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1994ElsevierScienceLimited

Printed in Malta. All rights reserved

0143-974X/94/$7.00

ELSEVIER

J. M. Davies, P. Leach

Department of Civil Engineering and Construction, University of Salford,

Salford, UK, M5 4WT

&

D. Heinz

Institut fiir Statik, Technische Hochschule Darmstadt, D-6100 Darmstadt, Germany

ABSTRACT

This paper introduces the second-order terms associated with geometric nonlinearity

into the basic equation of Generalised Beam Theory. This gives rise to simple

explicit equations for the load to cause buckling in individual modes under either

axial load or uniform bending moment. It is then shown how the explicit procedure

can be extended to consider the interaction between local, distortional and global

buckling modes. More general load cases require the use of numerical methods of

analysis and the finite difference method offers a suitable procedure. The success of

Generalised Beam Theory for a wide range of situations is demonstrated by

comparing the results obtained using it with both test results and other analyses. It

is shown that it offers particular advantages in the analysis of buckling problems in

cold-formed sections.

NOTATION

a Amplitude of displacement

B,C,D Section properties for individual modes

E Young's modulus

G Shear modulus

i,j,k Mode number (usually in the form of a forward superscript)

L Length of member

P Defined in text

221

222 J. M. Davies, P. Leach, D. Heinz

V Generalised displacement function

W Stress resultant

Distance along member

member.

INTRODUCTION

In a previous paper in this issue it has been shown how Generalised Beam

Theory (GBT) may be applied to first-order problems in which the

response is linear elastic. In this paper the theory is extended to include

the second-order terms associated with geometric nonlinearity. Figure 1

illustrates some typical problems that can be considered by second-order

Generalised Beam Theory:

In Fig. l(a) a slender light gauge steel beam fails by l~.teral torsional

buckling. The problem may also be aggravated by d stortion of the

cross-section.

In Fig. l(b) a hat-section column is axially loaded and again fails by

bending and twisting, again possibly aggravated by distortion of the

cross-section.

buckling of a beam

t~

loaded column

J

t

(c)local buckling

in a beam

Fig. 1. Typical second-order problems.

Second-order Generalised Beam Theory 223

buckling.

possible to consider the significance of individual buckling modes and

selected combinations of them which makes it immediately clear which

modes are important in any analysis. This is not possible with any other

method. GBT shows to particular advantage in the analysis of buckling

problems in cold-formed sections.

Figure 2 shows three typical load-deflection curves:

linear;

(2) is general second-order theory in which the response is nonlinear

until an ultimate load is reached when the structure has failed by

elastic buckling;

(3) is a bifurcation problem in which a perfect structure is loaded in

such a way that no deflection occurs until the critical load is

reached. At the critical load, there is bifurcation of equilibrium and

deflections suddenly become indeterminate.

Generalised Beam Theory can be used for both bifurcation problems and

the general second-order problem. It can also be used for third-order

problems in which large deflection theory is used to investigate, for

instance, post-buckling problems, but this is beyond the scope of this

paper. The results presented later in this paper are all the results of

bifurcation analyses.

Load

flection

(3) bifurcation.

224 J. M. Davies, P. Leach, D. Heinz

BEAM THEORY

the previous paper:

The usual form of the equation is then

i j

In this equation,

iW is the warping stress resultant in the ith mode;

iJk K is a three-dimensional array of second-order terms which takes

account of all the interactions between in-plane stresses in the faces

and out-of-plane deformations. This includes coupling terms so that

the differential equations become linked and the individual modes

are no longer independent.

It may be noted that if in-plane shear strains are included in the analysis,

the second-order terms are augmented to

i j

However, in the vast majority of practical cases the additional shear terms

have little influence on the results. For the purpose of this paper they will

be neglected.

The expression Z Okx(iwJv')' can be understood as representing the

deviation forces which are caused by axial stresses together with deforma-

tion of the member. The axial stress in the cross-section can be expressed

in terms of the m stress resultants ~Wand warping functions ~u:

m i w in(s)

rx(S) =

--i=1 ic

The elastic inclination of a fibre which results from a deformation JV'(x),

as shown in Fig. 3, is

in the x-g plane if' =Jv'. Jf

Second-order Generalised Beam Theory 225

f

/

Eaj I

in the x-g plane if" =Jv". Jf

The deviation forces q~ and qn caused by the stresses trx and the

deformations Jv"(x) are, according to Fig. 4, in the s direction:

..... ~ (iW~V,,+iw,

" Jv, ) 1 iuJfstds

i=1 if

i= 1 if

s. f,

~dq~

Fig. 4. Formulation of the deviation forces.

226 J. M. Davies, P. Leach, D. Heinz

The virtual work of the deviation forces at the virtual displacement k~" 1,

expressed in terms of kf, and kf, can be introduced directly into the

system of equations:

q~.kf~+qU.kf=__~i=, j=2

~ (~WJV,), i-~

1 f~ iu(2fs *J'~+ ~f *f)t ds

The unified symbol for the integral in the above expression is ijkx, thus:

ijkK = ~-~

1 f iu(Jf s kf s + Jf kf)t ds (3)

where i refers to the stress distribution due to the stress resultants (warping

moments), j refers to the elastic deformation and k refers to the equilibrium

condition in which the deviation forces are involved. The values of Okx

have to be evaluated for the warping moments 1 ~<i ~<m and the deforma-

tion modes 2 ~<j ~<n and 2 ~<k ~<n. The necessary numerical integration is

easy to program once the warping functions and section properties of

GBT have been determined.

It may be noted that for m a n y bifurcation problems, including a number

of the examples given later, a load is applied which is constant over the

length of the member. This is the case when a column is subject to axial

compressive load or when a beam buckles under uniform bending moment.

Derivatives of iW are then zero, and the second-order terms simplify to

i w ~ ijkK JVt'

J

The easiest way to illustrate the use of the augmented GBT equation is by

means of a simple example. Consider the hat-section shown in Fig. 5

acting as a column subject to an axial load through the centroid of the

cross-section. Prior to buckling, the applied load is a uniform axial

compressive stress. In GBT terms, this is the warping stress resultant ~W.

It is assumed that the column behaves as simply supported at its ends with

respect to each buckling mode. As there is no load causing deformation

prior to buckling, the right-hand-side t e r m kq is zero and we have a

bifurcation problem.

The cross-section has the six nodes indicated in Fig. 5, so that General-

ised Beam Theory provides six orthogonal modes of deformation. These

Second-order Generalised Beam Theory 227

IW

"I

modes are, of course, four rigid-body modes and two modes involving

distortion of the cross-section. The relevant section properties are shown

in Table 1 and it may be noted that the third section property kB appears

only in the higher-order distortional modes.

Also necessary for the analysis of this section acting as an axially

loaded column is the array of second-order terms ljkl~. This is shown in

Table 2. The off-diagonal values reflect the degree of coupling between

the modes. For instance, it is immediately obvious that an analysis in-

cluding only modes 2 and 3 would not be profitable because they would

be uncoupled.

Consider the column buckling in a single mode k and assume that the

buckled shape in this mode is given by

kV = ka sin rex

L

Then we have a single governing equation and the only second-order term

which appears in this equation is lkkl~ SO that, inserting k V and its

TABLE t

Properties of Hat-Section Column

Mode k kc kO kB

1. Axial !.7 0 0

2. Bending 9.109 0 0

3. Bending 6"128 0 0

4. Torsion 21.58 0.005667 0

5. Symmetrical distortion 0-07334 0.0002753 0'05769

6. Antisymmetrical distortion 0-06986 0.0002480 0.07872

228 J. M. Davies, P. Leach, D. Heinz

TABLE 2

Values of ~JkK

j=k I 2 3 4 5 6

1 -1 0 0 0 0 0

2 0 --1 0 4-423 0 --0-4093

3 0 0 -- 1 0 -0-4088 0

4 0 4"423 0 -28-53 0 2"735

5 0 0 -0"4088 0 -0"4605 0

6 0 -0-4093 0 2"735 0 -0-3675

ka sin T = 0

to zero so that

This equation is an explicit expression for the buckling load and is valid

for buckling in any individual mode. The modes given by k = 2 and k = 3

are Euler buckling about the two principal axes and, for these modes, the

only non-zero generalised warping constant is kc. Furthermore,

so that for k = 2 or k = 3,

lr2 E kC

! W- L2 (tension positive)

axis.

The general solution for 1W in eqn (4) gives the critical axial load for

buckling in mode k for any length L of the column. The relationship

between 1W and L may have one of two alternative shapes as shown in

Fig. 6. If the mode is one of global buckling, the longer the column, the

lower the buckling load as shown in Fig. 6(a). Conversely, if the mode is of

Second-order GeneralisedBeam Theory 229

W W

I

L I_crit L

(a) (b)

Fig. 6. Alternative buckling characteristics: (a) global buckling, kn = 0; (b) local buckling,

kBv~O.

a more local nature, there is a critical buckling length, as shown in Fig. 6(b),

and long columns will buckle in a periodic mode with this wavelength.

The calculation of the critical wavelength for buckling of a local nature

(either local or distortional) follows directly from eqn (4):

81W

--=0

i.e. - - 2 E k c [ L ] - 3 + 2 kB[L]=o

I~ kc

(5)

nature. This is the case for all the higher-order modes which are either

local or distortional. Conversely, for the four rigid-body modes, kB is zero

and the buckling mode is global and there is no critical wavelength.

Finally, for a local mode, the critical axial force is given by

'~'~L qE~c +G + x/-~-J

wmin

i.e. lkk1K [2x/ERCkB+GRD] (6)

1

230 J. M. Davies, P. Leach, D. Heinz

For the hat-shaped example shown in Fig. 5, the shapes for the buckling

curves in the individual modes are shown in Fig. 7. For short lengths up to

about 60cm, the distortional modes 5 and 6 are critical. For longer

lengths, mode 4 (the torsional mode) governs. If we consider the interac-

tion of more than one buckling mode, the principles remain the same but

more terms appear and, in general, the modes become coupled.

As modes 4, 5 and 6 are evidently critical, let us consider the effect of

combining these modes in the analysis of buckling for various lengths L on

the assumption that all three modes have the shape

kV = kasin rexL

Then, substituting into the basic second-order GBT equation gives three

equations of the form:

(IEkCILI4+GRDIL]2+RBIRa+IWIL]2~IjkKJa)sinL =0

E[ I 2

Ekc +GkD+RB

EI21 ka+ l W

1

ljkKJa = 0

100

SO Dimensions in cm

lW 1w

l L

Length L {cm)

Second-order Generalised Beam Theory 231

50

5 M O ~

\ jj"

1w 1w

i 1-

0 5O 100 150

LENGTH L (cm)

(a)

100

Mode 2

Mode 6 .

50

\.\

Mode 4

I- r~ -

o 50 1oo 15o

L E N G T H L (cm)

(b)

Fig. 8. Combined buckling modes for hat-section column: (a) symmetrical modes 3 and 5

in combination; (b) antisymmetrical modes 2, 4 and 6 in combination.

where kP=[EkC[L]2+GkD+B[L]

2]

is a constant for a given length L. This is an eigenvalue problem which can

be solved by any of the usual methods to give three values of 1W, the

lowest of which is the buckling load.

232 J. M. Davies, P. Leach, D. Heinz

It may be noted that the more detailed form of the above equation is

0 0 28"53 0 - 35

([: J [

4p 5p

0

0

6p

71_1W

--

0

2"735

0"4605

0

and the fact that the matrix of terms k p is diagonal allows for some

0"3675 J

ka= 0

simplification.

Some results of analyses with different combinations of modes are given

in Figs 8(a) and (b). In Fig. 8(a) the symmetrical modes 3 and 5 are shown

separately and in combination. It can be seen that the interaction is

minimal. Figure 8(b) shows the antisymmetrical modes 2, 4 and 6, the

individual modes being shown by broken lines and the combined modes

by the full line. Here there is a good deal of interaction during the

transition from short wavelength distortional buckling (mode 6) to long

wavelength torsional buckling (mode 4). There is, of course, no interaction

at all between the symmetrical modes shown in Fig. 8(a) and the antisym-

metrical modes shown in Fig. 8(b).

Analysis for elastic buckling failure due to pure bending follows a

similar course and the results are shown in Fig. 9. The only difference is

that the applied load is 3 W and the relevant array of second-order terms is

3jkhc, otherwise the calculations are identical.

It is evident from these examples that the transition from local or

distortional buckling to global buckling can be critical in the design of

thin-walled structural members and that Generalised Beam Theory pro-

BENDING STRESS(kN/cm2)

100 z'

/"

/

",, \...Uod. 6

~"\ "'/~i' ,,'"Mode 5

50

d k4 w,

, Dimensions in cm ~

0

0 50 100 150

LENGTH L (cm)

Fig. 9. B u c k l i n g m o d e s for h a t - s e c t i o n b e a m .

Second-order Generalised Beam Theory 233

problems.

where the applied load is constant over the length of the member and

where the deformed shape of each mode is a sine wave extending over the

length of the member. These assumptions are, of course, rather restrictive

and for a more general solution it is necessary to resort to numerical

methods of analysis.

As in the case of linear GBT problems, the finite difference method

appears particularly appropriate and, indeed, the method described in

the previous paper can be readily extended to include the second-order

terms.

An important difference here is that the individual modes become

coupled so that they can no longer be considered independently. However,

this coupling is not usually strong so that, provided appropriate steps are

taken, it does not dominate the analysis and the benefits obtained by using

orthogonal deformation modes are retained.

The simplest general approach to solving the coupled eqns (2) is to

move the as yet unknown terms in iV and iW and their derivatives to the

right-hand side of the equations where they are treated as load terms

together with kq. These terms are taken as zero in the first step of an

iterative solution and successively improved as the iterations proceed. The

convergence is improved if the leading diagonal second-order terms (j = k)

are left on the left-hand side of the equation and added to kD. The

equations to be solved then have the form

i j i k

equations of fourth order must be solved. After each step, the right-hand

sides are updated to include internal forces and deformations calculated

during the previous step and the cycle repeated. In general, the orthogonal

nature of the deformation modes ensures that the process converges

rapidly.

234 J. M. Davies, P. Leach, D. Heinz

preferable alternative to the iterative procedure described above is to set

up the complete coupled equations as a single eigenvalue problem. This

allows the buckling loads to be computed without the need for iteration.

INTERMEDIATE NODES

In Fig. 5 and the analyses arising from it, nodes were considered only at

the corners of the cross-section. The six nodes which resulted from this

approach allowed four rigid-body modes and two cross-sectional distor-

tion modes to be included in the analysis. In general, the number of

distortional modes in the analysis is a function of the complexity of the

cross-section.

However, thin-walled structural members such as the one shown in

Fig. 5 may be subject to local buckling of the individual flat elements as

shown in Fig. l(c) in addition to distortional buckling of the cross-section.

It is not always obvious which of these two forms of buckling may be the

more critical for a particular cross-section. In order to include local

buckling of a given fiat element in a second-order GBT analysis, it is

necessary to include an intermediate node at the centre of that element in

addition to the 'natural' nodes at the corners of the cross-section.

In order to illustrate the potential of second-order GBT, various results

obtained using the analyses described above will be compared with a

selection of test results on cold-formed sections and other theoretical

analyses. These examples will include the use of intermediate nodes in

order to identify local buckling modes and their interaction with global

and distortional modes. In each case, the nodes included in the analysis are

indicated on the figures showing the results. Some further comparisons for

cold-formed steel columns subject to distortional buckling are given in

Ref. 1.

WITH EXPERIMENTS

unlipped channel section beams of varying length to uniform bending

moment. These tests are of particular interest because they include

interaction between local and global buckling modes.

It should be noted that, particularly in the case of the unlipped channels,

local buckling of the compression flange renders the section doubly

Second-order Generalised Beam Theory 235

makes the analysis by more usual methods, for example those dependent

on effective widths, very complicated.

Lovelrs apparatus is shown in Fig. 10. Loading was by means of

weights on hangars cantilevered from the supports. The support details

were designed to provide full warping restraint.

Some typical results for lipped channels are shown in Fig. 11. The lips

tend to inhibit local buckling and the results are influenced by yielding

which was excluded from the implementations of GBT used by the

authors. Nevertheless, there is evidently some influence from distortion of

the cross-section so that the results obtained using GBT are considerably

closer to the test results than those which consider only the rigid-body

modes 1-4.

Figures 12 and 13 show typical experimental and theoretical results for

unlipped channels. Here, elastic buckling led to immediate failure and this

is predicted with impressive precision by GBT over the whole range from

P

J

II1

236 J . M . Dat,ies, P. Leach, D. Heinz

M O M E N T (kN.cm)

600

500 , I GBT All Modes

',, -- - Yield Moment

300

200

100

v _

8 a

i i i i t i i i i

LENGTH (era)

Fig. 11. Experimental and theoretical results for Lovell test series 'E'.

M O M E N T (kN.cm)

300

= nodes in analysis

....... GBT Modes 1-4

0.0 "'. --- Yield Moment

4. Test Results

200

2 -

150

+ + 4-

100

50

0 i

L

i

C7 i i

LENGTH (cm)

Fig. 12. Experimental and theoretical results for Lovell test series 'A'.

Second-order Generalised Beam Theory 237

MOMENT (kN.cm)

300

. . . . . . . GBT Modes 1-4

250 -- G B T All M o d e s

---- Yield Moment

-I- Test R e s u l t s

200

150 +

100

12.2

50

0 I I I I I

L E N G T H (cm)

Fig. 13. Experimental and theoretical results for Lovell test series 'D'.

mode.

Leach 3 carried out additional tests using similar apparatus to Lovell but

applied load at one end only, thus obtaining buckling failures under a

m o m e n t gradient. F r o m the standpoint of GBT analysis, this represents a

more general case. However, the pattern of results is not distinctly different

from that obtained by Lovell 2 under uniform moment.

Figure 14 shows typical results for a lipped channel and Fig. 15 for an

unlipped channel. The agreement between the theoretical buckling load

given by GBT and the test results is again impressive. It may be noted that

here, in addition to including, for comparison, the results given by GBT

when only the rigid-body modes 1-4 are included in the analysis, Fig. 14

also includes the buckling loads predicted by an alternative rigid-body

lateral torsional buckling analysis. 4

An alternative numerical analysis which has certain similarities with

GBT is the finite strip method. Rhodes 5 has applied the second-order

finite strip method to a range of column buckling problems that are also

amenable to analysis using GBT. The comparison of results given by the

two approaches is instructive. Some typical comparisons now follow.

Figure 16 shows the buckling load of a hat-section column similar

to the one discussed in some detail previously but with the addition of

238 J. M. Davies, P. Leach, D. Heinz

MOMENT (kN.cm)

1000

I I

800

"'" ~" Z , # -- GBT All Modes

'", / / --.-- Nemir

700

600

~ , , J I "-'~l.sL = nodes in analysis

5O0

400

Yieldxmment

300

2OO

100

0 i i i i i i i

LENGTH (crn)

Fig. 14. Experimental and theoretical results for Leach test series 'E'.

M O M E N T (kN.cm)

1000

",,. -- GBT All Modes

800

Test

"',.,

600 "',.,

Yield moment ",

'".., .

400 4.0

2oo 1 1

9.0

L

v v :.

0 L

100 150 200 250 300

LENGTH (cm)

Fig. 15. Experimental and theoretical results for Leach test series 'H'.

Second-order Generalised Beam Theory 239

K FACTOR

15

-'- Rhodes

-- GBT All M o d e s

---e- e I .,6--

10 L ~

f . ~ .

"', /

J

i i i I i

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

LENGTH (cm)

intermediate nodes. This allows the analysis to detect local buckling modes

in addition to the global and distortional modes discussed earlier. Follow-

ing the notation used in Rhodes' paper, 5 the buckling loads are expressed

in terms of the conventional plate buckling coefficient K for the compres-

sion flange which has the value 4-0 for a simply supported long rectangular

plate undergoing local buckling. The agreement between the two methods is

generally good, though GBT appears to be more sensitive for very short

wavelength local buckling. The divergence of the two methods for global

buckling is understood to be a deficiency in the model used by Rhodes for

this particular study, not of the second-order finite strip method itself.

Figure 17 shows a rather complex section. The two methods of analysis

agree quite well over the whole range of lengths considered which include

both local and global buckling. The examples are completed by Fig. 18

which shows another case where the agreement is quite good.

It should be noted that where there is a discrepancy between the finite

strip method and GBT, it is always GBT which gives lower values of the

buckling load. As the finite strip method is essentially an energy method

based on assumed displacement functions, this is to be expected and

reveals the limitations of the energy approach when the assumed functions

are not sufficiently general to model the complex actual deformations of

the member.

240 J. M. Davies, P. Leach, D. Heinz

K FACTOR

15

thickness = 4 mm

--'-- Rhodes

nodes -~10

.... Euler Load

Generalized Theory

,o

10

I,q--

20 4 6 _J~

L

~ . , ,

r i I 1 I i

LENGTH (cm)

K FACTOR

15

nodes thickness = 4 mm

400 --- Rhode=

50 f f ..... Euler Load

~e : d Generalized Theory

10

20 ",, L

I i [ i I [ i i I

LENGTH (cm)

Fig. 18. Local buckling of a lipped channel section column.

Second-order Generalised Beam Theory 241

CONCLUSIONS

order effects has been outlined. Both bifurcation and general second-order

problems have been considered. A n u m b e r of examples have been given in

which analysis using G B T has been c o m p a r e d with both test results on

cold-formed sections and alternative analyses. It is hoped that both the

power and versatility of G B T for the buckling analysis of cold-formed

sections have been adequately demonstrated.

REFERENCES

Proc. 11 th Int. Speciality Conf. on Cold-Formed Steel Structures, St Louis, MO,

Oct. 1992, pp. 479-501.

2. Lovell, M. H., Lateral buckling of light gauge steel beams. MSc thesis,

University of Salford, 1983.

3. Leach, P., The generalised beam theory with finite difference applications. PhD

thesis, University of Salford, 1989.

4. Nemir, M. T. M., Finite element stability analysis of thin-walled steel struc-

tures. PhD thesis, University of Salford, 1985.

5. Rhodes, J., A simple microcomputer finite strip analysis. In Dynamics oJ

Structures, Proc. of the Session at Structures Congress '87, ASCE, 1987,

pp. 276-91.

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