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AM.Ae.SI, M.Tech(Aero)

SASTRA University, Thanjavur

Airframe

Function of Aircraft Structures

General

The structures of most flight vehicles are thin walled structures (shells)

Definitions

Primary structure:

A critical load-bearing structure on an aircraft. If this structure is

severely damaged, the aircraft cannot fly.

Secondary structure:

Structural elements mainly to provide enhanced aerodynamics.

Fairings, for instance, are found where the wing meets the body or

at various locations on the leading or trailing edge of the wing.

Definitions

Monocoque structures:

Unstiffened shells. must be relatively

thick to resist bending, compressive, and

torsional loads.

Definitions

Semi-monocoque Structures:

Constructions with stiffening members that may also be required

to diffuse concentrated loads into the cover.

More efficient type of construction that permits much thinner

covering shell.

SPATER

WING LAYOUT

Function of Aircraft Structures:

Part specific

Skin

Reacts the applied torsion and shear forces .

Transmits aerodynamic forces to the longitudinal and transverse supporting

members .

Acts with the longitudinal members in resisting the applied bending and axial

loads .

Acts with the transverse members in reacting the hoop, or circumferential load

when the structure is pressurized.

Function of Aircraft Structures:

Part specific

Ribs and Frames

1. Structural integration of the wing and fuselage.

2. Keep the wing in its aerodynamic profile.

Function of Aircraft Structures:

Part specific

Spar

1. resist bending and axial loads.

2. form the wing box for stable torsion resistance.

Function of Aircraft Structures:

Part specific

Stiffener or Stringers

1. resist bending and axial loads along with the skin.

2. divide the skin into small panels and thereby increase its

buckling and failing stresses.

3. act with the skin in resisting axial loads caused by

pressurization.

STRUCTURAL IDEALISATION

STRUCTURAL IDEALISATION

1) The longitudinal stiffeners and spar flanges carry only axial stresses.

2) The web, skin and spars webs carry only shear stresses.

3) The axial stress is constant over the cross section of each longitudinal

stiffener .

4) The shearing stress is uniform through the thickness of the webs .

5) Transverse frames and ribs are rigid within their own planes and

have no rigidity normal to their plane.

The stiffeners are represented by circles called booms, which have a

concentrated mass in the plane of the skin.

The direct stresses are calculated at the centroid of these booms and are

assumed to have constant stress through their cross-section.

Idealization Of a Panel

Suppose that we wish to idealize the panel as in Fig.a in to a combination of direct stress

carrying booms and shear stress only carrying skin as shown in Fig.b.

Suppose also that direct stress distribution in actual panel varies linearly from unknown

stress 1 to unknown stress 2.

The Boom area can be found as; - ( as loading produces same direct stress in both

panels), taking moments about the Right-hand edge of each panel.

or

(1 / 2 ) = -1 .

Thus different idealizations of the same structure are required for different loading

conditions.

Shear of open section beams

For skin,

Now taking equilibrium of stresses at rth boom,

Or .. ( A )

Shear of open section beams

So

Or,

This is the increment in shear flow in boom, which is already subjected to direct

stress. So for n Booms shear flow at any point is:

Shear loading of closed section beams

.

Solved examples :

Q.1: Part of the wing section is in the form of the two cell box as shown in Figure,

in which vertical spars are connected to the wing skin through angle sections

all having a cross sectional area 300 mm2. Idealize the section in to an

arrangement of direct stress carrying booms and shear stress only carrying

panels suitable for resisting bending moments in the vertical plane. Position the

Booms at the spar/ skin junctions only.

Solution

The idealized section as in Figure, by symmetry,

in vertical plane. The direct stress at any

point in the section is directly proportional

to its distance from the horizontal axis of

symmetry.

or

or

Solution

.

or Ans.

Solved examples :

of 100 kN m applied in the vertical plane of symmetry. If the section has

been completely idealized in to a combination of direct stress carrying

booms and shear stress only carrying panels, determine direct stress in

each boom.

Solution

As section has symmetry about y axis and resisting B.M. Mx = 100 kN m.

therefore,

The origin of axes Cxy coincides with the position of the centroid of the direct

stress carrying area, i.e, the centroid of the boom areas. Thus taking moments

of the area about the boom 9.

Which gives,

Solution

.

Solved examples :

stress carrying booms positioned at the four corners and panels which are

assumed to carry only shear stresses. Hence determine the position of shear

centre from the left hand-Web.

Solution

Idealized section is :

So,

Solution

Shear flow distribution is:

Here,

Since shear load is applied through the shear centre , the rate of twist is zero.

And is given as

Solution

Hence,

Which gives,

Solution

horizontal axis of symmetry and the left hand web,

Wing spar and Box beams

Wing spar and Box beams

Tapered wing spar :-

Consider a wing spar positioned

in YZ plane and comprises two

Flanges and one web. At the section

z the beam is subjected to a positive

Moment Mx and a positive shear

Force Sy.

.. ( 1)

, Similarly

Tapered wing spar :-

Internal shear force Sy comprises the resultant Sy,w of the web shear flows together

with the vertical components of P1 and P2. thus

Or,

As y2 is negative, the above equation may be assumed to calculate the shear flow

distribution in the web. For a completely idealized beam the web shear flow is

constant through the depth and is Sy,w / h.

For a beam in which web is fully effective in resisting direct stresses, the web shear

flow is given by:

Or,

Solved Example:

Q1. Determine the shear flow distribution in the web of the tapered beam as

shown, at a section midway along the length. The web of the beam has a

thickness of 2 mm and is fully effective in resisting the direct stress. The beam

tapers symmetrically about its central axis and the cross- sectional area of

each flange is 400 mm2.

Solution

Internal bending moment and shear load at the section A-A are:

and

Hence,

Shear load resisted by web is;

So from Fig,

Hence

Solution

Shear flow in the web is:

i.e,

Shear flow distribution: ( N / mm)

Open and closed section beams

.. (1)

Where,

Eqn (1) can be directly applied to a tapered beam subjected to to forces positioned

in relation to the moment centre.

Solved Example:

Q.2. The cantilever wing as shown in Figure, is uniformly tapered along its

length in both x and y directions and carries a load of 100 kN at its free end.

Calculate the forces in the booms and the shear flow distribution in the walls

at a section 2 m from the built in end if the booms resist all the direct

stresses while the walls are effective only in shear. Each corner boom has a

cross sectional area of 900 mm2 while both central booms have cross

sectional areas of 1200 mm2.

Solution

The internal force system at a section 2 m from built in end is:

Or &

Solution

From column (6)

So shear loads:

Hence

.. ( A )

Solution

We now cut one of the walls, say 16 . The resulting open section shear flow is

given as:

Thus &

Which gives,

Complete shear flow distribution can be found by adding qs,0 to qb shear flow

distribution.

Solution

Shear flow distribution of open section in N /mm ;

Solved Example:

Q3. A wing spar has the dimensions as shown in Figure, and carries a uniformly

distributed load of 15 kN/m along its complete length. Each flange has the

crosssectional area 500 mm2 with top flange being horizontal. If the flanges

are assumed to resist all direct loads while the spar web is effective only in

shear, determine the flange loads and the shear flows in web at the sections 1

and 2 m from the free end.

Solution

Bending moment at section 1 :

Thus

Also

As

Then

And

Shear force at section 1 is 15 kN and this is resisted by the shear force in web (

Py,L).

Solution

At section 2 :

Hence

Also

Then

and

The Shear force at the section 2 is 15* 2 = 30 kN. Hence shear force in the web

is 30 7.5 = 22.5 kN, which gives shear flow as;

FUSELAGES

Fuselages

Aircraft fuselage consists of thin sheets of material stiffened by

large numbers of longitudinal stringers together with transverse

frames.

Generally they carry bending moments, shear forces and torsion

loads which induces axial stresses in the stringers and skin

together with shear stresses in the skin.

Shear flow is constant between adjacent stringers ( distance is

very small).

direct stresses in the stringers and the shear stress distributions in

the skin.

Fuselage bending example:

Q.1. The fuselage of a light passenger aircraft has the circular cross-section

shown in Fig(a). The cross-sectional area of each stringer is 100 mm2 and

the vertical distances given in Fig (a) are to the mid-line of the section wall at

the corresponding stringer position. If the fuselage is subjected to a bending

moment of 200 kN m applied in the vertical plane of symmetry, at this section.

Calculate the direct stress distribution.

Solution

skin between the adjacent stringers is flat.

i.e,

Solution

Similarly

Stringers 5 and 13 lie on the neutral axis of the section and therefore are

unstressed. and the calculation of boom areas for 5 and 13th stringers are

not required. Since centroid is on an axis of symmetry. So Ixy = 0. My= 0.

So direct stress is .. ( 1)

Here

Solution

Results are :

Fuselage Shear flow example:

applied at a distance of 150 mm from the vertical axis of symmetry as shown,

for the idealized section as shown in Figure. Calculate the shear flow

distribution in the section.

Solution

As fuselage is symmetric, so Ixy = 0, and Sx=0, hence

Or,

i.e,

The first term of above equation is the open section shear flow . We

therefore cut one of the skin panels, say 12, and calculate .

Results are presented in the table ( in next slide);

The shear flow in the panel 12 is now found by taking moments about

a convenient moment centre, say C.

Solution

.

Solution

Taking moments about the point C,

are constant between the booms, the above equation may be written as;

In which A12, A23,, A161 are the areas subtended by the skin panels 12, 23,, 161

at the centre C and anticlockwise moments are taken positive.

So,

Or

Solution

Complete shear flow distribution can be get by adding qb and qs,0, as shown in figure:

Fuselage Torsion example:

shear load of 100 kN applied through the shear centre as shown in figure. Find

the shear flow distribution.

Solution

As shear centre coincides with the centre of symmetry and a shear force of

100 kN is applied through it . which produces pure torque.

A fuselage is basically a single cell closed section beam and hence

Then from symmetry, and using the results of the table of example 2.

The resultant of these shear flows will be statically equal to applied shear load.so

Which gives,

Solution

So

Shear force due to applied torque:

value of the shear flow is now superimposed on the shear flows produced

by the shear load.

Solution

.

Tension field beam

( Wagners Beam )

Tension field beams (Wagners beam)

The spars of aircraft wings usually comprise an upper and a lower flange

connected by thin stiffened webs. These webs are often of such a thickness

that they buckle under shear stresses at a fraction of their ultimate load.

The form of the buckle is shown in Fig. (a),

where the web of the beam buckles under the action of internal diagonal

compressive stresses produced by shear, leaving a wrinkled web capable of

supporting diagonal tension only in a direction perpendicular to that of the

buckle; the beam is then said to be a complete tension field beam.

Incomplete diagonal tension field beams

In modern aircraft structures, beams having extremely thin webs are

rare.

They retain, after buckling, some of their ability to support loads so

that even near failure they are in a state of stress somewhere between

that of pure diagonal tension and the pre-buckling stress.

Such a beam is know as an incomplete diagonal tension field beam.

Shear lag :

Shear lag is caused when a framing member is connected to another member

by only a portion of its cross-section.

An example would be connecting steel stringer beams to girders. The top and

bottom flanges of the stringer are not connected to the girder. Shear lag occurs

because the forces cannot be transmitted directly into the entire cross-section of

the stringer. This means that the area of the member that is effective in resisting

the force is something less than the total area.

Shear lag could occur within an aircraft structure in cases where only portions of

the cross-section of a framing member are used in a connection.

Example : in spars web, diagonal strut in wing etc.

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