Mr. H., 132

Teacher, 33 Weshwesh, 102

Tefibi, 43 White Walls (name of Memphis), 123

Temple, precincts of, 161 Wife, 15, 17, 21-25

Temples, funerary, 161 Wigs, 30

Tenth Dynasty, 41, 46 Wine, 28, 31

Thaneni, 89 Women's quarters (in a house), 2, 17

Tharu, 90 Writing, 26

Thebaid, 41

Thebans, 44, 45, 56

Thebes, 1, 41, 46, 47, 54. 57. 58, 62, Yahes. 122

67. 83, 87, 101, 102. 160 Yeliem. 90, 91

Thinite nome, 44 Yenoam, 139