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CENTER UGM

DATSA
ENGLISH CLASS
SUNDAY
9/11/2016

Mereka yang disebut buta huruf (illiterate) di abad ke-21 bukanlah orang-orang yang tidak bisa
membaca dan menulis, namun mereka yang tidak bisa belajar (learn), menanggalkan pelajaran
sebelumnya (un-learn), dan belajar kembali (re-learn). Alvin Toffler
Kata ganti orang (personal), kata ganti kepunyaan ( possesive )

Simple Present Tense


Simple present tense dibentuk dari verb-1 (present tense) atau linking verb be (is,
am, are). Apa itu verb-1? Verb-1 merupakan bare infinitive dengan tambahan -s atau -
es (contoh verb-1: does, goes, wants) khusus untuk subject berupa singular noun (kata
benda tunggal: Tita, book, car) atau third person singular pronoun (kata ganti orang
ketiga tunggal: she, he, it); atau tanpa tambahan apapun (contoh verb-1: do, go, want)
untuk subject berupa plural noun (boys, men, books) atau plural pronoun (we,
they), pronoun I/you, atau compound subject (you and me, Tina and Ratih).
Dengan demikian rumus simple present tense untuk kalimat positif, negatif, dan
interogatif sebagai berikut
Kalimat Rumus Simple Present Tense Contoh Simple Present Tense

S + V-1
S +/- auxiliary (do/does) + bare infinitive She likes eating out
positif
(+)
S + be (am/is/are) The children are naughty.

S + auxiliary (do/does) + not + bare infinitive She doesnt like eating out
negatif
(-)
S + be(am/is/are) + not The children arent naughty

Do/Does + S + bare infinitive Does she like eating out


interogatif
(?)
Be(am/is/are) + S Are the children naughty

Catatan:

Pada kalimat positif, normalnya auxiliary verb (do/does) tidak digunakan, melainkan
hanya digunakan jika perlu untuk memberi penekanan pada keharusan melakukan aksi

Fungsi Contoh Kalimat Simple Present Tense

He always consumes low GI rice.


Simple present tense untuk (Dia selalu mengonsumsi beras rendah GI.)
menyatakan habitual action(kebiasaan)
dimana sering digunakan adverb of She sends much money to her parents in the
frequency(always, often, usually, every villageevery month.
day/week, month, all the time, (Dia mengirimkan banyak uang kepada orangtuanya
etc) sebagai time signals. di desa setiap bulan.)

The sun rises from the east and sets in the west.
Factual (kebenaran umum/fakta yang tak (Matahari terbit dari ufuk timur dan tenggelam di ufuk
terbantahkan) barat.)
Water boils at 100 degrees Celcius.
(Air mendidih pada suhu 100 derajat celcius.)

I live in Jakarta.
(Saya tinggal di Jakarta)

She is so beautiful.
Simple present tense digunakan untuk (Dia sangat cantik.)
membuat simple statementyang
berlaku general (berlaku kapan saja) maupun Hes angry.
tidakgeneral (menggunakan verb be). (Dia marah.) [tidak general: terjadi sekarang]

She loves dancing.


(Dia suka menari.)

I see tears in your eyes.


(Saya melihat air mata di matamu.)

We agree with the speakers opinion.


Simple present tense menggunakanstative (Kami setuju dengan pendapat pembicara tersebut.)
verb untuk menyatakan perasaan (feeling),
indera (sense), pikiran (mental state), My brother owns a new house.
atau kepemilikan (possession). (Saudaraku memiliki rumah baru.)

The ship leaves the harbour this night at 7 oclock.


Simple present tense digunakan untuk (Kapal meninggalkan pelabuhan malam ini jam 7.)
membicarakan rencana atau jadwal di masa
depan namun memiliki jangka waktu dekat He arrives from Osaka at 1 pm.
dengan sekarang. Umumnya membicarakan (Dia tiba dari Osaka jam 1 siang.)
tentang transportasi atau event. Verbyang
biasa digunakan antara The ceremony starts at nine.
lain:arrive, come, leave. (Upacara dimulai jam sembilan.)

You add a glass of coconut milk into a pan and


then boilit.
(Kamu tambah segelas santan ke dalam panci lalu
rebus.)

Simple present tense digunakan untuk You go straight ahead then turn left.
memberikan instruksi atau serial aksi. (Kamu jalan lurus ke depan lalu belok kiri.)

If you meet the naughty boy, your parents will be


angry.
(Jika kamu bertemu dengan anak nakal itu,
orangtuamu akan marah.)

Simple present tense digunakan I will go swimming if I have free time.


pada conditional sentence tipe 1. (Saya akan pergi berenang jika ada waktu.)
Rumus Simple Past Tense
Simple past tense dibentuk dari verb-2 (past tense) atau linking verb be (was, were).
Apa itu verb-2? Verb-2 merupakan bare infinitive (bentuk dasar verb) dengan
tambahan -ed, -en, -d, -t, -n, atau -ne untuk regular verb atau bentuk yang tidak
konsisten pada irregular verb. [Baca juga: Regular dan Irregular Verb]
Was yang merupakan singular verb digunakan pada singular
subject (seperti: I, she, he, it,Andi, dan the cat) kecuali you, sebaliknya were yang
merupakan plural verb digunakan pada plural subject (seperti: you, they, we, Andi and
Susi, dan the cats). [Baca juga:Subject-Verb Agreement]
Berikut rumus simple past tense untuk kalimat positif, negatif, dan interogatif.
Jenis Kalimat Rumus Contoh Simple Past Tense

The teacher came


positif (+) S + Verb-2 (past tense)
S + be(was/were) I was a stamp collector

The teacher didnt come


negatif (-) S + did + not + bare infinitive
S + be(was/were) + not I wasnt a stamp collector

Did the teacher come


interogatif (?) Did + S + bare infinitive
be(was/were) + S Was I a stamp collector

Fungsi Contoh kalimat Simple Past Tense

Vina and I went to the Ragunan zoo three months ago.


(Saya dan Vina pergi Ragunan tiga bulan lalu.)

Did he come on time yesterday?


(Apakah dia datang tepat waktu kemarin?)

Simple past tense untuk The party started at 10.00 a.m.


membicarakan aksi yang terjadi (Pesta mulai jam sepuluh pagi.)
dengan durasi waktu tertentu di
masa Did you sleep enough last night?
lampau. Preposition for dapat (Apa kamu cukup tidur semalam?)
digunakan untuk menyatakan
periode waktu kejadian. I studied civil engineering for almost 4 years.
(Saya belajar teknik sipil selama hampir 4 tahun.)

I often did exercises in the gym when I lived in Bandung.


Simple past tense untuk (Saya sering berlatih di gym ketika tinggal di Bandung.)
membicarakan kebiasaan pada
masa lampau. Subordinate When I was a senior high school student, I always got upat 4 am to
conjunction when biasanya study.
digunakan pada situasi ini. (Ketika saya sma, saya selalu bangun jam 4 pagi untuk belajar.)

Untuk menunjukkan bahwa ada


aksi berdurasi pendek (simple
past tense) yang terjadi ketika I was reading a journal in the library when someoneburped out
suatu aksi berdurasi panjang loud.
(past continuous tense) sedang (Saya sedang membaca jurnal di perpustakaan ketika seseorang
berlangsung. bersendawa keras.)

Untuk menunjukkan bahwa


suatu aksi (simple past tense)
langsung mengikuti aksi yang
telah selesai (past perfect I had already finished my breakfast when he picked meup.
tense). (Saya telah selesai sarapan ketika dia menjemput.)

If she studied hard, she would be pass.


(Jika dia belajar keras, dia akan lulus.)
Simple past tense digunakan
padaconditional sentence type I would buy a sport car if I had much money.
2. (Saya akan membeli mobil sport jika punya uang banyak.)
The Lion and the Mouse
Once, as a lion lay sleeping in his den, a naughty little mouse ran up his tail, and onto his back and up his
mane and danced and jumped on his head ...
...so that the lion woke up.
The lion grabbed the mouse and, holding him in his large claws, roared in anger. 'How dare you wake me
up! Don't you know that I am King of the Beasts? Anyone who disturbs my rest deserves to die! I shall kill
you and eat you!'
The terrified mouse, shaking and trembling, begged the lion to let him go. 'Please don't eat me Your
Majesty! I did not mean to wake you, it was a mistake. I was only playing. Please let me go - and I
promise I will be your friend forever. Who knows but one day I could save your life?'
The lion looked at the tiny mouse and laughed. 'You save my life? What an absurd idea!' he said
scornfully. 'But you have made me laugh, and put me into a good mood again, so I shall let you go.' And
the lion opened his claws and let the mouse go free.
'Oh thank you, your majesty,' squeaked the mouse, and scurried away as fast as he could.

A few days later the lion was caught in a hunter's snare. Struggle as he might, he couldn't break free and
became even more entangled in the net of ropes. He let out a roar of anger that shook the forest. Every
animal heard it, including the tiny mouse.

'My friend the lion is in trouble,' cried the mouse. He ran as fast as he could in the direction of the lion's
roar, and soon found the lion trapped in the hunter's snare. 'Hold still, Your Majesty,' squeaked the
mouse. 'I'll have you out of there in a jiffy!' And without further delay, the mouse began nibbling through
the ropes with his sharp little teeth. Very soon the lion was free.
'I did not believe that you could be of use to me, little mouse, but today you saved my life,' said the lion
humbly.
'It was my turn to help you, Sire,' answered the mouse.
Even the weak and small may be of help to those much mightier than themselves.
Geography
Indonesia lies between latitudes 11S and 6N, and longitudes 95E and 141E. It is the
largest archipelagic country in the world, extending 5,120 kilometres (3,181 mi) from east to west
and 1,760 kilometres (1,094 mi) from north to south.[91] According to a geospatial survey conducted
between 2007 and 2010 by National Coordinating Agency for Survey and Mapping (Bakosurtanal),
Indonesia has 13,466 islands,[8] about 6,000 of which are inhabited.[92] These are scattered over both
sides of the equator. The largest are Java, Sumatra, Borneo (shared with Brunei and Malaysia), New
Guinea (shared with Papua New Guinea), and Sulawesi. Indonesia shares land borders with
Malaysia on Borneo, Papua New Guinea on the island of New Guinea, and East Timor on the island
of Timor. Indonesia shares maritime borders across narrow straits with Singapore, Malaysia,
the Philippines, and Palau to the north, and with Australia to the south. The capital, Jakarta, is on
Java and is the nation's largest city, followed by Surabaya, Bandung, Medan, and Semarang.[93]

At 1,919,440 square kilometres (741,050 sq mi), Indonesia is the world's 15th-largest country in
terms of land area and world's 7th-largest country in terms of combined sea and land area.[94] Its
average population density is 134 people per square kilometre (347 per sq mi), 79th in the
world,[95] although Java, the world's most populous island,[96] has a population density of 940 people
per square kilometre (2,435 per sq mi).

Puncak Jaya in Papua, the highestsummit in Indonesia and Oceania.

At 4,884 metres (16,024 ft), Puncak Jaya in Papua is Indonesia's highest peak, and Lake Toba in
Sumatra its largest lake, with an area of 1,145 square kilometres (442 sq mi). Indonesia's largest
rivers are in Kalimantan, and include the Mahakam and Barito; such rivers are communication and
transport links between the island's river settlements.[97]

Indonesia's location on the edges of the Pacific, Eurasian, and Australian tectonic plates makes it
the site of numerous volcanoes and frequent earthquakes. Indonesia has at least 150 active
volcanoes,[98] including Krakatoa and Tambora, both famous for their devastating eruptions in the
19th century. The eruption of the Toba supervolcano, approximately 70,000 years ago, was one of
the largest eruptions ever, and a global catastrophe. Recent disasters due to seismic activity include
the 2004 tsunami that killed an estimated 167,736 in northern Sumatra,[99] and the Yogyakarta
earthquake in 2006. However, volcanic ash is a major contributor to the high agricultural fertility that
has historically sustained the high population densities of Java and Bali.[100]

Lying along the equator, Indonesia has a tropical climate, with two
distinct monsoonal wet and dry seasons. Average annual rainfall in the lowlands varies from 1,780
3,175 millimetres (70.1125.0 inches), and up to 6,100 millimetres (240 inches) in mountainous
regions. Mountainous areas particularly in the west coast of Sumatra, West Java, Kalimantan,
Sulawesi, and Papua receive the highest rainfall. Humidity is generally high, averaging about 80%.
Temperatures vary little throughout the year; the average daily temperature range of Jakarta is 26
30 C (7986 F).[101]