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Engineering Structures

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/engstruct

on elasticplastic response reduction curve

Hua Shen a,b, Ruifu Zhang a,, Dagen Weng a, Cong Gao a, Hao Luo a, Chao Pan a,c

a

Research Institute of Structural Engineering and Disaster Reduction, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China

b

College of Civil Engineering, Nantong Vocational University, Nantong 226007, China

c

College of Civil Engineering, Yantai University, Yantai 264005, China

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Metallic yielding dampers (MYDs) can effectively improve the seismic performance of structures and are

Received 15 January 2017 used in many practical engineering applications. In this paper, a simple elasticplastic design method of a

Revised 14 July 2017 structure with MYDs is proposed based on the elasticplastic response reduction curve (EPRRC). In

Accepted 16 July 2017

widely used traditional design methods based on the elastic response reduction curve, the elasticplastic

behavior of the main structure is neglected. However, such methods may overestimate the vibration con-

trol effect of MYDs, especially their effect on acceleration reduction, which is demonstrated in this study.

Keywords:

The EPRRC, which can directly reflect the relationship between MYDs characteristic parameters and the

Metallic yielding damper

Elasticplastic design method

responses of the structure with MYDs in the elasticplastic range, is proposed to improve the reliability of

Response reduction curve a structure with MYDs. Then, the corresponding design procedures are presented. To illustrate and verify

Response spectrum the effectiveness of the proposed design method, a six-story reinforced concrete frame is analyzed by

Energy dissipation time history analysis. In conclusion, the proposed design method for the structure with MYDs can ade-

quately satisfy the seismic performance targets under different seismic levels.

2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction vibration control. It was confirmed that such devices can effec-

tively improve the structural seismic performance [1,516].

In traditional aseismic structures, seismic energy is absorbed by According to the type of yielding mechanism, MYDs can be catego-

the plastic deformation of the structural members such as beams, rized into flexural plate systems, torsional bar dampers, yielding

columns and braces, which may cause structural damage under ring dampers, extrusion devices, shear panel dampers, etc. [17].

earthquake events [1]. Such damage is usually difficult to check, In addition to added damping and stiffness devices and bucking-

expensive to repair, and may pose a serious threat to peoples lives restrained braces, many new MYDs have been developed in recent

and properties. To prevent such damage, the concept of control years, such as a dual-function metallic damper [18], a shear and

strategies has been introduced into the field of structural engineer- flexural yielding damper [19], and dual-pipe dampers [20].

ing. Among the commonly used structure control methods, passive MYDs have been found to have many advantages such as an

energy dissipation technology has been proven to be an effective easy manufacturing process, convenient installation, relatively

method and is widely used in building and bridge structures [2,3]. low cost, and extreme reliability; therefore, they have been

A metallic yielding damper (MYD) is a type of hysteretic dam- adopted in many engineering practices [2125]. Generally speak-

per made of metal that utilizes the plastic deformation of hys- ing, by incorporating MYDs into a structure, the stiffness and

teretic materials, such as mild steel, to dissipate the input damping of the structure can be significantly adjusted [26]. More

seismic energy. Kelly et al. [4] first introduced MYDs into a building seismic energy is absorbed because of the increased damping.

structure to dissipate seismic energy after conducting conceptual Hence, the seismic responses of a structure with MYDs can be

and experimental studies. In the ensuing years, considerable clearly reduced. However, according to the response spectrum the-

efforts were made to investigate the seismic performance of the ory, the added stiffness of the structure with MYDs may result in a

structure with MYDs and use these devices in the field of structural decrease in displacement and an increase in acceleration. Because

of the great influence of MYDs on the structural performance and

Corresponding author.

the coupling effect of the added damping and stiffness, the practi-

cal design of a structure with MYDs is more complex than that of a

E-mail address: zhangruifu@tongji.edu.cn (R. Zhang).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2017.07.047

0141-0296/ 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

H. Shen et al. / Engineering Structures 150 (2017) 98114 99

structure with viscous dampers, where only the damping charac- 2. Response reduction curve

teristic is adjusted [17].

To adopt MYDs in practical engineering applications and meet 2.1. Response reduction indexes

performance targets, the development of appropriate design meth-

ods becomes very necessary. Tsai et al. [8] proposed a design The peak responses of an elastic single-degree-of-freedom

method that incorporates the capacity design concept and the opti- (SDOF) system can be predicted by a common elastic response

mal strength ratio of the main structure into MYDs, and Clark et al. spectrum. The mathematical relationship of the peak displacement

[27] suggested using the equivalent static lateral-force provision to Sd , pseudo-velocity Spv , and pseudo-acceleration Spa can be

design a structure with MYDs. The Japan Society of Seismic Isola- expressed as follows [45]:

tion proposed a design method based on the elastic response 2

reduction curve (ERRC) to design a structure with MYDs [28], T T

Sd T; f Spv T; f Spa T; f 1

which has been widely applied. However, these design methods 2p 2p

do not consider the inelastic behavior of the main structure. Under where T and f are the fundamental period and the damping ratio of

a moderate or severe seismic event, the main structure may expe- the SDOF system, respectively.

rience an obvious inelastic behavior, and these design methods The forcedisplacement relationship of an elastic main struc-

may not be suitable in such cases. To overcome these deficiencies, ture with an MYD is illustrated in Fig. 1, where the elastic stiffness

two well-known displacement-based design methodsa coeffi- of the main structure is K f , and the paralleled MYD is idealized as a

cient method based on FEMA 273 [29] and a capacity-spectrum bilinear model with elastic stiffness K a , yielding force F ay , and dis-

method based on ATC-40 [30]are used to design structures with

placement uay . The total curve is bilinear with the initial stiffness

MYDs. Because of the limitations involved in the application of

K 0 calculated by adding the elastic stiffness of the main structure

MYDs to existing structures and the complexity in the static non-

K f and that of the MYD K a . Once the MYD reaches its yielding dis-

linear analysis of structures with MYDs, the direct displacement-

placement, the corresponding total lateral force is F y , and the

based design method [3133] was developed. However, structural

increase in the lateral force is resisted only by the main structure

damage is caused by both the maximum displacement and the

until the maximum displacement umax . The equivalent linear

accumulated energy dissipation during seismic events. Thus, the

method is adopted herein to consider the inelastic behavior of

energy-based design method was developed for structures with

the structure with an MYD. Hence, the bilinear system can be sub-

MYDs [3436]. Considering the actual mechanical interaction

stituted with an equivalent linear model with stiffness K eq , as

between the damper and the brace, Lomiento et al. [37] proposed

shown in Fig. 1. Then, the seismic response of the structure with

a graphical design method. Some optimization algorithms and con-

the MYD can be estimated using the design response spectrum

trol theories are also used to design structures with MYDs, that is,

with the equivalent period T eq and the damping ratio feq . This esti-

to determine the number of MYDs along with their locations and

mation procedure is discussed further in this section.

characteristic parameters [3844]. Although some design methods

The equivalent period T eq can be determined as:

that consider the inelastic behavior of a structure have been pro-

s s

posed, they are still very complex for practical use. Therefore, it Kf la

is necessary to develop a design method for structures with MYDs T eq Tf Tf 2

K eq la K a =K f

that is simpler and more practical but also considers the structural

inelastic behavior. where la umax =uay is the maximum ductility coefficient, and T f is

In this study, while considering the elasticplastic behavior of the period of the main structure.

the main structure, the existing ERRC is expanded to the elastic Considering the inherent damping ratio f0 and the hysteretic

plastic response reduction curve (EPRRC) based on the equivalent damping ratio of the MYD fa , the total equivalent damping ratio

linear theory and the response spectrum theory. Within the elas- of the elastic structure with the MYD feq can be expressed as

ticplastic range, the EPRRC can directly reflect the relationship follows:

between the MYDs characteristic parameters and the responses

of a structure with MYDs. Then, the results of comparisons feq f0 fa 3

between the EPRRC and the ERRC are analyzed, and a simple design where f0 is usually set to 5% for an RC structure and 2% for a steel

method based on the EPRRC is proposed. Lastly, the effectiveness of structure. The term fa can be calculated as follows [30]:

the proposed design method is verified by applying it to a six-story

reinforced concrete (RC) frame and performing a time history ED

fa 4

analysis. 4pES

100 H. Shen et al. / Engineering Structures 150 (2017) 98114

T eq

of reciprocating movement and the maximum strain energy of the Rd Df 15

Tf

structure with the MYD, respectively. Then, using the maximum

ductility coefficient la , fa can be obtained as follows [46]: The expression for Ra is the same as that in Eq. (14).

2K a =K f la 1

fa 5 2.2. ERRC

pla K a =K f la

While under seismic excitation, considering that the maximum Substituting Eqs. (2) and (12) into Eq. (13) for the SPS, Rd can be

ductility coefficient varies from 1 to la because of the randomness rewritten as:

of the seismic response, the equivalent damping ratio feq can be s !

calculated as follows: Df la 1 la

Rd 16

Z la 2 la K a =K f 1 K a =K f la K a =K f

1 2 1 pla 1

feq f0 fa dl f0 ln 6

la 1 la pp lpa Substituting Eqs. (12) and (16) into Eq. (14) for the SPS, Ra can

be rewritten as:

1 s !

p 7 Df 1 la K a =K f

1 K a =K f Ra 1 17

2 1 K a =K f la

To compare the seismic responses of the structure with the

MYD with those of the structure without the MYD, two response Rd and Ra can be expressed as a function of K a =K f and la from Eqs.

reduction indexes Rd and Ra are defined as follows [46]: (16) and (17), respectively. Rd and Ra for the MPSs and the long-

period structures can also be derived in the same manner. The

Sd T eq ; feq T eq Spv T eq ; f0 expressions for Rd and Ra are based on the assumption that the main

Rd Df 8

Sd T f ; f0 T f Spv T f ; f0 structure is elastic and can predict the control effects on the seismic

responses of the main structure with an MYD. Hence, the Rd Ra

Spa T eq ; feq T f Spv T eq ; f0 curve is usually called an ERRC.

Ra Df 9 In this study, to derive the ERRC, the design response spectrum

Spa T f ; f0 T eq Spv T f ; f0

provided by the Chinese code for the seismic design of buildings

s [47] is used and can be expressed as follows:

1 25f0 8

Df 10 10g2 0:45T 0:45amax g; 0 < T 6 0:1 s

1 25feq >

>

>

>

>

< g2 amax g; 0:1 s < T 6 T g

where Rd and Ra are the displacement reduction index and the Spa T g c 18

pseudo-acceleration (base shear) reduction index, respectively, > T g2 amax g;

>

> T g < T 6 5T g

>

>

:

and Df represents the average reduction of the seismic responses. g2 0:2c g1 T 5T g amax g; 5T g < T 6 6 s

Considering the characteristics of pseudo-velocity and pseudo-

acceleration spectra within different fundamental periods, the for- 0:05 f

mulas of Rd and Ra can be derived according to the following c 0:9 19

0:3 6f

procedures:

0:05 f

(i) For short-period structures (SPSs), Spa is a constant, and Spv is g1 0:02 20

4 32f

a linear function. The equivalent period of the structure with

the MYD changes from the initial fundamental period T 0 to

0:05 f

T eq . The spectral velocity of the structure with the MYD g2 1 21

0:08 1:6f

can be evaluated according to the following equation:

Z T eq where T g is the characteristic period of the design response spec-

1

Spv T eq ; f0 Spv T; f0 dT 11 trum; amax is the maximum value of the seismic influence coeffi-

T eq T 0

cient; c is the exponential index of the descending branch; g1 is

T0

where Spv is the average pseudo-velocity from T 0 to T eq , and

ing modification factor; and g is the acceleration caused by gravity.

T 0 can be calculated as follows:

In practice, the fundamental periods of most building structures

s s

are between 0.1 s and 5T g ; therefore, the discussions here are

Kf 1

T0 Tf Tf 12 mainly limited to an SPS 0:1s < T 6 T g and an MPS

K0 1 K a =K f

T g < T 6 5T g . Based on the concept of an ERRC, the acceleration

Substituting Eq. (11) into Eqs. (8) and (9), Rd and Ra can be response spectrum is first transformed into a pseudo-velocity

obtained as follows: response spectrum according to Eq. (1), and then, Rd of the ERRC

is derived as follows:

T eq T 0 T eq

Rd Df 13

Tf 2T f (i) For SPSs 0:1 s < T 6 T g , Rd can be expressed as:

2

Tf Sd T eq ; feq g2eq T eq T eq T 0

Ra Rd 14 Rd 22

T eq Sd T f ; f0 g20 T f 2T f

(ii) For medium-period structures (MPSs) and long-period where g20 and g2eq are the damping modification factors of f0

structures, Spv is a constant. Therefore, Eq. (8) can be simpli- and feq , respectively.

fied as follows: (ii) For MPSs T g < T 6 5T g , Rd can be expressed as:

H. Shen et al. / Engineering Structures 150 (2017) 98114 101

Sd T eq ; feq g2eq T eq 2ceq T f c0 ceq trilinear model can be obtained, as shown in Fig. 3. A comparison

Rd 23

Sd T f ; f0 g20 T f Tg of this figure with Fig. 1 indicates that the linear main structure

is replaced by a bilinear model. In Fig. 3, the yielding force, yielding

where c20 and ceq are the exponential indexes of the descend- displacement, elastic stiffness, and ratio of post-yielding stiffness

ing branches of f0 and feq , respectively. are denoted by F fy , ufy , K f , and b, respectively. K 0f and K 0eq are the

According to Eqs. (14), (22), and (23), for f0 0:05, secant stiffnesses of the main structure and the total curve, respec-

1:5 6 la 6 15, 0 6 K a =K f 6 4, and T f =T g 1:5, the ERRCs of the tively. The other parameters have already been described in the

SPS and the MPS can be plotted in Fig. 2(a) and (b), respectively. previous section.

For a constant la , as K a =K f increases, both Ra and Rd of the SPS When minor inelastic deformations are sustained in the main

decrease (Fig. 2(a)), which implies that the control effect on struc- structure, the assumption of superposition can still be used

tural vibration is enhanced. When K a =K f exceeds a certain value approximately. To maximize the energy dissipation capacity of

and increases further, the improvement in the vibration control the MYDs and keep the main structure in the minor inelastic range,

effect may be limited. For a constant K a =K f , as la increases, Rd it is necessary to achieve sufficiently large displacement ductility

changes slightly whereas Ra decreases significantly. lmax lfy =lay , as recommended by Vargas et al. [33]. Based on

A comparison of Fig. 2(a) and (b) shows some similarities as their studies, the range lmax P 5 was proposed for most cases,

well as some differences between them. As K a =K f increases, Rd of i.e., la P 5lf , for the same umax .

the MPS decreases significantly, as in the case of the SPS. For a

smaller value of the constant la , Ra increases as K a =K f increases, 2.3.2. Equivalent period

whereas for a larger value of the constant la , Ra first decreases For the structure with the MYD, the MYD should be designed to

and then increases as K a =K f increases, as in the case of the MPS. yield before the main structure, as shown in Fig. 3. As the displace-

ment u increases, the equivalent period T 0eq of the inelastic main

2.3. EPRRC structure with the MYD may vary as follows:

Under frequent seismic events, the main structure can remain (i) When u 6 uay , both the main structure and the MYD are in

elastic, whereas MYDs can yield and dissipate seismic energy even the elastic range. Therefore, T 0eq is equal to T 0 and can be cal-

though their deformation may be small. However, under moderate culated according to Eq. (12).

or severe seismic events, both the main structure and the MYDs (ii) When uay < u < ufy , the main structure is in the elastic range,

may yield and enter the plastic range. In such cases, the stiffness

whereas the MYD is in the plastic range. Thus, T 0eq is equal to

of the structure with the MYDs decreases significantly and its

T eq and can be calculated according to Eq. (2).

dynamic performance changes accordingly. Based on the concept

(iii) When u P ufy , both the main structure and the MYD are in

of performance-based seismic design, a structure should satisfy

the performance targets under different intensity-level seismic the plastic range. With the plastic development of the main

events. Clearly, the seismic responses of the structures based on structure, the fundamental period increases as its stiffness

the elastic design method cannot be guaranteed to meet the per- declines. By using the equivalent linear method, K 0f and K 0eq

formance targets of the structures in the plastic range. Therefore, can be considered to be the equivalent stiffnesses of the

it is worthwhile to develop an EPRRC to consider the main struc- main structure and the structure with the MYD, respectively.

tures inelastic behavior and establish the theoretical basis for a Then, the equivalent period of the main structure T 0f and that

simple elasticplastic design method for structures with MYDs. of the structure with the MYD T 0eq can be calculated as

follows:

2.3.1. Forcedisplacement relationship s s

In this study, the main structure is considered to be inelastic Kf lf

T 0f T f T 24

and is represented by a bilinear model. With the superposition of K 0f 1 blf b

f

the bilinear model of the main structure and that of the MYD, a

102 H. Shen et al. / Engineering Structures 150 (2017) 98114

s v Z lf

u 1

K 0f u 1 blf b f0f f0f ldl

T 0eq T 0f T 0f t 25 lf

K 0eq 1 blf b 1 Ka

a Kf

1

( )

2qa m lf n

respectively, where lf umax =ufy and a ufy =uay are defined ln ln n 30

pm nlf mlf 1 nn=m m

as the ductility coefficient of the main structure and the ratio

of the yielding displacement of the main structure to that of

q a ab K a =K f 31

the MYD, respectively.

Under moderate or severe seismic events, both the main struc-

ture and the MYD may enter the plastic range and dissipate seismic n a K a =K f 33

energy. Therefore, by including three parts, namely, the inherent

damping ratio f0 , the nonlinear hysteretic damping ratio of the

2.3.4. Elasticplastic response reduction indexes

MYD f0a , and that of the main structure f0f , the total equivalent

As mentioned above, Rd and Ra are used as the evaluation

damping ratio of the structure with the MYD can be expressed as

indexes of the dampers control effect, although they are usually

follows:

calculated by neglecting the inelastic behavior of the main struc-

f0eq f0 f0a f0f 26 ture. Once the main structure enters the inelastic range, it will start

to dissipate seismic energy. In such a case, the main structure itself

According to Eq. (4), following the calculation detailed in can also be seen as a special damper, and this advantageous effect

Appendix A, the two terms f0a and f0f with the maximum ductility should also be considered in the performance evaluation of struc-

coefficients la and lf , respectively, can be expressed as follows: tures. Therefore, considering the inelastic behavior of the main

2K a =K f la 1 structure, the total equivalent damping ratio of the structure with-

f0a 27 out the MYD feq can be expressed as follows:

pla K a =K f a bla a

feq f0 ff 34

2aq1 blf 1

f0f 28

plf K a =K f a ablf 1 where ff is the nonlinear hysteretic damping ratio of the main

structure and is different from the damping ratio f0f in Eq. (26)

where q is the damping modification factor, and its values are listed

because of the difference in the maximum strain energies of the

in Table 1.

two systems. According to Eq. (4) and following the calculation

Under seismic excitation, the corresponding nonlinear hys-

detailed in Appendix A, ff with the maximum ductility lf can be

teretic damping ratios can be calculated as follows considering that

the ductility coefficient of the MYD ranges from 1 to la and that of calculated as follows:

the main structure ranges from 1 to lf because of the randomness 2q1 blf 1

of the seismic response: ff 35

( )

plf 1 blf b

Z la

1 2K a =K f q bla qb=b q b

f0a f0a ldl ln lnq b Under seismic excitation, considering that the maximum ductil-

la 1 pqla la b ity coefficient varies from 1 to lf because of the randomness of the

29 seismic response, the nonlinear hysteretic damping ratio of the

main structure ff can be expressed as follows:

Z lf

1 2q 1 blf b

ff ff ldl ln 36

lf 1 pblf lbf

Table 1

Damping modification factor q referenced from ATC-40 [30]. Based on the parameters of the main structure T 0f and ff , R0d and

Structural behavior type Feature of the hysteretic loop q R0a are defined as elasticplastic response reduction indexes and

A Full 1 the R0d R0a curve is called the EPRRC in this study. Then, the elas-

B Moderate 2/3 ticplastic displacement reduction index R0d can be derived as

C Poor 1/3

follows:

H. Shen et al. / Engineering Structures 150 (2017) 98114 103

104 H. Shen et al. / Engineering Structures 150 (2017) 98114

(i) For the SPS 0:1s < T 6 T g , R0d is expressed as: same as the parameters used to plot the ERRCs in Fig. 2. Under

the same conditions, the EPRRCs (solid lines) and the ERRCs (dot-

!

g2eq T 0eq T 0eq T 0

Sd T 0eq ; f0eq ted lines) are plotted together and compared, as shown in Fig. 4.

R0d 37 The figure indicates that the curve shape of the EPRRC is similar

0

Sd T f ; ff g2f T 0f T 0f T f

to that of the ERRC for different SPS and MPS cases. Some differ-

where g2f and g2eq are the damping modification factors of ff ences are also found between the two sets of curves. For a conve-

nient evaluation of the differences, the displacement reduction

and f0eq , respectively.

ratio ud and the acceleration reduction ratio ua are respectively

defined as follows:

(ii) For the MPS T g < T 6 5T g , R0d is expressed as:

!2ceq !cf ceq R0d Rd

g2eq T 0eq

Sd T 0eq ; f0eq T 0f ud 100% 40

R0d 38 R0d

Sd T 0f ; ff g2f T 0f Tg

where c2f and c2eq are the exponential indexes of the descend- R0a Ra

ua 100% 41

ing branches of ff and f0eq , respectively. Ra

The elasticplastic acceleration reduction index R0a of both the For example, for K a =K f 1, the response reduction ratios of the

SPS and the MPS can be expressed as follows: SPS and those of the MPS are listed in Tables 2and 3, respectively.

!2 In the cases of the SPS and MPS, as la increases, ud increases and

T 0f goes from negative to positive, which means that for a large la , the

R0a R0d 39

T 0eq ERRC may overestimate the control effect of displacement. In con-

trast, the ERRC may underestimate the control effect of displace-

ment for a small value of la . ud decreases as lf increases, which

2.4. Comparisons between EPRRC and ERRC thereby implies that an improvement in the ductility of the main

structure enhances the control effect of displacement. As la and

By setting T f =T g 1:5, b 0:6, and q 2=3 (type B in Table 1) lf increase, ua increases in the cases of the SPS and MPS, which

and according to Eqs. (37)(39), a series of EPRRCs (lf 1:5, 2.0, means that the control effect on the structural acceleration accord-

and 3.0) of the SPS and the MPS can be obtained with the param- ing to the ERRC is overestimated and the extent of overestimation

eters f0 0:05, 1:5 6 la 6 15, and 0 6 K a =K f 6 4, which are the increases as la and lf increase, especially in the case of the MPS.

Table 2

Response reduction ratios of the SPS (K a =K f 1).

Reduction ratio lf la

1.50 2.00 3.00 4.00 8.00 15.00

ud 1.5 4% 3% 1% 1% 4% 6%

2.0 7% 5% 2% 0% 4% 6%

3.0 9% 7% 4% 1% 3% 6%

ua 1.5 2% 2% 3% 4% 6% 7%

2.0 3% 3% 4% 5% 7% 8%

3.0 4% 4% 5% 6% 7% 8%

Table 3

Response reduction ratios of the MPS (K a =K f 1).

Reduction ratio lf la

1.50 2.00 3.00 4.00 8.00 15.00

ud 1.5 1% 2% 5% 7% 10% 11%

2.0 3% 0% 4% 6% 10% 11%

3.0 5% 2% 3% 5% 9% 10%

ua 1.5 5% 7% 9% 10% 12% 12%

2.0 6% 8% 10% 11% 13% 13%

3.0 8% 10% 12% 13% 13% 13%

Table 4

Response reduction ratios of the SPS (la 2).

Reduction ratio lf K a =K f

ud 1.5 3% 3% 4% 3% 2% 1%

2.0 3% 3% 4% 3% 1% 0%

3.0 2% 3% 3% 2% 0% 2%

ua 1.5 3% 4% 6% 6% 6% 6%

2.0 4% 5% 7% 8% 8% 8%

3.0 4% 5% 7% 9% 10% 10%

H. Shen et al. / Engineering Structures 150 (2017) 98114 105

Table 5

Response reduction ratios of the MPS (la 2).

Reduction ratio lf K a =K f

ud 1.5 5% 7% 10% 11% 11% 10%

2.0 5% 7% 10% 10% 10% 9%

3.0 5% 7% 9% 10% 9% 8%

ua 1.5 6% 8% 12% 14% 15% 16%

2.0 6% 9% 13% 16% 18% 19%

3.0 6% 9% 13% 18% 20% 21%

On the other hand, consider the example where la 8. For this structural acceleration according to the ERRC is overestimated,

case, the response reduction ratios of the SPS and those of the MPS and the extent of overestimation increases as K a =K f and lf

are listed in Tables 4 and 5, respectively. In the case of the SPS and increase, especially in the case of the MPS.

the MPS, as K a =K f increases, ud initially increases and then The abovementioned analysis indicates that the ERRC may over-

decreases, which means that the control effect of the displacement estimate the vibration control effects of the MYD, especially their

according to the ERRC is overestimated, and the extent of overesti- effect on acceleration reduction, because the inelastic behavior of

mation initially increases and then decreases. As lf increases, ud the main structure is neglected. The overestimation can make the

decreases in the cases of the SPS and MPS, which implies that structure designed according to the ERRC unsafe. Therefore, to

the control effect of displacement can be improved by increasing ensure the safety of a structure with MYDs, it is necessary to con-

the ductility of the main structure. In addition, as K a =K f and lf sider the inelasticity of the main structure during a seismic event

increase, ua increases, which means that the control effect on the and develop a new design method based on the EPRRC.

106 H. Shen et al. / Engineering Structures 150 (2017) 98114

3. Design method based on EPRRC where Sa and Sd are the spectral acceleration and displacement,

respectively; Q 1 and Q i are the base and ith story shear forces,

A flowchart of the proposed design method based on the EPRRC respectively; M is the equivalent mass; mi is the ith story mass;

is shown in Fig. 5, and the detailed design procedures are given as c1 is the modal participation factor in the first mode; ui;1 is the

follows: modal displacement of the ith story (the ith mass in the multiple-

Step 1: Obtain the capacity spectrum and the story stiffness of degrees-of-freedom system) in the first mode; un;1 is the modal dis-

the primary structure. A pushover analysis of the primary structure placement at the top of the structure in the first mode; and Dn is the

is carried out, and the relationship curves of the story shear force top story displacement.

Q i and the story drift di are obtained. Based on the Q i di curves, The story stiffness K i can be expressed as follows:

the capacity spectrum can be obtained according to the following

equations: Q ei

Ki 46

Dei

Q1

Sa 42

M where Q ei and Dei are the ith story shear force and displacement

within the elastic range, respectively.

Dn

Sd 43 Step 2: Determine the stories where the MYDs should be

c1 ui;1 installed. The target structural performance point (TSPP) (Sdp , Sap )

P can be obtained according to the capacity spectrum and the design

mi ui;1 2

M P 44 response spectrum [48], and then, the story drift distribution di can

mi u2i;1 be determined using the TSPP and the Q i di curve. The target

P story drift [d] is set according to the design requirement, and then,

mi ui;1

c1 P 45 the ith story displacement reduction Rdi can be calculated as

mi u2i1 follows:

H. Shen et al. / Engineering Structures 150 (2017) 98114 107

d

Rdi 47

di

when Rdi is less than 1.0. The stories with relatively large drifts,

which should be reduced, are selected to install the MYDs.

Step 3: Determine the parameters of the EPRRC. By using the

energy equivalent method, the equivalent bilinear representation

of the capacity spectrum associated with the TSPP is plotted, and

the yielding point (Sdy , Say ) can be determined. Then, the ductility

coefficient of the main structure lf and the ratio of post-yielding

stiffness b can be obtained according to the following equations:

Sdp Say

lf 48

Sdy Sap

Fig. 7. Trilinear hysteretic model for the plastic hinges.

Sap Say Sdy

b 49

Sdp Sdy Say

Table 7

The ith story yielding drift dyi of the Q i di curves can also be Modal periods of ST0.

determined by using the energy equivalent method, and then the

ith story ductility coefficient lfi can be obtained as follows: Modals 1st modal 2nd modal 3rd modal

Period (s) 1.511 1.302 1.254

di

lfi 50

dyi

According to the design requirements and the performance of

practical products, the ith story yielding displacement of the MYDs

uai can be selected to meet the required condition, lai P 5lfi , and

then, the ductility coefficient of the MYDs of the ith story lai be cal-

culated as follows:

uai hi d

lai 51

uai uai

where [uai ] and hi are the ith story target displacement of MYDs and

the ith story height, respectively.

Step 4: Determine the yielding force of the MYDs. For the given

maximum ductility coefficient lai of the EPRRC, it is possible to

obtain one or two optional values of the stiffness ratio K ai =K i ,

where K ai denotes the ith story elastic stiffness of the MYDs, and

it is easy to judge as to which one of these values is a reasonable

one from the EPRRC. Then, from the EPRRC, the ith story elastic Fig. 8. Capacity spectrum and its bilinear representation.

stiffness ratio K ai =K i is determined by using the values of lf , b,

Rdi , and lai . Finally, the ith story yielding force of the MYDs F ai is

calculated as follows:

Table 8

Elastic stiffness distribution of ST0.

K ai

F ai K i uai K ai uai 52

Ki Story 1 2 3 4 5 6

Elastic stiffness K i (kN/mm) 141 170 173 171 164 140

4. Design example

design method. The plan and elevation of the RC frame are shown

in Fig. 6. The beam sections in the Y-direction and of the middle

span in the X-direction are 300 400 mm (width height), and

Table 6

Model information.

P

Story Story height (m) Mass of story mi (t) Total mass of story mi (t)

6 3.6 594.5 594.5

5 3.6 515.7 1110.2

4 3.6 515.7 1625.9

3 3.6 515.7 2141.6

2 3.6 515.7 2657.3

1 5.5 558.7 3216.0

Fig. 9. Curves of the story shear force and the drift Q i di .

108 H. Shen et al. / Engineering Structures 150 (2017) 98114

Table 9

Pushover analysis results of ST0 at the TSPP.

Story 1 2 3 4 5 6

Shear force (pushover) Q i (kN) 3140 2670 2304 1928 1422 743

Story drift (pushover) di (rad) 1/161 1/158 1/170 1/214 1/327 1/658

Target story drift [di ](rad) 1/200

Reduction ratio of displacement Rdi 0.81 0.79 0.85 1.07 1.64 3.29

Stories requiring dampers 1, 2, 3

those remaining are 300 600 mm. The column sections of the X-direction are 2.5 kN/m2, and those remaining are 2.0 kN/m2.

first story are 450 450 mm, while the other columns are The roof dead and live loads are 6.5 kN/m2 and 2.0 kN/m2,

400 400 mm. The slabs of the floor and roof thicknesses respectively. Table 6 lists the mass of each story, considering the

are 120 mm. All the dead loads from the first to the fifth story entire dead load and 0.5 times the live load. The inherent damping

are 5.0 kN/m2. The live loads of the middle span in the ratio f0 of the RC frame is 0.05.

H. Shen et al. / Engineering Structures 150 (2017) 98114 109

TSPP (Sdu , Sau ) is found to be (66.5 mm, 94.4 gal), and the yielding

point (Sdy , Say ) is found to be (36.0 mm, 62.0 gal) by using the

energy equivalent method. Then, the ductility coefficient of ST0

lf and the ratio of post-yielding stiffness b are calculated to be

1.21 and 0.62 according to Eqs. (48) and (49), respectively.

Based on the Q i di curve obtained from the pushover anal-

ysis, the story elastic stiffness distribution of ST0 is determined

according to Eq. (46) and the stiffness values are listed in

Table 8. The story drift distribution di of ST0 corresponding to

the TSPP is shown in Fig. 9, and the associated parameter

values are listed in Table 9. Because the target story drift is

[d] = 1/200 (dashed line in Fig. 9), the displacement reduction

Rdi can be determined according to Eq. (47). The MYDs should

be installed in the stories, where Rdi exceeds 1. Therefore, from

Table 9, it can be inferred that the MYDs should be installed at

the 1st-3rd stories and the MYD arrangement is shown in

Fig. 10.

The first model period of ST0 T 1 1:511 s is between

T g 0:4 s and 5T g 2 s; therefore, ST0 can be considered as an

MPS. By setting lf 1:21, b 0:62, f0 0:05, and the period

Fig. 11. Story demand points in the EPRRC (T 1 =T g 3:78).

ratio T 1 =T g 3:78, the EPRRC is plotted, as shown in Fig. 11.

In this study, the yielding displacement of the MYD uai is set

to 2 mm. Then, the ductility coefficient of the MYD lai is

The RC frame is modeled as a three-dimensional frame model. obtained according to Eq. (51), and the obtained coefficient

For the computational efficiency, assuming that bending yielding satisfies the condition lai P 5lfi . When lai and Rdi are provided,

occurs at the ends of members, plastic hinges and fiber segments the elastic stiffness ratio K ai =K i can be determined according to

are placed at the end of the beams and columns, respectively. the EPRRC. Its values are listed in Table 10, and the correspond-

Fig. 7 shows a trilinear model adopted for the bending moment ing story demand points are shown in Fig. 11. Further, the elastic

curvature backbone relationships of the plastic hinges, where stiffness K ai and the design yielding force F ay are determined

superscripts p and n denote positive and negative directions, according to Eq. (52), and the parameters of the MYDs are listed

respectively; M y and M u denote the yielding bending moment in Table 10.

and the hardening bending moment, respectively; and wy , wu , and

wx represent the yielding curvature, hardening curvature, and ulti- 4.3. Verification by time history analysis

mate curvature of the beams sections, respectively. The fiber seg-

ments are chosen to simulate the mechanical behavior of the 4.3.1. Seismic input

columns. The biaxial bending and PMM interaction can be auto- To verify the control effect of the additional MYDs, 12 different

matically calculated. seismic waves are chosen to carry out the time history analysis:

The compression strength of the concrete is 30 MPa, and the AW1 and AW2, which are artificial seismic waves, and NW1

yielding strengths of the longitudinal steel bar and the stirrup NW10, which are natural seismic waves. These natural seismic

bar are 400 and 235 MPa, respectively. The characteristic period waves are selected from the strong motion database of the Pacific

of the ground motion T g and the peak ground acceleration (PGA) Earthquake Research Center [4951]. All the seismic waves follow

are set as 0.4 s and 0.2 g, respectively. The RC frame without the the Chinese design response spectrum with a characteristic period

MYDs and the RC frame with the MYDs are denoted as ST0 and T g of 0.4 s, and the normalized design spectrum in the Chinese code

ST1, respectively. A model analysis is carried out for ST0, and the is expressed as follows:

first three modal periods are obtained and listed in Table 7. 8

>

> 1 11:5T; 0 < T 6 0:1 s

>

>

4.2. Damper arrangement and design < 2:25; 0:1 s < T 6 0:4 s

Spa 0:9 53

>

> 2:25 0:4 ; 0:4 s < T 6 2 s

A pushover analysis is conducted for ST0, and the capacity spec- >

> T

: 0:9

trum obtained according to Eqs. (42)(45) is shown in Fig. 8. The 2:250:2 0:02T 2; 0:2 s < T 6 6 s

Table 10

Parameters of the MYDs.

Story 1 2 3

Story parameters of the MYDs Yielding displacement uai (mm) 2 2 2

Target displacement [ uai ] (mm) 27.5 18 18

Ductility coefficient lfi 2.29 1.79 1.77

Ductility coefficient lai 13.75 9 9

Elastic stiffness ratio K ai =K i 1.13 0.97 0.60

Elastic stiffness K ai (kN/mm) 159.33 164.90 103.80

Design yielding force F ai (kN) 318.66 329.80 207.60

Number of dampers 4 4 4

Parameters of the MYDs for each damper Yielding force of each damper F (kN) 80 90 60

Yielding displacement u (mm) 2 2 2

Elastic stiffness of each damper K (kN/mm) 40 45 30

110 H. Shen et al. / Engineering Structures 150 (2017) 98114

Table 11

Details of natural waves.

NW1 9 1942 6.50 56.88 Borrego El Centro Array #9

NW2 15 1952 7.36 38.42 Kern County Taft Lincoln School

NW3 28 1966 6.19 17.64 Parkfield Cholame-Shandon Array #12

NW4 68 1971 6.61 22.77 San Fernando LA-Hollywood Stor FF

NW5 93 1971 6.61 39.45 San Fernando Whittier Narrows Dam

NW6 131 1976 5.91 41.37 Friuli_Italy-02 Codroipo

NW7 138 1978 7.35 24.07 Tabas_Iran Boshrooyeh

NW8 169 1979 6.53 22.03 Imperial Valley-06 Delta

NW9 186 1979 6.53 35.64 Imperial Valley-06 Niland Fire Station

NW10 215 1980 5.80 15.84 Livermore-01 San Ramon Fire Station

The details of the five natural seismic waves are listed in 4.3.2. Verification of the damper arrangement

Table 11, and the corresponding response spectra and the code Fig. 13 shows the story displacements and the story drifts of ST0

spectrum are shown in Fig. 12. According to the Chinese code for obtained by conducting the time history analysis at PGA = 0.2 g.

seismic design of buildings [47], the PGAs of the seismic waves Then, the average story drifts of ST0 are obtained. It is found that

are set to 0.07 g, 0.2 g, and 0.4 g corresponding to the frequent, the average story drifts at the 1st-3rd stories do not meet the story

moderate, and severe seismic events, respectively, before carrying target drift [d] = 1/200; therefore, it is necessary to install MYDs at

out time history analysis. the 1st-3rd stories.

H. Shen et al. / Engineering Structures 150 (2017) 98114 111

Fig. 14. Average story drifts and shear forces (PGA = 0.07 g).

Fig. 15. Average story drifts and shear forces (PGA = 0.2 g).

Fig. 16. Average story drifts and shear forces (PGA = 0.4 g).

112 H. Shen et al. / Engineering Structures 150 (2017) 98114

Table 12

Reduction ratio of the seismic responses between ST0 and ST1.

Story drift (rad) 0.07 1/408 1/712 74%

0.2 1/169 1/218 29%

0.4 1/71 1/89 26%

Story shear force (kN) 0.07 1565.51 988.39 58%

0.2 2839.89 2543.94 12%

0.4 3597.85 3474.06 4%

4.3.3. Verification of the mitigation effect for a structure with MYDs. First, the existing ERRC method is intro-

ST1, which is designed according to the proposed method, is duced, which is then expanded to the EPRRC method by consider-

analyzed to investigate the mitigation effect by the time history ing the elasticplastic behavior of the main structure. Second, the

analysis. The 12 different seismic waves are used as the base exci- procedures of the proposed method are described, and the results

tation. The PGA is set as 0.07 g, 0.2 g, and 0.4 g, and the average of the EPRRC and ERRC are compared. Third, a six-story RC frame

story drifts and shear forces of ST1 and those of ST0 are shown model is analyzed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed

and compared in Figs. 1416. These figures indicate that MYDs design procedure. Based on the study results, the following main

can be used to effectively control the story drifts and shear forces, conclusions can be drawn:

and the story drifts of ST1 can adequately satisfy the performance

targets 1/550, 1/200, and 1/80 under frequent, moderate, and sev- (i) The existing ERRC method, in which the inelastic behavior of

ere seismic events, respectively. Hence, the effectiveness of the the main structure is neglected, is found to overestimate the

proposed method is verified. vibration control effects of a structure with MYDs, especially

For PGA values of 0.07 g, 0.2 g, and 0.4 g, the maximum story their effect on the acceleration reduction. Therefore, the

drifts and shear forces of ST0 and those of ST1 are listed in Table 12. inelastic behavior of the main structure should be consid-

For the convenient evaluation of the control effect, a comparison ered when evaluating the seismic performance of a structure

index is defined as follows: with MYDs.

(ii) When the inelastic behavior of the main structure is consid-

RST0 RST1

j 100% 54 ered, the proposed EPRRC can directly reflect the relation-

RST1 ship between the MYDs characteristic parameters and the

where RST0 and RST1 are the maximum seismic responses of ST0 and responses of the structure with the MYDs and, more impor-

ST1, respectively. tantly, can lead to a safer design of a structure with the

Table 12 indicates that both the maximum story drifts and the MYDs.

story forces of the main structure can be effectively reduced, espe- (iii) The proposed method can be used to effectively reduce both

cially in the case of PGA = 0.07 g, using the proposed method. the maximum story drifts and the story forces of the main

The hysteretic loops between the damping force and the actu- structure, and the seismic performance targets under differ-

ated displacement of three MYDs installed at the left side of the ent seismic levels can be adequately satisfied.

Y1 axis (Fig. 10) under the seismic wave NWX1 for PGA = 0.2 g

are shown in Fig. 17. The results indicate that the MYDs provide Acknowledgments

good energy dissipation during the seismic event.

This study was supported by the Shanghai Pujiang Program

5. Conclusion under Grant No. 17PJ1409200, the National Natural Science Foun-

dation of China under Grant No. 51308418, and by the Sichuan

In this study, based on the equivalent linear theory and the Department of Science and Technology under Grant No.

response spectrum theory, a simple design method is proposed 2016JZ0009.

H. Shen et al. / Engineering Structures 150 (2017) 98114 113

ratios

When the main structure comes into the plastic range, the non-

linear hysteretic damping ratio of the MYD f0a and that of the main

structure f0f in the controlled structure and the nonlinear hysteretic

damping ratio of the main structure ff in the uncontrolled

structure are three important parameters to derive the EPRRC. In

this study, the detailed processes of the calculations for these

damping ratios are presented as follows according to Eq. (4):

(i) The nonlinear hysteretic damping ratio of the MYD f0a with

the maximum ductility coefficient la can be calculated as

follows, and the calculation diagram is shown as Fig. A1:

ESa umax uay K a ufy K f bK f umax ufy A2

2

EDa 2K a =K f la 1 (ii) The nonlinear hysteretic damping ratio of the main structure

f0a A3 f0f with the maximum ductility coefficient lf can be calcu-

4pESa pla K a =K f a bla a

lated as follows, and the calculation diagram is shown as

where EDa is the energy dissipated by the MYD in one cycle of Fig. A2.

n

reciprocating movement, and ESa is the maximum strain

EDf 4 K f ufy bK f umax ufy umax K f u2fy bK f umax ufy 2

energy of the main structure with the MYD.

2ufy bK f umax ufy 4K f 1 bufy umax ufy A4

1

ESf umax uay K a ufy K f bK f umax ufy A5

2

f0f A6

4pESf plf K a =K f a ablf 1

one cycle of reciprocating movement, and ESf is the maxi-

mum strain energy of the main structure with the MYD.

(iii) The nonlinear hysteretic damping ratio of the main structure

ff with the maximum ductility coefficient lf can be calcu-

lated as follows, and the calculation diagram is shown as

Fig. A3.

1

Fig. A1. Calculation diagram of f0a . ESa umax ufy K f bK f umax ufy A8

2

ff A9

4pESf plf 1 blf b

where EDf is the energy dissipated by the main structure in

one cycle of reciprocating movement, and ESf is the maxi-

mum strain energy of the main structure without the MYD.

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