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metric spaces

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Subject : Analysis

Course : Metric Spaces

Author Name : Dr. Jeetendra Aggarwal and Rajesh Singh

College/Department : Department of Mathematics

Shivaji College, University of Delhi

and

Department of Mathematics

University of Delhi

INTRODUCTION TO METRIC SPACES 2

Table of Contents

1. Learning Outcomes

2. Prerequisites

3. Introduction

4. Example of Metric Spaces

5. Metric Subspaces And Metric Superspaces

6. Isometries

7. Assorted Examples Of Metric Spaces

8. Norms on Vector Spaces

9. Solved Problems

10. Summary

11. Problems

12. References

INTRODUCTION TO METRIC SPACES 3

1. LEARNING OUTCOMES

This chapter will introduce the reader to the concept of metrics (a class of functions which

is regarded as generalization of the notion of distance) and metric spaces. A lot emphasis

has been given to motivate the ideas under discussion to help the reader develop skill in

using his imagination to visualize the abstract nature of the subject. Variety of examples

along with real life applications have been provided to understand and appreciate the

beauty of metric spaces. Moreover the concepts of metric subspace, metric superspace,

isometry (i.e., distance preserving functions between metric spaces) and norms on linear

spaces are also discussed in detail.

2. PREREQUISITES

It is assumed that the reader has done a course which includes introductory real

analysis, that is, the reader has familiarity with concepts like convergence of sequence of

real numbers, continuity of real valued functions etc. But it is nowhere assumed that the

reader has mastered these topics and hence all the concepts are well explained. Next we

list few inequalities that are required in the chapter.

Inequalities

1. Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality

| | | |2 | |2 .

=1 =1 =1

2. Minkowskis Inequality

1 1 1

(| + | ) (| | ) + (| | ) .

=1 =1 =1

| | < | | < .

=1 =1

Then

=1| + | is convergent. Moreover,

1 1 1

(| + | ) (| | ) + (| | ) .

=1 =1 =1

2

[( 2 + 2 ) + ( 2 + 2 )] [ + ]2 + [ + ]2 .

Proof: Consider

( )2 0

2 2 + 2 2 2 0

INTRODUCTION TO METRIC SPACES 4

2 2 + 2 2 2

2 2 + 2 2 + 2 2 + 2 2 2 2 + 2 2 + 2 [ 2 2 + 2 2 ]

2 ( 2 + 2 ) + 2 ( 2 + 2 ) ( + )2

( 2 + 2 )( 2 + 2 ) ( + )2

( 2 + 2 )( 2 + 2 ) ( + ) [ ]

2( 2 + 2 )( 2 + 2 ) 2( + )

( 2 + 2 ) + ( 2 + 2 ) + 2( 2 + 2 )( 2 + 2 ) ( 2 + 2 ) + ( 2 + 2 ) + 2( + )

2

[( 2 + 2 ) + ( 2 + 2 )] [ + ]2 + [ + ]2

3. INTRODUCTION

notion of distance. The term metric is derived from the word metor (measure). Natural

and immediate questions that comes to mind are what do we mean by measure, what can

be measured and how it can be measured? In the search of answers to these questions,

let us consider the following example:

Mumbai. The adjoining figure gives possible routes from

New Delhi to Mumbai. Depending on the situation, he

may travel by taking any of the given possible option.

We note that there are two different ways to interpret

his journey.

to Mumbai.

(ii) Navigational time (in hrs) to reach from New

Delhi to Mumbai

Suppose he travels via NH48, then the distance travelled is 1402 km and time taken is

21h 31min. So in this example, Time and Distance represent two different modes of

measurement.

Here, we shall discuss and learn about a very special class of functions that measure

difference which mathematicians were able to identify in the beginning of the 20th century.

In the mathematical literature, this special class is represented as distance. In the plane,

distance between two points is measured along the straight line joining them. Our

objective in this chapter is to illustrate through examples the different ways of measuring

difference (distance) between objects besides straight line measurements, so that

students can grasp the abstract nature of the subject.

INTRODUCTION TO METRIC SPACES 5

straight line distance measured between two points in 2 . From

high school geometry, we know that straight line distance

between points A and B is (1 1 )2 + (2 2 )2 .

1. Measurement between distinct points is a positive real number.

2. Two points in a space are identical if and only if measurement between them is

zero.

3. Measurement is symmetric in nature i.e., distance measured along to is same

as measured along to .

4. Measurement between two points is less than or equal

to the total distance taken when we travel via some

other point.

straight line distance is non-negative real +

number.

How to generalize all these ideas under one notion so that the properties remain intact?

The solution is provided by real valued functions which measures difference. Such

functions are known as metric in the mathematical literature. Further since the prototype

for such functions is straight line distance, these functions are often regarded as distance

functions.

These functions were first considered in 1905, by the French mathematician Maurice

Frechet who thought of generalizing the notion of distances and extending them to arbitrary

sets. In his doctoral dissertation Less Espaces Abstrait, he introduced the concept of a

metric on a set.

Metric Space

Let be any set and let : be a real valued function satisfying the following

properties:

P1. (, ) 0 for all , ;

P2. (, ) = 0 =

P3. (, ) = (, ) for all ,

P4. (, ) (, ) + (, ) for all , ,

ordered pair (, ) is called a metric space. Thus a metric space consists of a non-empty

set equipped with a concept of distance (metric). If there is no ambiguity on the metric

considered, then we simply denote the metric space (, ) by . We refer the elements in

as points and (, ) as the distance between the points and .

Trivially, an empty function is the only metric on the empty set. Also, owing to condition

second, the only metric on a singleton set is the zero function.

INTRODUCTION TO METRIC SPACES 6

Example 4.1 The Real Line

Let be the set of all real numbers and : be a function defined as

(, ) = | | , .

Then we shall prove that is a metric on

For any , in ,

(, ) = 0 | | = 0 = .

Therefore P2 holds.

Again, for any , in ,

(, ) = | | = | | = (, ).

Therefore P3 holds.

Consider

(, ) = | |

= |( ) + ( )|

| | + | |

= (, ) + (, ).

It follows that

(, ) (, ) + (, ) , , .

Thus all the four axioms are satisfied. Hence is a metric on and the ordered pair (, )

is a metric space. The metric is called the usual or standard metric or Euclidean

metric on .

Let be the set of all complex number and be a function defined as

(, ) = | | , .

Then is a metric on , called the usual metric or Euclidean Metric on . Of course,

is an extension to of the Euclidean metric on i.e.,

= | .

Let = 2 be the set of all ordered pairs of real numbers and

2 2 be a function defined as

(, ) = (1 1 )2 + (2 2 )2 = (1 , 2 ), = (1 , 2 ) 2 .

(, ) 0 , 2 .

INTRODUCTION TO METRIC SPACES 7

For any = (1 , 2 ), = (1 , 2 ) 2 ,

(, ) = 0 (1 1 )2 + (2 2 )2 = 0

1 1 = 0 2 2 = 0

1 = 1 2 = 2

= .

For all = (1 , 2 ), = (1 , 2 ) ,

2

(, ) = (1 1 )2 + (2 2 )2

= (1 1 )2 + (2 2 )2

= (, ).

Suppose = (1 , 2 ), = (1 , 2 ), = (1 , 2 ) 2 be any three points.

Consider,

(, ) = (1 1 )2 + (2 2 )2

= [ + ]2 + [ + ]2

where = 1 1 , = 1 1 , = 2 2 = 2 2 .

Applying Theorem A , we get

(, ) 2 + 2 + 2 + 2

(1 1 )2 + (2 2 )2 + (1 1 )2 + (2 2 )2

(, ) + (, ).

Thus all the four axioms are satisfied. It follows that is a metric on 2 and the ordered

pair (2 , ) is a metric space. The metric is called the Euclidean metric on 2 , and the

metric space (2 , ) is called the 2-dimensional Euclidean Space .

Let 2 be the set of all ordered pairs of real numbers and 2 2 be a function

defined as

(, ) = |1 1 | + |2 2 | = (1 , 2 ), = (1 , 2 ) 2 .

We shall show that is a metric on 2 .

(, ) = 0 |1 1 | + |2 2 | = 0

|1 1 | = 0 |2 2 | = 0

1 = 1 2 = 2

(1 , 2 ) = (1 , 2 ) . ., = .

(, ) = |1 1 | + |2 2 | = |1 1 | + |2 2 | = (, ) .

Thus P3 is satisfied.

INTRODUCTION TO METRIC SPACES 8

3 . Then

(, ) = |1 1 | + |2 2 |

= |(1 1 ) + (1 1 )| + |(2 2 ) + (2 2 )|

|1 1 | + |1 1 | + |2 2 | + |2 2 |

= |1 1 | + |2 2 | + |1 1 | + |2 2 |

= (, ) + (, ) .

Hence all the four axioms of a metric is satisfied by , therefore is a metric on 2 .

Let 2 be the set of all ordered pairs of real numbers and 2 2 be a function

defined as

(, ) = max {|1 1 |, |2 2 |} = (1 , 2 ), = (1 , 2 ) 2 .

We shall show that is a metric on 2 .

(, ) = 0 max {|1 1 |, |2 2 |} = 0

|1 1 | = 0 |2 2 | = 0

1 = 1 2 = 2

(1 , 2 ) = (1 , 2 ) . ., = .

For any = (1 , 2 ), = (1 , 2 ) 2 ,

(, ) = max {|1 1 |, |2 2 |}

= max {|1 1 |, |2 2 |}

= (, ) .

Thus P3 is satisfied.

To see triangle inequality (P4), let = (1 , 2 ), = (1 , 2 ), = (1 , 2 ) 2 be any points in

3 . Consider

|1 1 | = |(1 1 ) + (1 1 )|

|1 1 | + |1 1 |

INTRODUCTION TO METRIC SPACES 9

= (, ) + (, )

. ., |1 1 | (, ) + (, ) ()

Similarly,

|2 2 | (, ) + (, ) . ()

From () and () it follows that

max {|1 1 |, |2 2 |} (, ) + (, )

. . , (, ) (, ) + (, ) .

Hence the triangle inequality holds and therefore is a metric on 2 .

| |

(, ) = {

|| + ||

where = (1 , 2 ) and = (1 , 2 ) 2 . Show that is a metric

on 2 . (Here | | = (, ) and || = (, 0) and is Euclidean

metric on 2 . )

Proof: Clearly, (, ) 0 , 2 .

For any , 2

| |

(, ) = {

|| + ||

(, )

={

(, 0) + (, 0)

(, )

={

(, 0) + (, 0)

| |

={

|| + ||

= (, ) .

By definition of , observe that

(, ) | | , 2 . () [ | | || + ||]

Thus for any , 2

(, ) = 0 | | = 0 =.

Also, = implies that and are in the same ray from the origin and therefore

(, ) = | | = 0 .

Finally to prove triangle inequality, consider any , , 2 .

Case I and are in the same ray from the origin

Then

(, ) = | |

= (, )

(, ) + (, )

= | | + | |

(, ) + (, ) [ ()]

INTRODUCTION TO METRIC SPACES 10

Then

(, ) = || + ||

= (, 0) + (0, )

(, 0) + [(0, ) + (, )]

= || + [|| + | |]

= [|| + ||] + | |

(, ) + (, ) [ | | (, ) . ()]

= (, ) + (, )

(, ) = || + ||

= (, 0) + (0, )

(, ) + (, 0) + (0, )

= | | + || + ||

= (, ) + (, ) .

Thus in all the cases triangle inequality is satisfied and hence is a metric on 2 .

Railway Metric

called the as it can be

used to describe the following

situation (hypothetical).

Consider a proposed metro network

of India for 2030 where all the major

towns lie on some metro track

originating from Delhi (see adjoining

Figure). Thus on this network, one

can travel directly between any two

towns which lie on the same metro

track to Delhi. Otherwise first one has

to go Delhi and change to another

line.

INTRODUCTION TO METRIC SPACES 11

Consider any circle

= {(, ) 2 2 + 2 = 2 }

= {( cos , sin ) 0 < 2} .

Then the function : given by

|2 1 | 0 |2 1 | = ( cos 1 , sin 1 )

(, ) = { }

(2 |2 1 |) < |2 1 | < 2 = ( cos 2 , sin 2 )

is a metric on .

Note that here (, ) denotes the shortest distance along the circle from to i.e., length

of the minor arc between and .

Have you ever wondered why an individual flight is flying on a particular route? Long

distance flight paths are designed in the most efficient way to get from point A to point B

on the other side of the world. The shortest distance between two points in Euclidean

space is the length of the straight line between them. But as we can travel only along the

surface of the earth (sphere) i.e., circular path, we have to design some way to find the

shortest path between them.

In the above figure, an Air Canada flight from Toronto to Hong Kong looks like it is taking

a very long route, but its actually the shortest distance between the two cities.

On the sphere, distances between two points is measured along the surface of the sphere

(as opposed to a straight line through the spheres interior).

Through any two points on a sphere that are not directly opposite to each other,

there is a unique great circle (i.e. a circle around the surface of the earth whose center

coincides with the center of the earth). The length of the minor arc between the two points

on the great circle is the great-circle distance between the points.

INTRODUCTION TO METRIC SPACES 12

Between two points that are directly opposite each other, there are infinitely many

great circles, but all great-circle arcs between antipodal points have the same length. i.e.

half the circumference of the circle.

In the adjoining figure, and are points

that are not directly opposite each other

and , are points that are directly

opposite each other.

In the figure, it can be easily seen that

there is a unique great-circle passing

through and . Also, two distinct great

circles passing through and are

Figure 4 illustrated.

Mostly long distance flights use great-circle routes to travel between two locations on the

globe. So the next time when you want to go east and the moving map on your flight

shows that you are heading north, remember that you are actually taking the shortest

path to your destination. And if you are lucky enough, you might even get to see the north

pole!

along a great circle joining and i.e.,

(, ) =

= .

1 1 + 2 2 + 3 3

= . cos 1 ( )

2

and is the angle which the

subtends at the center of the great circle.

known as geodesic metric. This is the most useful metric to determine distance on the

Earths surface.

Example 4.9 Metric on the Set of Intervals of

Let denote the collection of closed intervals of of the type [, ] i.e.,

= {[, ] , , } .

The function given by

(, ) = max {| |, | |} = [, ] , = [, ]

is a metric on .

On the lines similar to Example 4.5, it is straightforward to check that P1, P2, P3 holds.

Now we need to check triangle inequality (P4), let = [, ], = [, ], = [, ] be any

three closed intervals of . Consider

(, ) = max {| |, | |}

= max {|( ) + ( )|, |( ) + ( )|}

max {| | + | |, | | + | |} ()

INTRODUCTION TO METRIC SPACES 13

Now

| | max {| |, | |} = (, ) ()

| | max {| |, | |} = (, ) ()

Adding () and (), we get

| | + | | (, ) + (, ) . ()

Similarly,

| | + | | (, ) + (, ) . ()

From () and (),

max {| | + | |, | | + | |} (, ) + (, ) ()

Now from () and (), we conclude that

(, ) (, ) + (, ) .

Thus P4 holds and hence satisfies all the four axioms of a metric.

[, ] and it is necessary to do so. Excluding intervals of the type (, ), (, ],

(, ), [, ) and (, ) ensures that takes values in . Also, if we have

included all intervals of the type (, ), (, ] and [, ), then the function

would have failed to satisfy P2. In fact

([, ], [, )) = [, ] [, ) .

Let be the set of all functions from [0,1] to [0,1] and be the real valued function on

given by

(, ) = sup{|() ()| [0, 1]} , .

Then (, ) is a metric space.

To verify the fact that (, ) is a metric space, we shall first verify that is indeed a function

i.e., is well defined. For any , ,

(), () [0,1]

|() ()| 1 [0,1]

{|() ()| [0, 1]} [ 1 ]

sup{|() ()| [0, 1]} .

Next to show that d is a metric on , we shall verify triangle inequality (other properties

can be easily verified). Consider any , , . Then for any [0, 1], we observe that

|() ()| sup {|() ()|} |() ()| sup {|() ()|} .

x[0,1] x[0,1]

Then

|() ()| |() ()| + |() ()|

INTRODUCTION TO METRIC SPACES 14

x[0,1] x[0,1]

= (, ) + (, ).

. ., |() ()| (, ) + (, ) [0,1]

sup {|() ()|} (, ) + (, )

x[0,1]

. . , (, ) (, ) + (, ).

Hence triangle inequality follows, therefore is a metric on .

Let be any non-empty set and () be the set of all real (complex) valued bounded

functions defined on i.e.,

() = { | sup|()| < } .

xS

Define a function () () as

(, ) = sup {|() ()|} , ().

xS

For this we just need to show that (, ) , whenever , ().

Now , () implies that there exist positive real numbers , such that

sup{|()|} sup{|()|} .

xS xS

For any ,

|() ()| |()| + |()| + .

sup{|() ()|} + < .

xS

On the lines similar to that in Example 4.10, it can be shown that is a metric on ().

Let be the set of all real valued continuous functions defined on the interval [, ]. Define

a function as

(, ) = sup {|() ()|} , .

[,]

Consequently, | | is a continous function on [, ]. Since on a closed and bounded

interval every continuous function is bounded, therefore | | is bounded on [, ].

Hence sup {|() ()|} exists. Thus is a well defined function. Geometrically, (, )

[,]

measures the largest vertical distance between the graph of and the graph of (see

Figure 5).

INTRODUCTION TO METRIC SPACES 15

(, ) is denoted by [, ]. Since every continuous function on a closed and bounded

interval is bounded, therefore we have [, ] [, ]. In fact the metric can be seen as

the one induced by the metric in Example 4.11.

Note: Whatever we have discussed in this example is also true for the complex valued

functions defined on the closed interval [, ].

Let be the set of all continuous functions defined on the interval [, ]. We equip the set

with another metric defined as

(, ) = |() ()| , .

of a continuous function over a closed and bounded interval is always finite, therefore

(, ) exists for any , . Thus is a well defined function.

For any ,

|() ()| 0 [, ]

|() ()| 0

(, ) 0.

Hence P1 holds.

For P2, first observe that, (, ) = 0 whenever = .

On the other hand,

(, ) = 0

|() ()| = 0

|() ()| = 0 [, ] [ | | | | 0]

=

Thus (, ) = 0 if and only if = .

It is easy to see that (, ) = (, ) , .

Now for triangle inequality, consider , , be any three elements, then

(, ) = |() ()|

INTRODUCTION TO METRIC SPACES 16

= |(() ()) + (() ())|

[|() ()| + |() ()|] [ ]

= |() ()| + |() ()|

= (, ) + (, ).

Thus all the axioms for a metric is satisfied. Hence is indeed a metric on .

Geometrically, the measure of the distance between and i.e., (, ) represents the

area between their graphs.

Note: There exists non-negative non-zero functions whose integral is zero. Thus the set

of all functions cannot be made a metric space with the above metric. Consider the function

[0,2] given by

0 1

() = { .

1 = 1

2

Then it is can be seen that 0 () = 0.

1

(, ) = { .

0 =

Then is a metric on .

Clearly, (, ) 0 , .

By definition of , (, ) = 0 = .

= , (, ) = 0 = (, )

, (, ) = 1 = (, ) .

Let , , be any three points.

Case 1. =

In this case (, ) = 0 and therefore

(, ) (, ) + (, ). [ . , (, ) 0 (, ) 0]

Case 2.

In this case, (, ) = 1. Since , we have three possibilities :

i. =, (, ) = 0 (, ) = 1

INTRODUCTION TO METRIC SPACES 17

ii. , = (, ) = 1 (, ) = 0

iii. , (, ) = 1 (, ) = 1

Hence in both Case 1 and Case 2, triangle inequality is satisfied. Thus is a metric on

and is called the discrete metric on .

Given any set ( ), there always exists a metric on , viz., discrete metric.

Let = {(1 , . . . , ) , = 1,2, . . . , } be the set of all -tuples of real numbers and

be a function defined as

1

2

(, ) = (( )2 ) = (1 , , ), = (1 , , ) .

=1

Then d is a metric on .

For any = (1 , . . . , ), = (1 , . . . , ) ,

(, ) = 0

1

2

(( )2 ) = 0

=1

= 0 , = 1,2, ,

= , = 1,2, ,

= .

For any = (1 , . . . , ), = (1 , . . . , ) ,

1

2

(, ) = (( )2 )

=1

1

2

= (( )2 ) = (, ).

=1

1 1

2 2

(, ) = (( )2 ) = ({( ) + ( )}2 )

=1 =1

1

2

(, ) = (( + )2 ) ()

=1

INTRODUCTION TO METRIC SPACES 18

1 1

2 2

( 2 ) ( 2 )

=1 =1 =1

1 1

2 2

2 2 ( 2 ) ( 2 )

=1 =1 =1

1 1

2 2

2 + 2 + 2 2 + 2 + 2 ( 2 ) ( 2 )

=1 =1 =1 =1 =1 =1 =1

1 1

2 2

(2 + 2 + 2 ) 2 + 2 + 2 ( 2 ) ( 2 )

=1 =1 =1 =1 =1

1 1 2

2 2

( + )2 [( 2 ) + ( 2 ) ]

=1 =1 =1

1 1 1

2 2 2

(( + )2 ) ( 2 ) + ( 2 ) ()

=1 =1 =1

1 1

2 2

(, ) ( 2 ) + ( 2 )

=1 =1

1 1

2 2

= (( )2 ) + (( )2 )

=1 =1

= (, ) + (, ).

It follows that

(, ) (, ) + (, ) , , .

Therefore all the axioms are satisfied. Hence is a metric on .

(, ) (, ) + (, )

. ., ( )2 ( )2 + ( )2 .

=1 =1 =1

If = 1, then

1 1 1

( )2 = |1 1 | |1 1 | + |1 1 | = ( )2 + ( )2 .

=1 =1 =1

INTRODUCTION TO METRIC SPACES 19

Hence for = 1, (, ) (, ) + (, ).

( )2 ( )2 + ( )2 .

=1 =1 =1

+1

( )2 = ( )2 + (+1 +1 )2 .

=1 =1

2

+1

=1 =1 =1

[ ]

we get

+1

( )2 ( + )2 + ( + )2

=1

2

[(2 + 2 ) + ( 2 + 2 )] [ ]

2

= ( )2 + (+1 +1 )2 + ( )2 + (+1 +1 )2

=1 =1

( )

2

+1 +1

= ( )2 + ( )2

=1 =1

( )

+1 +1 +1

( )2 ( )2 + ( )2 .

=1 =1 =1

Therefore for = + 1, (, ) (, ) + (, ).

(, ) (, ) + (, ) .

The metric is called the Euclidean metric on , and the metric space ( , ) is called

the n-dimensional Euclidean Space . For = 2, the n-dimensional Euclidean

Space is called the Euclidean Plane or Cartesian Plane (Example 4.3).

INTRODUCTION TO METRIC SPACES 20

Let = {(1 , . . . , ) , = 1,2, . . . , } be the set of all -tuples of real numbers and

be a function defined as

(, ) = max {| | 1 } = (1 , , ), = (1 , , ) .

Then is a metric on .

By definition, is a real valued non-negative function.

For any = (1 , . . . , ), = (1 , . . . , ) ,

(, ) = 0

max {| | 1 } = 0

= 0 , = 1,2, ,

= , = 1,2, ,

= .

For any = (1 , . . . , ), = (1 , . . . , ) ,

(, ) = max {| | 1 }

= max {| | 1 }

= (, ).

Consider any = (1 , . . . , ), = (1 , . . . , ), = (1 , . . . , ) .

Now for each (1 ),

| | = |( ) + ( )|

| | + | |

max {| | 1 } + max {| | 1 }

= (, ) + (, )

Taking maximum over , we have

max {| | 1 } (, ) + (, )

(, ) (, ) + (, ).

It follows that (, ) (, ) + (, ) , , .

Thus all the four axioms are satisfied. Hence is a metric on and the ordered pair

( , ) is a metric space. The metric is called the Product metric on , and the

metric space ( , ) is called the n-dimensional Product Space . For = 2, the metric

in Example 4.5 is a special case of metric.

Let = {(1 , . . . , ) , = 1,2, . . . , } be the set of all n-tuples of real numbers and

be a function defined as

(, ) = | | = (1 , , ), = (1 , , ) .

=1

Then is a metric on .

INTRODUCTION TO METRIC SPACES 21

For any = (1 , . . . , ), = (1 , . . . , ) ,

(, ) = 0

| | = 0

=1

| | = 0 , = 1,2, ,

= 0 , = 1,2, ,

= , = 1,2, ,

= .

For any = (1 , . . . , ), = (1 , . . . , ) ,

(, ) = | | = | | = (, ).

=1 =1

(, ) = | |

=1

= |( ) + ( )|

=1

(| | + | |)

=1

= | | + | |

=1 =1

= (, ) + (, )

It follows that (, ) (, ) + (, ) , , .

Thus all the four axioms are satisfied. Hence is a metric on and the ordered pair

( , ) is a metric space. Taxi cab metric on 2 in Example 4.4 is a special case of the

above metric .

(, )

(, ) = , .

1 + (, )

Then is a metric on .

Proof: Since (, ) 0 , , therefore (, ) 0 , .

For any , ,

(, ) (, )

(, ) = = = (, )

1 + (, ) 1 + (, )

Also,

(, )

(, ) = 0 = 0 (, ) = 0 =

1 + (, )

INTRODUCTION TO METRIC SPACES 22

(, )

(, ) =

1 + (, )

1

=1

1 + (, )

(, ) (, ) + (, )

1 1 + (, ) 1 + (, ) + (, )

1

1 + (, ) + (, ) 1 1

[ 1 + (, ) 1 + (, ) + (, ) ]

(, ) + (, )

=

1 + (, ) + (, )

(, ) (, )

= +

1 + (, ) + (, ) 1 + (, ) + (, )

(, ) (, )

+

1 + (, ) 1 + (, )

= (, ) + (, ) .

Hence is a metric on .

(, ) = min {1, (, )} ,

is also a metric on .

For any , ,

(, ) = 0 min {1, (, )} = 0

(, ) = 0

=.

Also,

(, ) = min {1, (, )} = min {1, (, )} = (, )

(, ) (, ) + (, ) .

Also,

min {1, (, )} 1 ()

From () and (),

min {1, (, )} min {1, (, ) + (, )} ()

Case I (, ) 1 or (, ) 1

INTRODUCTION TO METRIC SPACES 23

min {1, (, ) + (, )} = 1

= min {1, (, )}

min {1, (, )} + min {1, (, )}

= (, ) + (, ).

Then

(, ) = min {1, (, )} = (, ) (, ) = min {1, (, )} = (, ).

Now since

min {1, (, ) + (, )} (, ) + (, ) ,

it follows that

min {1, (, ) + (, )} (, ) + (, ) .

min {1, (, ) + (, )} (, ) + (, ) ()

(, ) = min {1, (, )} (, ) + (, ) .

Thus is a metric on .

Observe that the metrics defined in Example 4.18 and Example 4.19 are

bounded metrics ((, ) (, ) , ). Thus given any

metric on any given set , we can always define a bounded metric on .

Let (, ) be a metric space and > 0 be any real number. Then : defined as

(, ) = (, )

is a metric on .

For any , ,

(, ) = 0

(, ) = 0

(, ) = 0 [ > 0]

=

Also, (, ) = (, ) = (, ) = (, ) .

(, ) = (, )

[(, ) + (, )]

= (, ) + (, )

= (, ) + (, ) .

Hence is a metric on .

INTRODUCTION TO METRIC SPACES 24

function defined as

(, ) = ((), ())

is a metric on .

For any , ,

(, ) = 0 ((), ()) = 0 () = () = .

Also,

(, ) = (() , ()) = ((), ()) = (, ) .

(, ) = ((), ())

((), ()) + ((), ())

= (, ) + (, ) .

Hence is a metric on .

function in Example 4.21. The function may fail to be a metric.

.

Then the function given by

(, ) = | | ,

is not a metric on . It fails to satisfy P2 . In fact

(, ) = .

Define a function as

(, ) = |() ()| , .

Then is a metric on .

Proof: To show that is a metric on , we shall just show that (, ) = 0 = . Other

axioms can be proved easily using the basic properties of real numbers and the modulus

function.

Now for any , , consider

(, ) = 0

|() ()| = 0

() = ()

= [ . ]

Thus (, ) = 0 = .

INTRODUCTION TO METRIC SPACES 25

Alternatively, we can deduce that is a metric on from Example 4.21 by simply putting

= and taking to be usual metric on i.e., (, ) = | | , .

For any , ,

1. (, ) = | 3 3 |

2. (, ) = | |

Since the function + + given by 1 is an injective function, therefore the

function + + given by

(, ) = | 1 1 | , +

is a metric on + . The metric is called the inverse metric on + . [Hint : Take = + ,

= + , usual metric on + and : + + as () = 1 in Example 4.21]

= {}

Define as

(, ) = |1 1 |

(, ) = (, ) = 1 , .

(, ) = 0 }

Then is a metric on

.

Proof: Define

as

1

() = { .

0 =

Then the function can be rewritten as

(, ) = |() ()| .

,

, it is enough to prove that is

In view of Example 4.21, to show that is a metric on

an injective function.

Claim: is an injective function.

Let ,

be any two distinct points i.e., .

Case I ,

Since , therefore 1 1 and hence () ().

Case II and =

Then () = 1 0 and () = () = 0. Therefore () ().

Case III = and

Then () = () = 0 and () = 1 0. Therefore () ().

. It follows that is

Thus in all the above cases we get () (), whenever , ,

an injective function on

. Hence is a metric on

(see . ).

INTRODUCTION TO METRIC SPACES 26

Let be any set and 1 , 2 be any two metrics on . Then the function :

defined as

(, ) = 1 (, ) + 2 (, )

is a metric on .

For any , ,

(, ) = 0

1 (, ) + 2 (, ) = 0

1 (, ) = 0, 2 (, ) = 0 [ 1 , 2 0]

=

Also,

(, ) = 1 (, ) + 2 (, ) = 1 (, ) + 2 (, ) = (, ) .

(, ) = 1 (, ) + 2 (, )

1 (, ) + 1 (, ) + 2 (, ) + 2 (, )

= [1 (, ) + 2 (, )] + [1 (, ) + 2 (, )]

= (, ) + (, ) .

Hence is a metric on .

the function (, ) (, ) + |() ()| is a metric on .

Proof: Define : as

(, ) = (, ) + |() ()| , .

For any , ,

(, ) = 0 (, ) + |() ()| = 0

(, ) = 0 |() ()| = 0

On the other hand,

= (, ) = 0 () = ()

(, ) + |() ()| = 0

(, ) = 0 .

For any , ,

(, ) = (, ) + |() ()|

= (, ) + |() ()|

= (, ) .

(, ) = (, ) + |() ()|

(, ) + (, ) + |() ()| + |() ()|

= (, ) + |() ()| + (, ) + |() ()|

= (, ) + (, ) .

INTRODUCTION TO METRIC SPACES 27

be tempted to think that to deduce that is a metric on , we can

use the fact sum of two metrics is again a metric. But it is

worthwhile to note here that we cannot deduce such conclusion

directly as is not given injective and thus the function

(, ) |() ()|

may fail to be metric.

Example 4.28 Let be any set and 1 , 2 be any two metrics on . Then the function

: defined as

2 2

(, ) = (1 (, )) + (2 (, ))

is a metric on .

For any , ,

(, ) = 0

2 2

(1 (, )) + (2 (, ))

1 (, ) = 0 2 (, ) = 0

= .

Also,

2 2

(, ) = (1 (, )) + (2 (, ))

2 2

= (1 (, )) + (2 (, ))

= (, ).

2

[( 2 + 2 ) + ( 2 + 2 )] [ + ]2 + [ + ]2 , , , [ ] ()

2 2

(, ) = (1 (, )) + (2 (, ))

2 2

(1 (, ) + 1 (, )) + (2 (, ) + 2 (, )) [ 1 2 ]

2 2 2 2

(1 (, )) + (2 (, )) + (1 (, )) + (2 (, )) . [ ()]

Hence is a metric on .

Example 4.29 Let be any set and 1 , 2 be any two metrics on . Then the function

: defined as

(, ) = max {1 (, ), 2 (, )}

is a metric on .

INTRODUCTION TO METRIC SPACES 28

For any , ,

(, ) = 0

max{1 (, ), 2 (, )}

1 (, ) = 0 2 (, ) = 0

= .

Also,

(, ) = max{1 (, ), 2 (, )}

= max{1 (, ), 2 (, )}

= (, ) .

1 (, ) 1 (, ) + 1 (, ) (, ) + (, )

2 (, ) 2 (, ) + 2 (, ) (, ) + (, )

max {1 (, ), 2 (, )} (, ) + (, )

(, ) (, ) + (, ) .

Hence is a metric on .

If is any non-empty set and , are two metrics on . Then the function

defined as

(, ) = { (, ), (, )}

need not be a metric on .

1 (, ) = | |

} , .

2 (, ) = | 3 3 |

(, ) = min {1 (, ), 2 (, )} , .

Claim: is not a metric on .

We will show that does not satisfy triangle inequality. Let

1 1

= , =2 , = .

4 2

Then

7 1 3

1 (, ) = 1.75 , 1 (, ) = 0.25 1 (, ) = 1.5 ;

4 4 2

511 7 63

2 (, ) = 7.98 , 2 (, ) = 0.11 2 (, ) = 7.88

64 64 8

7 7 3

(, ) = 1.75 , (, ) = 0.11 (, ) = 1.5 .

4 64 2

Thus (, ) > (, ) + (, ) and consequently, P4 is not satisfied. Hence is not a

metric on .

INTRODUCTION TO METRIC SPACES 29

Definition 5.1 ( )

Let (, ) be a metric space and be any nonempty set. Let be the restriction of

to the set i.e, given as

(, ) = (, ) , . ., = | .

relative metric induced on by . The space (, ) is called the metric subspace of

the metric space (, ).

Example 5.2 Consider the real line (, ) with usual metric given by

(, ) = | | ,

(, ) = | | ,

(, ) = (, ) , . . , = |

a metric subspace of the real line (, u).

Definition 5.4 ( )

metric of on . The question arises, can we do the reverse thing?

Suppose (, ) is a metric space and is a proper superset of . Can we define a metric

on Y that is an extension of ? The answer is yes and it can be done in several ways, but

we shall elaborate only one method.

. Choose and fix two points and \.

Now define as

(, ) ,

(, ) ,

(, ) = ,

(, ) + 1 + (, )

{(, ) + 1 + (, )

= | .

Case I ,

Then

(, ) = 0 (, ) = 0 [ , (, ) = (, )]

=

INTRODUCTION TO METRIC SPACES 30

Case II ,

Then

(, ) = 0 (, ) = 0 [ , (, ) = (, )]

=

In this case and (, ) 0.

Case IV and

In this case and (, ) 0.

(, ) = 0 = , .

Thus P2 holds.

Case I , .

Then

(, ) = (, ) = (, ) = (, ) .

Case II , .

Then

(, ) = (, ) = (, ) = (, ) .

Then

(, ) = (, ) + 1 + (, )

= (, ) + 1 + (, )

= (, ) + 1 + (, )

= (, ) .

Case IV and

Similar to Case III.

Hence P3 is verified.

Now for triangle Inequality consider any , , . We have

Case I ,

If , then

(, ) = (, ) (, ) + (, ) = (, ) + (, ).

If , then

(, ) = (, )

(, ) + (, ) [ ]

[(, ) + 1 + (, )] + [(, ) + 1 + (, )]

= (, ) + (, )

Case II ,

If , then

(, ) = (, )

(, ) + (, ) [ ]

[(, ) + 1 + (, )] + [(, ) + 1 + (, )]

= (, ) + (, )

INTRODUCTION TO METRIC SPACES 31

If , then

(, ) = (, ) (, ) + (, ) = (, ) + (, ).

If , then

(, ) = (, ) + 1 + (, )

(, ) + (, ) + 1 + (, )

(, ) + {(, ) + 1 + (, )}

= (, ) + (, )

If , then

(, ) = (, ) + 1 + (, )

(, ) + 1 + (, ) + (, )

{(, ) + 1 + (, )} + (, )

= (, ) + (, ) .

Case IV

Similar to case III.

Since = ( ), therefore

= ( ) ( ( )) (( ) ( )) (( ) ) .

should coincide with . Hence we set

(, ) = (, ) , .

remaining portion. So whats next ? Since restricted to must be a metric and

(( ) ( )) ( ) = , we can take any arbitrary metric on and set

(, ) = (, ) , .

metrics and for any point (, ) ( ), we have to connect with some point

of and with some point of . Since it has to be done for all (, ) ( ) as

well as for all (, ) ( ) , so we fix two points

Now if we define

(, ) + (, ) (, ) ( )

(, ) = {

(, ) + (, ) (, ) ( )

then is non-negative, symmetric and satisfies triangle inequality, but in this case

(, ) = 0, with . To avoid this failure, we add 1 in both the cases i.e., we define

(, ) + (, ) + 1 (, ) ( )

(, ) = {

(, ) + (, ) + 1 (, ) ( )

It is important to note that instead of 1, we could have used any positive real number

. Also, we have an arbitrary choice of metric on . Thus given a metric space

(, ) and a proper superset of , we can have uncountable number of metrics

on extending the metric on .

INTRODUCTION TO METRIC SPACES 32

6. ISOMETRIES

Definition 6.1 Suppose (, ) and (, ) are metric spaces and be any function.

Then is said to be an isometry or an isometric map if

((), ()) = (, ) , .

In view of the definition, we observe that an

isometry is a distance preserving function.

Furthermore, we observe that an isometry is an

injective function

() = () ((), ()) = 0

(, ) = 0

= .

copy of the space (, ). Thus metric space (, ) is isometric copy of (, ) if and only if

is a surjective isometry.

Claim : 1 is an isometry.

Consider any , , then there exists , such that () = and () = . Now

= (, )

= ((), ()) [ ]

= (, ) .

an isometric copy of (, ). Thus we can simply say that (, ) is isometric to (, ).

Example 6.3 Consider the real line (, ) with as usual metric and the euclidean space

(3 , ). Then the inclusion map 1 3 given by

1 () = (, 0, 0)

is an isometry. In fact, for any ,

= ( )2

= | |

= (, ) .

INTRODUCTION TO METRIC SPACES 33

Thus 1 is an isometry and {(, 0,0) } (popularly known as -axis) is isometric copy of

in 3 . Hence, under isometry, can be considered as a metric subspace of 3 , however

as a set is not even a subset of 3 .

2 () = (0, , 0)

is an isometry. Moreover, {(0, , 0) } (-axis) is isometric copy of in 3 .

Also, -plane {(, , 0) , } in 3 is an isometric copy of 2 under the isometry

2 3 given by

((, )) = (, , 0) (, ) 2 .

Obviously, all other lines and planes in 3 are isometric copy of and 2 , respectively.

Let be the usual metric on 2 and be the usual metric on . We shall show that the

function : 2 defined as

((, )) = + (, ) 2

is an isometry.

For any (, ), (, ) 2 ,

= |( + ) ( + )|

= |( ) + ( )|

= ( )2 + ( )2

= ((, ), (, )) .

Example 6.5 Let (, ) be a metric space, be any set and be an injective map.

Then the function 2 given by

(, ) = ((), ()) ,

is a metric on induced by and . (Example 4.21)

From the definition of , we observe that (, ) is an isometric copy of ((), ) with the

injective function as an isometry map.

() = 2

Example 6.7 The real line (, ) and the discrete metric space (, ) are not isometric

copies of each other. In fact for any injective function : () ()

INTRODUCTION TO METRIC SPACES 34

In view of above example we observe that isometries also depends on metric structure.

Since distances are preserved in isometric copies of any given metric space. Thus

whenever we shall be concerned with only metric properties, we will treat all isometric

spaces as identical spaces.

Example 7.1 - Metric on Set of Rationals

Let be a prime number and be any non-zero rational number. Then = / for some

, . Consider

= = =

for some , , , , , 0 and , are relatively prime to .

Thus each non-zero rational number can be expressed as

, , .

Next we show that such is unique. Let 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 such that 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 are

relatively prime to and

1 2

1 = 2

1 2

2 1

1 2 =

1 2

1 2 = 0 . ., 1 = 2

Hence the uniqueness.

Thus we have seen that for any non-zero rational , there exists a unique such that

= , (, ) = 1 (, ) = 1 .

We define || to be . Also, we set |0| to be 0.

rationals , called the - on , given by

(, ) = | | .

We shall prove is indeed a metric on .

By definition, is a non-negative function. Now for any , , let

= .

Then

( )

= .

Thus

| | = | | =

. . , (, ) = (, ) =

Hence the function is symmetric.

INTRODUCTION TO METRIC SPACES 35

Also, by definition,

(, ) = 0 | | = 0 = 0 = .

To see triangle inequality, consider any , , and let

1 2 3

= , = = .

1 2 3

Further let = min {, }. Now

1

= = +

1

2 3

= +

2 3

= , , = 2 3

= , " , 0 (" , ) = 1

= + ( , ) = 1 ( , ) = 1

Thus by uniqueness of , we have = + . . , . Consequently, we have

= max { , } +

| | | | + | | .

Example 7.2 Let be any non-empty set and () be the set of all finite subsets of . For

all , (), let (, ) = ( ) ( ) be the symmetric difference between and .

Let : () () be the function given by

(, ) = |(, )| = | | + | | , ()

Clearly, (, ) 0 , () and hence P1 is satisfied.

For P2, consider any , (),

(, ) = 0 |(, )| = 0

| | + | | = 0

| | = 0 | | = 0

= =

= .

Thus P2 holds.

For P3 consider any , (),

(, ) = |(, )| = | | + | |

= | | + | |

= |(, )|

= (, ) .

INTRODUCTION TO METRIC SPACES 36

=

= ( ( ))

= (( ) ( ))

= ( ) ( )

( ) ( )[ ]

= ( ) ( )

| | | | + | | .

Similarly,

| | | | + | | .

Hence

(, ) = |(, )|

= | | + | |

| | + | | + | | + | |

= | | + | | + | | + | |

= |(, )| + |(, )|

= (, ) + (, ) .

Thus P4 holds.

Since all the four axioms of a metric are satisfied by , therefore is a metric on ().

containment approach. In fact,

\

( ) ( )

1

(, ) = (| | ) = (1 , , ), = (1 , , ) .

=1

To see that is indeed a metric on , we shall just verify triangle inequality (other

axioms can be easily proved).

INTRODUCTION TO METRIC SPACES 37

(, ) = (| | )

=1

1

= (|( ) + ( )| )

=1

1 1

(| | ) + (| | ) [ ].

=1 =1

(, ) + (, ).

For = 2, the metric space ( , ) is the Euclidean space of dimension 2.

Let = () be the set of all real sequences = such that

=1| | < i.e.,

= { | | < }.

=1

Consider the function defined as

(, ) = | |

=1

where = , = .

For = , = , we have

| | < | | < .

=1 =1

Since the sum of two convergent series is convergent, therefore

(| | + | |) < .

=1

Now for all ,

| | | | + | |

Thus by Comparison test for series of positive terms, it follows that

| | < .

=1

Hence is a well defined function on .

For any = , = ,

(, ) = 0

| | = 0

=1

= 0 ,

= ,

= .

For any = , = ,

(, ) = | |

=1

INTRODUCTION TO METRIC SPACES 38

= | |

=1

= (, ).

(, ) = | |

=1

= |( ) + ( )|

=1

| | + | |

=1 =1

= (, ) + (, ).

It follows that

(, ) (, ) + (, ) , , .

Therefore all the axioms are satisfied. Hence is a metric on .

Let = () be the set of all square summable real sequences = i.e.,

1

2

= { (| |2 ) < }.

=1

1

2

(, ) = (| |2 )

=1

where = , = . Then is a metric on .

For = , = , we have

1 1

2 2

(| |2 ) < (| |2 ) < .

=1 =1

Using Minkowskis Inequality for infinite sums, we have

1 1 1

2 2 2

(| + ( )|2 ) (| |2 ) + (| |2 ) <

=1 =1 =1

Therefore (, ) is a finite real number for all , .

By definition, is a non-negative.

For any = , = ,

(, ) = 0

1

2

(| |2 ) = 0

=1

= 0 ,

= ,

= .

INTRODUCTION TO METRIC SPACES 39

For any = , = ,

1

2

(, ) = (| |2 )

=1

1

2

= (| |2 ) = (, ).

=1

1 1

2 2

(, ) = (| |2 ) = (|( ) + ( )|2 )

=1 =1

1

2

(, ) = (| + |2 )

=1

1 1

2 2

(, ) (| |2 ) + (| |2 )

=1 =1

1 1

2 2

= (| |2 ) + (| |2 )

=1 =1

= (, ) + (, ).

It follows that

(, ) (, ) + (, ) , , .

Therefore all the axioms are satisfied. Hence is a metric on .

Let be the set of all real sequences = such that

1

(| | ) < .

=1

Consider the function defined as

1

(, ) = (| | )

=1

where = , = . Then is a metric on .

= { sup {| | } < }.

INTRODUCTION TO METRIC SPACES 40

(, ) = sup {| | } = , = .

Then is metric on .

To verify this, we first need to show that is a well defined function. For that it is enough

to show that if = , = , then (, ) .

| | | | .

Now for all ,

| | | | + | | +

sup {| | } +

Thus it follows that 0 (, ) + and therefore (, ) . Thus is a well defined

function.

For function , properties P1, P2 and P3 can be easily verified.

| | | | + | |

sup {| | } + sup {| | }

(, ) + (, ).

Taking supremum over , we get

sup {| | } (, ) + (, )

(, ) (, ) + (, ) .

Thus is a metric on .

Example 7.8 (The extended complex plane and its spherical representation)

Let = {} = be the extended complex plane. We wish to introduce some metric

on using which we can discuss the continuity of functions which assumes the value

infinity. To achieve this we represent as the unit sphere in 3 ,

= {(1 , 2 , 3 ) 3 12 + 22 + 32 = 1}.

Clearly, the complex plane can be identified with the set {(1 , 2 , 0) 1 , 2 }. With this

identification, the complex plane can be seen as the plane passing through the equator

of the unit sphere .

Now for any point , clearly, the line joining the point and the North pole = (0,0,1)

on intersects the sphere at exactly one point .If || > 1, then lies in northern

hemispheere, and if || < 1 then lies in the southern hemisphere. Moreover, if || = 1 then

INTRODUCTION TO METRIC SPACES 41

and the set {}. Moreover, as || , approaches . Therefore to accomplish a one-

to-one correspondence between the extended plane and the sphere , we identify the

north pole with of the extended plane. Thus is represented as the sphere . This

correspondence between the points of and is called the stereographic projection.

be the corresponding point in 3 . We wish to express in terms of and . The line in

3 through = (, , 0) and = (0,0,1) is given by

, = {(1 ) + () < < }

= {((1 ), (1 ), ) < < } . ()

Now since , , therefore there exists some (, ) such that

= ((1 ), (1 ), ) . ()

Also, since , therefore we have

1 = (1 )2 2 + (1 )2 2 + 2 = (1 )2 ||2 + 2

1 2 = (1 )2 ||2

1 2

= ||2 [ 1]

(1 )2

||2 1

= [ & ]

||2 + 1

Thus using value of s in equation (), we get

2 2 ||2 1

1 = 2 , 2 = 2 , 3 =

|| + 1 || + 1 ||2 + 1

+ ( ) ||2 1

. ., 1 = , 2 = , 3 = ()

||2 + 1 ||2 + 1 ||2 + 1

the equation (), we arrive at

1 + 2

= .

1 3

Thus we have shown that we can represent the extended complex plane by the unit

sphere S. Hence using the Euclidean metric defined on 3 we can define a metric on the

extended complex plane as follows:

+

1

3 2

(, ) = (, ) = [( )2 ] , ()

=1

sphere corresponding to , respectively. Now we are in a position to define our distance

function on the extended plane .

Now since , lies on , therefore from equation () it follows that

1

(, ) = [2 2(1 1 + 2 2 + 3 3 )]2 .

INTRODUCTION TO METRIC SPACES 42

2| |

(, ) = 1 ,

[(1 + ||2 ) + (1 + | |2 )]2

2

(, ) = 1 .

(1 + ||2 )2

So far while defining metrics on any given set, we never bothered about the algebraic

properties inherited by the set considered. But most of the examples we considered till

now have some inherited algebraic properties. In fact, the most

familiar examples we considered like , 2 , and space [0,1] of

continuous function on [0,1] are all vector spaces (linear

spaces) over or .

2 . Suppose we want to measure the length of the vector

= (1 , 2 ). From high school geometry, using Pythagoras

Theorem, length of the vector is 12 + 22 = (, 0).

Also for any scalar , length of the vector is ||12 + 22 i.e., (, 0) = ||(, 0).

( , 0) = (, ).

Since we always generalize the ideas from familiar examples, thus to define a metric on

any arbitrary vector space, we must keep in mind that a metric defined on a vector space

should satisfy the following conditions:

1. ( , 0) = (, ) ,

2. (, 0) = ||(, 0) for any scalar and for all .

Now to define such a metric, we first need to find the answer to the following question.

Why the usual metrics on , 2 , and [0,1] satisfies the above two properties? We see

that to define usual metrics on , 2 , and [0,1] we use absolute value of a number in ,

the magnitude of a vector in 2 , the modulus of a complex number in and the maximum

value of || for any in [0,1].

These ideas leads to the introduction of an interesting concept called norms defined on a

linear space using its algebraic properties. It relates the algebraic and geometric (metric)

properties possessed by a linear space.

A norm on a linear space over or is a real function which satisfy the

following properties:

1. 0 .

INTRODUCTION TO METRIC SPACES 43

4. + + for any , .

A normed linear space, denoted by (, ) is a linear space with a norm defined on it.

For each , the number is called the length of the vector w.r.t norm . If is

a linear subspace of and is restriction of to , then (, ) is called a normed

linear subspace of (, ). It is easy to see that (, ) in itself is a normed linear

space.

(, ) = ,

is a metric on .

Further for any , ,

(, ) = 0 = 0 = 0 = .

Also,

(, ) =

= 1( )

= |1| [ = || ]

=

= (, ) .

(, ) =

= ( ) + ( )

+

= (, ) + (, ) .

Thus is a metric on .

Definition 8.1.2 Given any normed linear space (, ), the metric : given by

(, ) = ,

is called the metric determined by the norm or a metric induced by the norm.

determined by a norm if and only if following conditions are satisfied:

1. ( , 0) = (, ) ,

(, ) = , .

For any , ,

( , 0) = ( ) 0

=

= (, ) .

(, 0) = 0

= ( 0)

INTRODUCTION TO METRIC SPACES 44

= || 0

= ||(, 0) .

= (, ) .

= 0 (, 0) = 0 = 0 .

= (, 0)

= ||(, 0)

= || .

+ = ( + , 0)

( + , ) + (, 0) [ ]

= ( + , 0) + (, 0)

= (, 0) + (, 0)

= + .

Remark 8.1.4 From proof of the above theorem, if a metric is induced by a norm, then

that norm is given as

= (, ) .

given metric

:

over (, ) = = (, )

| | ||

| | ||

2 (1 1 )2 + (2 2 )2 12 + 22

2 |1 1 | + |2 2 | |1 | + |2 |

=1( )2 =1 2

=1| | =1| |

max | | max | |

1in 1in

| | ||

| | (-adic metric) ||

x[0,1] x[0,1]

1 1

[0,1]

|() ()| |()|

0 0

INTRODUCTION TO METRIC SPACES 45

Example 8.1.5 ( )

2. The metric on given by

| |

(, ) =

1 + | |

cannot be determined by a norm.

3. If is a metric on a vector space ( {0}) which is determined by a norm, then

the metric on given by

0 =

(, ) = {

1 + (, )

cannot be induced by a norm.

Also, the metric on given by

( )

(, ) =

1 + (, )

cannot be determined by a norm.

Note that all the above metric does not satisfy the conditions of Theorem 8.1.3 and

hence are metric which cannot be induced by a norm.

Proposition 8.1.6 Let be a linear space and : be any metric. The following

statements are equivalent:

i. ( , 0) = (, ) ,

ii. ( + , + ) = (, ) , , .

Proposition 8.1.7 Let be a linear space and : be any metric. The following

statements are equivalent:

ii. (, ) = ||(, ) , and for any scalar .

determined by a norm if and only if following conditions are satisfied:

1. ( + , + ) = (, ) , ,

9. SOLVED PROBLEMS

Problem 1. Let be any non-empty set and : be any real valued function.

Then is a metric on if and only if for all , , , following two conditions hold :

1. (. ) = 0 =

2. (, ) (, ) + (, ).

Proof: Let be a metric on , then satisfies all the four axioms of a metric.

Clearly, (1) holds. Now for any , , ,

(, ) (, ) + (, ) [ ]

INTRODUCTION TO METRIC SPACES 46

= (, ) + (, ) [ ]

(, ) (, ) + (, ) [ (2) = ]

= (, ) [ (1) (, ) = 0]

Also,

(, ) (, ) + (, , ) = (, ).

Thus it follows that for any , , (, ) = (, ).

Now to verify that is a non-negative function, again consider , . Then

0 = (, ) (, ) + (, ) = 2(, )

(, ) 0 .

Thus (, ) 0 for all , .

Now for any , , ,

(, ) (, ) + (, ) [ (2)]

= (, ) + (, ).

|(, ) (, )| (, ) + (, ) , , , .

(, ) (, ) + (, ) [ ]

(, ) + [(, ) + (, )] [ ]

= (, ) + (, ) + (, ) [ ]

(, ) (, ) (, ) + (, ) . ()

Again,

(, ) (, ) + (, )

(, ) + [(, ) + (, )]

(, ) (, ) (, ) + (, ) ()

|(, ) (, )| (, ) + (, ) , , , .

0 =

(, ) = (1 1 )2 + (2 2 )2 , 2 {(0,0)}

{1 + (1 1 )2 + (2 2 )2

is a metric on 2 .

INTRODUCTION TO METRIC SPACES 47

Since = (, ) = 0, therefore to prove P2, it is enough to prove that

(, ) = 0 = , 2 .

For this first observe that

(, ) (1 1 )2 + (2 2 )2 = (1 , 2 ), = (1 , 2 ) 2 ()

Now

(, ) = 0

(1 1 )2 + (2 2 )2 = 0 [ () ]

1 = 1 2 = 2

= .

Hence P2 holds.

(, ) = (, ) , 2 . ()

Now for triangle inequality (P4), consider any = (1 , 2 ), = (1 , 2 ), = (1 , 2 ) 2 . There

are three possibilities:

Case I. =

Then, (, ) = 0 (, ) + (, ) .

Then

(, ) = (1 1 )2 + (2 2 )2

2 2

= ((1 1 ) + (1 1 )) + ((2 2 ) + (2 2 ))

(1 1 )2 + (2 2 )2 + (1 1 )2 + (2 2 )2 [ ]

(, ) + (, ) [ ()]

= (, ) + (, ).

Subcase (i) = (0,0) .

Then

(, ) = (, ) [ = ]

= (, ) + (, ). [ (, ) = 0]

Then

(, ) = ((1 , 2 ), (0,0))

INTRODUCTION TO METRIC SPACES 48

= 1 + 12 + 22

2 2

= 1 + (1 + (1 1 )) + (2 + (2 2 ))

1 + 12 + 22 + (1 1 )2 + (2 2 )2 [ ]

= (, ) + (, )

= (, ) + (, ).

(, ) (, ) + (, ) = (1 , 2 ), = (1 , 2 ), = (1 , 2 ) 2 .

10. SUMMARY

In this chapter, we have introduced the concept of metric space, discussed the motivation

behind studying this concept. We also discussed how this concept is being used in real life

scenario. Being closely related to the notion of distance, it has many applications in the

field of navigation. One such instance where it is being associated with the navigation of

aeroplanes is discussed. We have discussed various metrics on the set of reals, on , on

the set of functions etc. to illustrate the abstract nature of the distance. Later in the

chapter, the notions of metric subspace and superspace were introduced and a method of

finding a metric superspace from a given metric space is discussed. In fact, we observed

that we can have uncountable extensions of a given metric to some superset of that space.

We also touched upon the concept of isometry i.e., distance preserving functions and

discussed some standard examples associated with this concept. Finally we discussed

special types of metrics determined by a norm on a vector space, which relates the

algebraic properties of the vector space with its geometric properties. We hope that the

content presented in the chapter would be of immense help to the students who are

beginners in the subject.

11. PROBLEMS

Question 1. Show that the function : defined as

|| + | | + ||

(, ) = { ,

0 =

is a metric on .

| |

(, ) = ,

1 + 2 1 + 2

is a metric on .

INTRODUCTION TO METRIC SPACES 49

|1 1 | 2 = 2

(, ) = { = (1 , 2 ), = (1 , 2 ) 2

|1 | + |2 2 | + |1 |

is a metric on 2 .

|1 1 | + |2 2 |

(, ) = = (1 , 2 ), = (1 , 2 ) 2

1 + 12 + 22 1 + 12 + 22

is a metric on 2 .

Question 5. Let (, ) be any metric space and and be disjoint subsets of such

that = . Show that the function given by

1 + (, )

(, ) = {

(, )

is a metric on .

Question 6. Let be the set of all sequences of real numbers. Prove that the function

given by

1 | |

(, ) =

= { }1 , = { }1

2 1 + | |

=1

is a metric on .

Question 7. Let be any set and 1 , 2 , , be metrics on . Show that the function

: defined as

(, ) = (, )

=1

is a metric on .

Question 8. Let be any set and 1 , 2 , , be metrics on . Prove that the function

: defined as

(, ) = max { (, )}

1in

is a metric on .

defined as

(, ) = [ (, )]2

=1

is a metric on .

(, ) = |sin( )| ,

is not a metric on .

INTRODUCTION TO METRIC SPACES 50

12. REFERENCES

[1] Micheal O Searcoid, Metric Spaces, Springer International Edition, New Delhi, 2008.

[2] Satish Shirali and Harkrishan L. Vasudeva, Metric Spaces, Springer, 2006.

Book Co., New York, 1963.

[4] E.T. Copson, Metric Spaces, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1968.

[5] M.K Singal and Asha Rani Singal, Topics in Analysis II (Metric Spaces), R. Chand

and Co., New Delhi, 2005.

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