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Kuwait University

College of Engineering & Petroleum


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Literature survey

Production of Aniline
[by vapor phase catalytic reduction of
nitrobenzene]

Abdulaziz Alshomer 208113942


YousifAlmuneefi 208112671
AbdulhameedAlawadhi 208115609
Hasanbu-Taleb 207216952
Hussainbu-Taleb 207217011

Instructed by:
Dr.Faheem
9/23/2012
Table of Content:

# Topic Pages
1 List of Tables 3
2 List of Figures 5
3 Introduction 5
4 History 6
5 World Production and 7-9
Consumption
6 Uses 9
7 Feedstock and product Description 10-20
8 Process Flow Sheet 21-29
9 Comparison flow sheets 30
10 Basic economic analysis 31
11 Conclusion 32
12 Recommended flow sheet 32
13 References 33

2
List of Tables:
Table (1-1)Aniline Global supply and demand7

Table 1-2 Aniline supply and demand in U.S. 7

Table (1-3)Aniline supply and demand in china.8

Table (1-4)Anilines china consumption capacity. 9

Table (1-5)Aniline Uses9

Table (1-6)Physical and chemical properties of Benzen..10

Table (1-7)Physical and chemical properties of Nitrobenze 11

Table (1-8)Physical and chemical properties of ammonia... 12

Table (1-9)Physical and chemical properties of phenol.... 12

Table (1-10)Physical and chemical properties of Hydrogen. 13

Table (1-11)Physical and chemical properties of water. 14

Table (1-12)Physical and chemical properties of Nitric Acid. 15

Table (1-13)Physical and chemical properties of sulfuric acid 16

Table (1-14)Physical and chemical properties of iron. 17

Table (1-15)Physical and chemical properties of Hydrochloric Acid. 18

Table (1-16)Physical and chemical properties of ferric chloride........ 19

Table (1-17)Physical properties of aniline...... 20

Table (1-18)Name and description unit.......... 26

Table (1-19)Feedstock condition .... 26

Table (1-20)Product condition..... 26

Table (1-21)Name of stream...27

3
Table (1-22)Alternative #1...30

Table (1-23)Alternative #3...30

Table (1-24) Comparison between the alternatives ..30


Table (1-25)Cost of materials. 31

List of Figures:
Figure (1-1)Structure of Aniline.5

Figure (1-2)World consumption of Aniline-2010...8

Figure (1-3)Process flow sheet of the production of aniline by Ammonolysis


of Phenol21

Figure (1-4)Process flow sheet of the production of aniline by liquid phase


reduction of nitrobenzene.....23

Figure (1-5)Process flow sheet of the production of aniline by vapor phase


reduction of nitro benzene.25

4
Introduction:

Aniline, phenylamine or aminobenzene is a colorless organic compound


(aromatic amine) which has the formula C6H5NH2. It contains two groups
(phenyl group and amino group) linked together.

Aniline is toxic by inhalation of the vapor and by skin absorption.It is


flammable liquid that is slightly soluble in water and soluble in alcohol and
ether.

Aniline is a primary amine in which one of hydrogen atoms in the ammonia


molecule is exchanged by the phenyl group. The simplest way to write the
structure of aniline is:

Figure(1-1) Structure of Aniline

It is a main material that is used in chemical industries; also it has a fish


rotten like smell.

5
History:

Aniline was first isolated from the destructive distillation of indigo in 1826
by crystalline. In 1834, Friedrich Rungeisolated a substance from coal tar
which produced a beautiful blue color on treatment with chloride of lime,
which he named kyanol or cyanol.

In 1841, C. J. Fritzsche showed that by treating indigo with caustic potash it


producesoil, which he named aniline.

About the same time N. N. Zinin found that on reducing nitrobenzene, a


base was formed which he named benzidam.

August Wilhelm von Hofmann investigated these variously prepared


substances, and proved them to be identical (1855), and since then they took
their place as one body, under the name aniline or phenylamine.

The first industrial-scale use was in the manufacture of mauveine, a purple


dye discovered in 1856 by William Henry Perkin.

One of aniline derivatives called (p-Toluidine), can be used in qualitative


analysis to prepare carboxylic acid derivatives.

Developments in medicine
In the late 19th century, aniline emerged as an analgesic drug, its cardiac-
suppressive side effects countered with caffeine.

6
World production& Consumption of Aniline:

* World production:

MDI [methylene diphenyldisocyanate] has been the driving force behind the
recovery of the aniline business since 1982 when the industry had acapacity
utilization rate of less than 50%. By 1996 capacity utilization
hadapproached 95% in some regions.
Thecapacity ofworld production ofanilinein 1999 was found in these
regions: Western Europe - 47% North America -30% and Asia / Pacific -
19%.

million
Year ton/year
1988 1.5
1996 2.2
1996 2.9
2000 2.97
2010 4

Table (1-1) Aniline Global supply and demand1

Historicalproduction in the United States is summarized in Table 1-1.

Millions of Pounds

Type 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001


Capacity 1380 1420 1535 1745 1745 2310 2310
Total
prod. 1388 1395 1339 1545 1588 1866 1975
Imports - 24 60 42 26 11 12
Exports 67 41 19 43 38 58 65
Demand 1321 1378 1380 1544 1574 1819 1922

Table (1-2) Aniline supply and demand in U.S2

7
Year ton/year
1996 142,700
2000 200,000
2004 435,000
2005 620,000

Table (1-3) Aniline supply and demand in china3

World consumption of Aniline:

western europe
china
united states
japan
Rep.of korea
Central/Eastern Europe
India
Central/South africa
other

Figure (1-2) World consumption of Aniline-2010

World consumption of aniline grew at an average annual rate of 3% during


20062010, the result of a growing global economy during 20012008,
declines during the economic recession in 2009 and the recovery in 2010,
and growth due to increased MDI capacity.
Strong Asian demand for all applications of MDI boosted world demand
during 20062010. World consumption of aniline is forecast to grow at an
average annual rate of 3.8% during 20102015.
Continuing rapid demand growth in some regions, particularly in China,
Other Asia and Europe, mainly the result of continued expansion of

8
nitrobenzene/aniline/MDI units, will balance out moderate growth in
markets such as the Americas.

Chinas consumption structure of aniline is different from developed


countries, primarily used in rubber processing additives, dyes and organic
pigments, pharmaceuticals and organic intermediates production.

Year consumption(kt)
1993 100
1999 148.4
2000 177.9
2004 387
2010 1100
Table (1-4)Anilines china consumption capacity4

Uses

Aniline is mainly used as feed stock for the polyurethane industry. The
largest application of aniline is for the preparation of methylene
diphenyldisocyanate(MDI).Other uses include rubber processing chemicals
(9%), herbicides (2%), and dyes and pigments (2%).Many drugs can be
prepared from aniline such as paracetamol(acetaminophen)and used in the
dye industry as a precursor to indigo.

Application %
Isocyanate 85%
Rubber Chemicals 9%
Agricultural Chemicals Pesticides 3%
Dyes & Pigments 2%
Specialty Fibers 1%
Miscellaneous 1%
Table (1-5)Aniline Uses5

9
Feed stock & product description:
Benzene:

Molecular formula C6H6

Molar mass 78.11 g mol1

Appearance Colorless liquid

Density 0.8765(20) g/cm3

Melting point 5.5 C, 278.7 K

Boiling point 80.1 C, 353.3 K

Solubility in water 1.8 g/L (15 C)

Lambda()max 255 nm

Viscosity 0.652 cP at 20 C

Dipole moment 0D

Table (1-6)Physical and chemical properties of Benzene6

Nitrobenzene:

Molecular formula C6H5NO2


Molar mass 123.06 g/mol
Appearance yellowish liquid
Density 1.199 g/cm3
Melting point 5.7 C
Boiling point 210.9 C
Solubility in water 0.19 g/100 ml at 20 C
Table(1-7) Physical and chemical properties of Nitrobenzen7

10
Ammonia:

Molecular
NH3
formula

Molar mass 17.031 g/mol

Colourless gas with strong pungent


Appearance
odour

0.86 kg/m3 (1.013 bar at boiling point)


0.73 kg/m3 (1.013 bar at 15 C)
Density 681.9 kg/m3 at 33.3 C (liquid)
817 kg/m3 at 80 C (transparent
solid)

Melting point 77.73 C, 195 K, -108 F

Boiling point 33.34 C, 240 K, -28 F


47% (0 C)
Solubility in
31% (25 C)
water
28% (50 C)

Acidity (pKa) 32.5 (33 C), 10.5 (DMSO)

Basicity (pKb) 4.75


Structure
Molecular shape Trigonal pyramid
Dipole moment 1.42 D
Thermochemistry

11
Std enthalpy of
formation 46 kJmol1
fHo298
Standard molar
193 Jmol1K1
entropySo298

Table(1-8) Physical and chemical properties of ammonia8

Phenol:

Molecular formula C6H6O

Molar mass 94.11 g mol1

Appearance transparent crystalline solid

Density 1.07 g/cm3

Melting point 40.5 C, 314 K, 105 F

Boiling point 181.7 C, 455 K, 359 F

Solubility in water 8.3 g/100 mL (20 C)

Acidity (pKa) 9.95 (in water)


29.1 (in acetonitrile)

Dipole moment 1.7 D


Table (1-9)Physical and chemical properties of phenol9

12
Hydrogen:

Molecular H2

Phase gas

(0 C, 101.325 kPa)
Density
0.08988 g/L

Liquid density
0.07 (0.0763 solid) gcm3
at (m.p)

Liquid density
0.07099 gcm3
at (b.p)

Melting point 14.01 K, -259.14 C, -434.45 F

Boiling point 20.28 K, -252.87 C, -423.17 F

Triple point 13.8033 K (-259C), 7.042 kPa

Critical point 32.97 K, 1.293 MPa

Heat of fusion (H2) 0.117 kJmol1

Heat of
(H2) 0.904 kJmol1
vaporization

Table (1-10) Physical and chemical properties of Hydrogen10

13
Water:

Molecular H2O
formula

Molar mass 18.01528(33) g/mol

Appearance white solid or almost colorless,


transparent, with a slight hint of blue,
crystalline solid or liquid

Density 1000 kg/m3, liquid (4 C) (62.4 lb/cu. ft)


917 kg/m3, solid

Melting point 0 C, 32 F, (273.15 K)

Boiling point 99.98 C, 211.97 F (373.13 K)

Acidity (pKa) 15.74


~3536

Basicity (pKb) 15.74

Refractive 1.3330
index (nD)

Viscosity 0.001 Pas at 20 C

Table (1-11) Physical and chemical properties of water11

14
Nitric Acid:

Molecular
HNO3
formula

Molar mass 63.01 g mol1

Appearance Colorless liquid

Density 1.5129 g cm3

Melting point -42 C, 231 K, -44 F

83 C, 356 K, 181 F (68% solution


Boiling point
boils at 121 C)
Solubility in
Completely miscible
water
Acidity (pKa) -1.4
Refractive index
1.397 (16.5 C)
(nD)
Dipole moment 2.17 0.02 D
Thermo chemistry
Std enthalpy of
formation 207 kJmol1
fHo298
Standard molar
146 Jmol1K1
entropySo298

Table(1-12) Physical and chemical properties of Nitric Acid12

15
Sulfuric Acid:

Molecular
H2SO4
formula

Molar mass 98.079 g/mol

Appearance Clear, colorless, odorless liquid

Density 1.84 g/cm3, liquid

Melting point 10 C, 283 K, 50 F

Boiling point 337 C, 610 K, 639 F


Solubility in
Miscible
water
Acidity (pKa) 3, 1.99
Viscosity 26.7 cP (20 C)
Thermo chemistry
Std enthalpy of
formation 814 kJmol1
fHo298
Standard molar
157 Jmol1K1
entropySo298

Table (1-13) Physical and chemical properties of sulfuric acid13

16
Iron:

Molecular formula Fe

Density 7.874 gcm3

Liquid density at
6.98 gcm3
m.p.

Melting point 1811 K, 1538 C, 2800 F

Boiling point 3134 K, 2862 C, 5182 F

Heat of fusion 13.81 kJmol1

Heat of
340 kJmol1
vaporization

Molar heat
25.10 Jmol1K1
capacity

Table (1-14) Physical and chemical properties of iron14

17
Hydrochloric acid:

Molecular formula HCl

Molar mass 36.46 g mol1

Appearance Colorless gas

Odor Pungent

Density 1.490 g L1

Melting point -114.22 C, 159 K, -174 F

Boiling point -85.05 C, 188 K, -121 F

Vapor pressure 4352 kPa (at 21.1 C)

Acidity (pKa) -7.0

Basicity (pKb) 21.0

Refractive 1.0004456 (gas)


index (nD)

Table (1-15) Physical and chemical properties of Hydrochloric Acid15

18
Ferric chloride:

Molecular formula FeCl3


Molar mass 162.2 g/mol (anhydrous)
270.3 g/mol (hexahydrate)
Appearance green-black by reflected light;
purple-red by transmitted light

hexahydrate: yellow solid


aq. solutions: brown

Odor slight HCl


Density 2.898 g/cm3 (anhydrous)
1.82 g/cm3 (hexahydrate)
Melting point 306 C (anhydrous)
37 C (hexahydrate)
Boiling point 315 C (anhydrous, decomp)
280 C (hexahydrate, decomp)
(partial decomposition to FeCl2+
Cl2)
Solubility in water 74.4 g/100 mL (0 C)

92 g/100 mL (hexahydrate, 20 C)
Solubility in acetone 63 g/100 ml (18 C)
Methanol highly soluble
Ethanol 83 g/100 ml
Diethyl ether highly soluble
Viscosity 40% solution: 12 cP

Table (1-16) Physical and chemical properties of ferric chloride16

19
Aniline:

Molecular C6H5NH2
formula

Molar mass 93.13 g/mol

Appearance colorless to yellow liquid

Density 1.0217 g/mL, liquid

-6.3 C, 267 K, 21 F
Melting point

184.13 C, 457 K, 363 F


Boiling point

Solubility in
3.6 g/100 mL at 20C
water

Acidity (pKa) 4.7


Basicity (pKb) 9.3
Thermochemistry
Std enthalpy of
formation -3394 kJ/mol
fHo298
DMSO:dimethylsulfoxide

Table (1-17) Physical properties of aniline17

20
Process Flow Sheets:
Process 1;Ammonolysis of Phenol

24
14
17
V-100 P-102
K-100 10
21
16 13
CRV-100 29
9
Amonia 20 24
1 19
7 8 30
2 V-101
E-103
12 34 Aniline
E-100 E-101
MIX-100 T-100 27
phenol 27 18 28
11 26
P-104 E-104
T-101 25 35
31 E-102
28

36
29 T-102
32 33
P-103 E-105

37

Figure (1-3) Process flow sheet of the production of aniline by Ammonolysis of Phenol.

Process description:-

The process is divided into three sections: the feed preparation section, the
reactor section, and the purification section. In the feed preparation section,
The ammonia feed (stream 1) consists of 203 lb-mol/hr liquid ammonia at
90F. The phenol feed (stream 2) supplies 165.8 lb-mol/hr liquid phenol at
110F and atmospheric pressure. The two feed streams are pumped to
increase the pressure before they are mixed with their respective recycle
streams (stream 16 for ammonia and stream 31 for phenol) by using mixer

21
(MIX-102).(Stream 7) is heated in a heat exchanger (E-100) with the reactor
effluent (stream 10). The heat exchanger effluent (Stream 8) is heated to the
required reactor temperature for the reactor inlet (stream 9). The reactor
section includes the adiabatic reactor (CRV-100) that includes a bed Packed
with a silica-alumina catalyst. In the reactor, three reactions occur:

Phenol + NH3 ==> Aniline + H2O

2 Phenol + NH3 ==> Diphenylamine + 2 H2O

2 NH3<==> 3 H2 + N2

The conversion of phenol in the reactor is 95% with a 99% selectivity to


aniline as shown in the First reaction. The second reaction forms a byproduct
(diphenylamine), while the third reaction is the decomposition of ammonia.
The reaction set is exothermic, so the stream leaving the reactor (stream 10)
is hotter than stream 9. The cooling of the reactor effluent begins with the
heat exchanger (E-100) which will be cooled from (stream 10) to (stream
11). After that (stream 11) is sent through a cooler (E-102).

The purification section consists of the distillation columns to separate the


chemicals into Products and non-products. The absorption column (T-100)
separates the gases and the liquids. As a result, all of the hydrogen and
nitrogen go to stream13. Moreover, all of the phenol, aniline and
diphenylamine go to stream 18. From the absorption column, stream 13 goes
to a splitter to split it into stream 14, which is the ammonia recycle stream
that will pass through a compressor (K-100) to increase the pressure. On the
other hand, the splitter also sends small amount of stream 13 to the gaseous
purge (stream 24). The bottoms stream (stream 18) is one of the feeds to the
next column (T-101). The distillate (stream19) is cooled by the unit (E-103).

Stream 20 is then sent to a separator (V-100) to separate the water and the
phenol product. Then, the phenol (stream 21) is recycled to the column (T-

22
101) after pressurize it by using (P-102). The aqueous product (stream 24)
from V-100 will be treated. The bottoms stream (stream 25) is the feed to
the next column (T-102). The main component in the distillate (stream 26)
is aniline which should be pumped by (P-104). The resulting stream (stream
27) is cooled by (E-104) to produce aniline (Stream 28). Then, (stream 29)
should be pumped by (P-103) to get the suitable condition (stream31) for
mixing by (MIX-102). The bottoms product (stream 32) is cooled b (E-105)
to purchase diphenylamine in (stream 33).

Process 2;Liquidphase reduction of nitrobenzene with metal in mineral


acids.

Sulfuric
acid

13
Aniline
3 Benzene 12
14 15
1
Nitric
acid CRV-101
5 T-101
2 4
V-100
MIX-100
8
9 CRV-100 6
nitrobenzene
10
11
V-101
7 T-100

RCY-100

Figure (1-4) Process flow sheet of the production of aniline by liquid phase reduction of nitrobenzene.

23
Process description :

First of all, nitric acid and sulfuric acid is mixed together by using an acid
mixer(mix-100). the mixed acid and benzene are fed in a nitrate
reactor(CRV-100) and the reaction will occur as the following chemical
equation :-

C6H6 +HNO3(H2SO4) C6H5NO2 + H2O(H2SO4) H=-113KJ

Then the reactor effluent will enter the separator (V-100) which will separate
it into two streams which are crude nitrobenzene and the reactor effluent
acid that will be recovered to the reactor feed. The crude nitrobenzene could
be washed by using a dilute alkali (V-101) such as water and sodium
carbonate and distillated by still distillation column (T-100) to produce a
pure nitrobenzene. The crude nitrobenzene will enter a reducer [H2] reactor
(CRV-101) with an iron boring catalyst and hydrochloric acid to produce
aniline and water which will occur as the following chemical equation:-

4C6H5NO2 + 9Fe + 4H2O 4C6H5NH2 + 3FeO4

And the effluent nitrobenzene will be recovered to the reducer reactor. The
aqueous aniline could be heated by steam to get crude aniline which can be
distilled by using still distillation column (T-101) to produce pure aniline.

Catalyst Reaction : HCl

Yeild : 98%

24
Process 3;Process catalytic reduction of nitrobenzene in a fluidized bed
reactor.

8
5
E-102
3
E-101
Water
Hydrogen
4 10

9
V-100 7
Nitrobenzene 4 T-100 T-101
11
1 2CRV-100 Aniline
P 12
K-100

E-100
Figure (1-5) Process flow sheet of the production of aniline by vapor phase reduction of nitro
benzene.

25
Name of Unit Description

E-100 Nitrobenzene vaporizer


CRV-100 Reactor
E-101 Product Condenser
K-100 Hydrogen Recycle Compressor
V-100 Aniline water decanter
T-100 Crude aniline distillation
E-102 Condenser
T-101 Aniline product distillation
Table (1-18) Name and description unit

Species Flowrate ( Compostion Temperature Pressure


million lb/yr) (C) (atm)
Nitrobenzene - 0.1 25 1
Hydrogen - 0.9 25 1
Table (1-19) Feedstock condition

Species Flowrate Compostion Temperature Pressure


(million (C) (bar)
lb/yr)
Aniline 200 0.995 - 1
Water - - - 1
Table(1-20) Product condition

26
Name of stream Description
S1 Nitrobenzene
S2 Hydrogen Feed
S3 Reactor Product Gases
S4 Condensed Materials
S5 Non-Condensable gas
S6 Crude Aniline
S7 Aqueous Phase
S8 Overheads
S9 Bottom Streams
S10 Water
S11 Aniline product
S12 Recycled bottom
Table (1-21) Name of stream

Process description:

The main process for aniline production is the nitrobenzene hydrogenation


reactions. Feed preparation section:

The liquid nitrobenzene feed (contains less than 10ppm thiophene) (S1) is
vaporized up by going into vaporizer (E-100) to reach the required
temperature for the fluidized bed reactor after the mixing point between the
nitrobenzene feed (S1) and the hydrogen feed (S2) (which has been
compressed by Recycle Compressor) (K-100).Hydrogen to nitrobenzene
ratio is 9:1.

27
Reaction section:

It includes the fluidized bed reactor (CRV-100) with 10-20% copper by


weight on silica catalyst [which is made by spray-drying a silicic acid matrix
(20 to 150 micrometer) with a cuprammonium compound and activated in
position with hydrogen at 250 C] at 270 C and 1.5 atm, the equation for this
process is shown below:

C6H5NO2 + 3H2 --------> C6H5NH2 + 2H2O

The reaction is highly exothermic with enthalpy (-443 KJ/mol) and


approximately 65% of the heat of reaction is removed by circulating a cool
fluid (generally water or low pressure steam) through tubes suspended in the
fluidized bed. The nitrobenzene vapor-hydrogen mixture (300 percent excess
hydrogen) reaction takes place on the surface porous at the bottom of the
fluidized bed reactor. The upper part of the reactor is large enough to allow
the most of the catalyst to fall back into the main catalyst bed. any catalyst
which escapes from the reactor is removed from the product by stainless
steel filters.The conversion of the nitrobenzene in the reactor is 99.7% and
the selectivity to aniline is 99%.

28
Purification section:

The reactor (RCV-100) product gas mixture (aniline , hydrogen and water)
(S3) will enter the condenser (E-101)and the leaving gas stream (3.5%
water, 0.5% aniline and the balance hydrogen) (S5) which has been recycled
to the compressor (K-100), but a small part is vented to avoid the buildup of
gaseous impurities which exist in hydrogen feed. Moreover the aqueous and
organic phases stream (S4) is separated in a decanter (V-100) which
separates the crude aniline (S6) from the aqueous phase solution (S7). The
organic phase (crude aniline) is consist of aniline up to 0.5% nitrobenzene,
and 5% water is purified by two stage distillation column. After that in the
crude still column (T-100) (stripping) ,aniline and water are removed
overhead while higher boiling organic impurities, such as nitro-benzene
remain in the still bottoms. The overhead product (S9) from the first column
is purified in a finishing still (T-101), Water (S10) is withdrawn from the top
of the column while aniline (S11) is withdrawn in a side stream near the
bottom of the column. The bottom (S12) is recycled to the crude still (T-
100).

Waste treatment:

The best method of treating the aqueous waste resulting from the following
units (nitrobenzene distillation column overhead(stream8), nitrobenzene
wash water(stream7) and the aniline recovery column purge(stream12)), is
the biological treatment due to its inexpensive cost and it's high efficiency
indicator which could of the toxic nature of the waste which may affect the
environment , moreover the physical method that used as stream stripping
and liquid-liquid extraction.

Catalyst Regeneration.

the catalyst can be regenerated with air periodically.At 250-350C and


subsequent H2 treatment.

29
Comparison flow sheets:
Alternative 1 phenol ammonia aniline Water
Mole 1 1 1 1
M.wt 94 17 93 18
Ib 94 17 93 18
ton 0.047 0.0085 0.0465 0.009
Ib/Ib of aniline 1.01 0.182 1 0.193
$/Ib 0.745 0.289 0.38 -
Gross Profit = -0.428
Table(1-22) Alternative #1

Alternative 2:

-There is no enough information to calculate the gross profit for the process.

Alternative 3 nitrobenzene hydrogen aniline Water


Mole 1 3 1 2
M.wt 123 2 93 18
Ib 123 6 93 36
Ib/Ib of aniline 1.322 0.064 1 0.387
$/Ib 0.33 0..32 0.38 -
Gross Profit = 0.076
Table (1-23) Alternative #3

Alternative No.of Catalyst Raw Material


equipment
1 17 Silica- Phenol + Ammonia
alumina
2 9 Iron borings Benzene + Nitric acid
3 8 Copper on Nitrobenzene + Hydrogen
silica
Table(1-24) Comparison between the alternatives

30
Basic economic analysis:
Prices,
Description Weight US$
460.00-
Ammonia US Gulf, spot c.f.r. Tampa tonne 745.00
385.81-
Ammonia US Gulf, spot f.o.b New Orleans ton 771.62
Aniline tanks, f.o.b lb 0.37-0.39
technical grade, 100% basis, tanks, 300.00-
Ferric chloride f.o.b. works lb 351.00
Hydrochloric 22 deg. Be, US Gulf dom. ex-works
acid US NE tonne 85.43
Hydrochloric 22 deg. Be, US Gulf dom. ex-works
acid USG tonne 93.7
Nitrobenzene tanks, f.o.b. lb 0.33-0.34
Sulphuric acid virgin 100%, tanks, works, East Coast ton 1450
57.00-
Sulphuric acid virgin 100%, tanks, works, Southwest ton 85.00
Sulphuric acid virgin 100%, tanks, works, Midwest ton 87
Sulphuric acid virgin 100%, tanks, works, Southeast ton 94
Sulphuric acid virgin 100%, tanks, works, West Coast ton 73.1
Sulphuric acid smelter 100% tanks, works, Gulf Coast ton 94
50.00-
Sulphuric acid smelter 100%, tanks, works ton 62.00
25.00-
Sulphuric acid smelter, tanks, intro. Southeast ton 30.00
Sulphuric acid smelter, 93% tanks, dlvd., Northwest ton 67
40 deg. Be, 42 deg. Be. tanks, c.l., 215.00-
Nitric acid works, 100% basis ton 225.00
1472.31-
Phenol - ton 1507.69
1015.38-
Benzene - ton 1192.31
Hydrogen gas - Ib 0.32
Table (1-25) Cost of materials

31
Conclusion:
We figure out that there are lots of processes to produce aniline.
The production of aniline is takes an active part in America and china.
Locally aniline production is not exist.
At the beginning, aniline was an intermediate substance for (MDS)
production, according to this reason it was produced.

Recommendation:
The process 3 (vapor phase catalytic reduction of nitrobenzene ) is the best
alternative for the production of Aniline due to its inexpensive raw materials
and its highly profit comparing it to the other two alternatives.NitroBenzene
is the classical feedstock for Aniline manufacture. Recently less
chlorobenzene and Phenol are being used in aniline manufacturing processes
in several countries.

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References:
Web sites;
http://www.springerlink.com
http://www.mpri.lsu.edu

http://www.xakaili.com

http://www.thefreedictionary.com

http://www.chemicalbook.com

http://price.alibaba.com

http://www.icis.com

http://en.wikipedia.org

Books;

McGraw-Hill, Shreves Chemical Industries, George T.Austin,1984

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