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22001,Genetics
Research article :13
Major genomic mitochondrial lineages delineate early human
expansions
Nicole Maca-Meyer, Ana M Gonzlez, Jos M Larruga, Carlos Flores and
Vicente M Cabrera*

Address: Department of Genetics, Faculty of Biology, University of La Laguna, Tenerife, 38271, Spain
E-mail: Nicole Maca-Meyer - nmacame@ull.es; Ana M Gonzlez - amglez@ull.es; Jos M Larruga - jlarruga@ull.es;
Carlos Flores - cflores@ull.es; Vicente M Cabrera* - vcabrera@ull.es
*Corresponding author

Published: 13 August 2001 Received: 9 July 2001


Accepted: 13 August 2001
BMC Genetics 2001, 2:13
This article is available from: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2156/2/13
2001 Maca-Meyer et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Verbatim copying and redistribution of this article are permitted in any medium for any non-
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Abstract
Background: The phylogeographic distribution of human mitochondrial DNA variations allows a
genetic approach to the study of modern Homo sapiens dispersals throughout the world from a
female perspective. As a new contribution to this study we have phylogenetically analysed complete
mitochondrial DNA(mtDNA) sequences from 42 human lineages, representing major clades with
known geographic assignation.
Results: We show the relative relationships among the 42 lineages and present more accurate
temporal calibrations than have been previously possible to give new perspectives as how modern
humans spread in the Old World.
Conclusions: The first detectable expansion occurred around 59,00069,000 years ago from
Africa, independently colonizing western Asia and India and, following this southern route, swiftly
reaching east Asia. Within Africa, this expansion did not replace but mixed with older lineages
detectable today only in Africa. Around 39,00052,000 years ago, the western Asian branch spread
radially, bringing Caucasians to North Africa and Europe, also reaching India, and expanding to
north and east Asia. More recent migrations have entangled but not completely erased these
primitive footprints of modern human expansions.

Background eages, defined as haplogroups, whereas those at the tips


Human mtDNA is a non-recombining molecule with ma- characterize individuals. Major haplogroups [2] are con-
ternal inheritance and practically haploid genetics. Dif- tinental or ethnically specific. Three of them (L1, L2, and
ferences between mtDNA sequences are only due to L3) group sub-Saharan African lineages, nine (H, I, J, K,
mutation. As time passes, mutations accumulate sequen- T, U, V, W and X) encompass almost all mtDNAs from
tially along less and less related molecules that constitute European, North African and Western Asian Caucasians.
independent lineages known as haplotypes. Relation- Finally, haplogroups A, B, C, D, E, F, G and M embrace
ships among lineages can be estimated by phylogenetic the majority of the lineages described for Asia, Oceania
networks [1] where mutations are classified in hierarchi- and native Americans. The geographic distribution of de-
cal levels. Basal mutations are shared for clusters of lin- rived branches of these haplogroups has shed light on
1048
2245 3666
825A
3516A 7389
2758
4312 13293
2885
95 13789
4586 7146
5442 14178
8468
5460 14560
8655
5603 10688
6185 709
100 10810
2394d
8428 1406 13105
5951
8566 1738 13506
6071
9042 2352 15301
6917
9347 2768 16187
7498
9755 3308 16189
7789
9818 5036 16311
8027
10589 5046 247
BMC Genetics 2001, 2:13

9072
10664 5393 9370
10915 5655 769
9377
100 11176 6827 680 1018
9966
11641 7055 709 3594
10586
11914 7867 1442 4104
11302
12007 8248 2332 7256
11396 93
12720 12519 2416 7521
11719
13276 14203 3200A 13650
12019
15136 14769 5201 16278
12501
15431 14812 5988 152
12616
16148 15115 6437 182
12810
16172 16126 7624A
14000A 13105 10400 8701
16230 16264 8206
14911 16124 14783
9221 9540
16320 16270 84
15622 15043
10115 78 10398
73 16293 15905 1719 3450 489
93 11944 10873
16519 15978 4688 3492 514dd 15301
95C 185T 12026 11946
16129 5147 4164 3552A
182 195 12236 146 16189 153 514dd
16187 7389 5773 4715
189 13590 1047
357 16294 7424 8870 1106 6446 8251 12705
6221 7013 4071 2626 663 1719 62
236 13958C 3254 709
16360 8618 12007 6680 1719 16223
8393 7196A 4850 2772 1736 4722 709
14061A 4200T 3243
151 13752 9305 12234 5442 12403 68 10238 4216 14766 11467
8584 4386 4248 6221 5046
L1b 15110 4216 4833 827
1539A 186A 13886 9449 15431 6455 96 14110 12501 11251 12308
2857 9545 4958 4824 6371 5460 9137 11719
15217 152 4317 5108 961 80 68 65
5096 189C 14284 10086 9557 8059 16249 15452A 12372
3565 15236 195A 6455 5601 5480 7400A 7864 4529T 9667 73
5231 15061 4883 16311 1598 3816
3808 316 10373 11914 9824 16126 152
15849 204 7337 7600 8027 8393 8994 10034 16278 3010
5628 16256 5178A 195 1703 4117 2387
4596 10424T 12454 11152g 9824 8794 11908 11947 16311 7028 16519 1811
16390 5301 9377 10398 6023 3010 709 4580
5911 16519 2639
5147 11002 12574 11719 10730 12007 13708 12414 16519 61
150 5442 9575 8868 813 6413 10398 1888 4928 5189 2706 3197 16051 14798
7258 L1c 152 13914A
M2 12091 3921A 100 13780 1692T 81 4703 52
5581 13263 11143 13448 14470 12574 15043 150 303i
195 5554 11553g 14645 14127 6455 12612 4917 8277 12245 9477 16189
8191 458 4960 1438 4452 7669 2706 78 6518
5711 15311 14318 15236 12771 15205 15927 16292 15924
198 7129 13563 15247g 15172 8206 13708 8697 13617
14007 5471 8279 12358 3010 7309 14233 5471 3720 7256 980
6257 15314 16298 16295 15422 16111 16129 189 HV 1700 1189
303i 7669 14173 15670 15884 16129 8272d9 16069 10463 16270
14308 8836 9656 73 9066 7805 5390 9266 3741
6607 L3d 15824 16325 16362 16189 195 4769 4025 5913
325 15915 14200 16185 16129 16209 16391 295
16129 7673 9335 13590 13368 12237d 303i H1 14034 10506
7561 16278 16327 199 8860 16093 5656 5147 5426 5360 9055
513 16140 14569 303ii 16290 16278 204 709
16168 8580 16182C 11362 6515 15236 462 14905 14629 14179 13934
8251 16362 248d 303ii 8272d9 15326 16183d 7385 5460 6045 8137
16209 16194 466 16319 195 1700 100 9698
16188g 10397 16183C 12372 15758 15535 489 15607 15904 H2 15043 14139
8272d9 263 12961 16519 16189 7768 6962 6152 10084 10154
16262 16195g 152 16362 225 W 1780
16293 11902C 12822 16184A 16136 15928 16298 15530 15454
8460 286dd 13602 1733 263 10927 9545T 100 10876 10142 10398
L2 L3b M1 16274 16197g 311ii 235 227 16183C 7789 3316
16519 12810 M12 16145 16189 16519 15632 16343 10382
10984g 493 14233 14180 311i HF 12618 10398 13020 10550
16320 16256 513 303i 16189 7963 5495
152 13984 16176g IF 16294 72 16172 16390 13500
11172 15452A 16145 14182 11893 15907 11299
16399 16278 437 16217 8633 14793
185 14927 X 16180 303i 303i RCRS 16219 150 15601
12967C 16148 16222 16189 13789 16129C 12738g
146 16362 9380 14861
C 15562 M11 16390 16284 152
15317 250 16261 16192 14926 16362 16248 14167
303i 152 15924 9899 736 15218
15622 A 152 199 V U6
16184 L1a 16519 150 16234 508 16318T 15301
215 16193 12633A 2308 15924 867 3010
15737 514dd I 202
16188A 303i 16294 514dd 16145
16300 16163 14180 16093 10352 10724
16184i 207 709 3849
16278 M3 152 J1b 16153 471 16224
303i 16186 14233 6917 514dd 15734
16190i G 7151
64 N1b 248d 152 16153 16256 U5b U7 16311
16311 499 7759 13734 16356
89 195 150 16311 U2 U32 146
16316 11176 16092
171 J2 16399 U31 152
16362 12346 16368
514dd B T1 T5 152 195
16519 16319 150
195 514iCA
150 217
L1aA 151 340
U21
152 U5a K
303ii U22

Figure 1
Phylogenetic network based on complete mtDNA genome sequences. Nomenclature of individuals is as in Table 1. Numbers along the links refer to nucleotide posi-
tions; suffixes are transversions; underlining indicates recurrent mutations; the order of the mutations on a path not interrupted by any branching or distinguished
nodes is arbitrary. The same topology was supported by bootstraps, using NJ and 1000 replicates; the bootstrap values higher than 50% are shown over the branches.
The star shows the position where the chimpanzee sequence roots in the network.
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crucial aspects of human history, such as the probable however, parallel mutations should be avoided in their
origin and approximate dating of migrations into the global affiliations. As can be expected from haplotypes of
New World [3] and Polynesia [4,5], and quantitative es- well-differentiated haplogroups the majority of muta-
timations of the relative Paleolithic and Neolithic contri- tions are in the external branches of the tree, including
butions to the extant European mtDNA diversity [2]. At those that specifically define them [2]. Nevertheless, it is
the other end of the phylogenetic tree, the ultimate coa- well known that in population studies these main lineag-
lescence of all worldwide mtDNA lineages into Africa has es sprout into several sub-clusters sometimes with inter-
favored, since the beginning, the recent African origin esting geographic localization. In the cases where
hypothesis for all modern humans [6]. The analyses of representatives of these sub-clusters have also been ana-
the complete mtDNA sequence of 53 humans of diverse lyzed, it is evident that the African ones are at the same
origins [7] have added statistical support to this hypoth- level of divergence as non-African clusters. More infor-
esis. However, as the current definition of the major hap- mation of cluster structure in Africa is necessary. In non
logroups is not based on total genomic sequences, there African groups, two haplotypes belonging to sub-haplo-
is not yet a clear resolution of their basal relationships. group U2 have a divergence similar to that found be-
This genomic phylogenetic reconstruction is necessary to tween other sub-clusters of the Caucasian U haplogroup.
infer the early human dispersal routes after the African One of them, lacking mutations 16129C and 15907, that
exodus. We present the phylogenetic network of 42 com- are present in all western Eurasian representatives, re-
plete mtDNA sequences including representatives of the sembles haplotypes found in India [9]. The proposed in-
major haplogroups. Based on their relative clustering clusion of haplogroup K into the U cluster [10] is
and coalescence ages we propose a tentative model of the confirmed, being U7 its most probable related sub-clade.
way the Old World could have been colonized by modern Main Asian haplogroups belong to two different major
humans. clusters, whereas A and B rooted with Caucasoid haplo-
groups, C, D, G and M constitute a monophyletic cluster.
Results and Discussion Likewise, African haplogroup L3 is more related to Eur-
The phylogenetic network of the 42 mtDNA sequences asian haplogroups than to the most divergent African
(Fig. 1) was free of reticulations when mutations [8] 150, clusters L1 and L2. Chimpanzee rooting shows that the
152, 303i and 16519 were omitted in its construction. The oldest lineage of extant modern humans is the African
tree topology was the same as the bootstrap supporting L1a cluster. In addition, the significant bootstrap values
neighbor joining tree. We detected 35 parallel substitu- on the deep African branches reinforce the statistical
tions from 124 variable positions (28%) in the non-cod- support that the out of Africa hypothesis has obtained
ing region (1,122 bp in length), and 45 from 409 (11%) in through a parallel genomic mtDNA study [7]. We have
the coding region (15,447 bp in length). Shared muta- estimated a minimum total coalescence for modern hu-
tions in basal branches of the tree relate haplogroups, man lineages from 156,000 to 169,000 years before
present (yr BP). The two subsequent ancient splits also
happened inside Africa, originating the L1b/c and L2
haplogroups with ages of 122,000132,000 yr BP and
85,00095,000 yr BP respectively. These three clades
still have an overwhelming sub-Saharan African implan-
U5 A tation. The next branching (Fig. 2), dated between
39.000-53.000
B 59,00069,000 yr BP, also occurred in Africa but com-
U6 U2
C
D
prising clades currently found only in this continent
L3 M
G (L3), and others with a first expansion out of Africa. To-
59.000-69.000
day, L3 derivatives are present in nearly all the African
L2
L1b/c
populations. This ancient spread inside Africa has been
L1a directly detected by the ages of several sub-clade expan-
sions [11] and indirectly confirmed by genetic admixture,
involving archaic and modern autosomal gene alleles,
detected only in Africa [12]. The coexistence in African
populations of very divergent non-recombining lineages
may erroneously bias demographic estimations based on
Figure 2
Geographic dispersal routes and minimal estimated ages of pair-wise nucleotide differences [11]. Two hypothetical
major human expansions in the Old World, deduced from routes for the Asian colonization have been proposed
the age and geographic localisation of main mtDNA haplo- [13], one through Central Asia and one through South
groups. Asia. Coincidentally, we detect at least two independent
lineages spreading out of Africa. One comprises all M de-
BMC Genetics 2001, 2:13 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2156/2/13

Table 1: HVS I motifs

Sample HVS I motif Haplogroup Origin Ref.a

K 145 224 311 K Iberian 1


U7 248 318T U7 Iberian 1
U31 343 356 390 U3 Canarian 1
U32 343 390 U3 Moroccan 1
U21 051 092 129C 189 362 368 U2 Jordanian 1
U22 051 129C 189 319 362 U2 Iberian 1
U2 051 189 234 294 U2 Jordanian 1
U5b 189 192 270 U5b Berber 1
U5a 093 153 256 270 311 399 U5a1a Swede 2
U6 172 219 U6 Moroccan 1
H1 H Mauritanian 1
HF 093 183d 189 H 3
RCRS H European 4
H2 H Iberian 1
V 298 V Berber 1
HV 278 311 HV Jordanian 1
T5 126 153 189 294 T5 Moroccan 1
T1 126 163 186 189 294 T1 Iberian 1
J1b 069 126 145 222 261 J1b Moroccan 1
J2 069 126 193 300 J2 Iberian 1
B 136 183C 189 217 284 B Japanese 5
I 129 148 223 391 I Iberian 1
IF 129 184A 223 391 I 3
N1b 145 176G 180 223 390 N1b Jordanian 1
W 223 292 W Iberian 1
X 129 189 223 278 X Moroccan 1
A 111 209 223 290 319 362 A Canarian 1
M11 129 182C 183C 189 223 249 311 M1 Moroccan 1
M12 185 189 223 249 311 M1 Jordanian 1
G 189 194 195G 197G 223 256 278 362 G Japanese 6
M3 140 209 223 262 274 320 399 M Japanese 7
D 184iC 190iC 223 311 316 362 D Japanese 6
M1 223 295 362 M Filipino 1
M2 223 M Indian 1
C 223 298 325 327 C Canarian 1
L3b 124 223 278 362 L3b Mauritanian 1
L3d 124 223 256 L3d Jordanian 1
L2 223 278 390 L2 Mauritanian 1
L1c 129 189 223 278 294 311 360 L1c Mauritanian 1
L1b 126 187 189 223 264 270 278 293 311 L1b Mauritanian 1
L1a 129 148 168 172 187 188G 189
223 230 278 293 311 320 L1a Moroccan 1
L1aA 148 172 184 187 188A 189 223
230 311 320 L1a African 8

a 1, This work; 2, GenBank accession number X93334; 3, H and I references [34], we have added for the comparisons the 263, 311i and 16519
mutations in both sequences and 00073 in the I sequence; 4, revised Cambridge reference, GenBank accession number NC 001807; 5, Positive con-
trol [35], for comparisons we added 1438; 6, MELAS, P-1 (G) and FICM (D) [36]; 7, (ref [37]); 8, GenBank accession number D38112, for compar-
isons we added 311i.

rivatives that radiated 30,00057,600 yr BP. Subse- like radiation of these clades suggests that this wide geo-
quent expansions of this clade have been found in India graphic colonization could have happened in a relatively
[9] and Eastern Asia where it possibly originated and ex- short time. Genetic support for this southern spread of M
panded as haplogroups C, D, G and others [14]. The star- through Ethiopia and the Arabian Peninsula along South
BMC Genetics 2001, 2:13 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2156/2/13

Asia has been recently proposed due to the presence of northern India [9] but is present in Mongolia [26], fa-
subclade M1 in Eastern Africa [15]. However, a posterior voring a Central Asian route for the expansion of these
return from Asia to Africa of these lineages is a more prominent Asian haplogroups. Two additional clades
plausible explanation because the genetic diversity of M join haplogroups J and T and haplogroups H, V and HV
is much greater in India [9] than in Ethiopia [15]. In fact, respectively. Derivatives of at least some of them are
M1 could be a branch of the Indian cluster M as ancestral found in Europe, North Africa, Central Asia and even In-
motifs of the African M1 are found in M*, M3 and M4 In- dia, but the most probable origin for all these expansions
dian subclusters [16]. Furthermore, one of the most de- is the Near East-Caucasus area [2,17,27]. Finally, cluster
rived M3 haplotypes in India (10398, 10400, 16086, U seems to have suffered a radial spread (Fig. 2), giving
16129, 16223, 16249, 16259, 16311) has all the basic sub- subsequent diversification in different geographic areas.
stitutions that defined the Ethiopian clade, excepting the Three sub-haplogroups, U2, U5 and U6 had their major
highly variable 16189 [9]. This supposed Indian expan- expansions in India, Europe and North Africa respective-
sion to the west also reached northern areas since ly. U2 split in two branches, one, characterized by muta-
evolved representatives of M4 have been also detected in tions 16129C and 15907, is geographically scattered from
Central Asia [17]. We may consider the upper bound for Western Europe to Mongolia [2,26] but has not been de-
this return to Africa 25,00047,000 yr BP, the age calcu- tected in North Africa. The other reached India where it
lated for M1 in Eastern Africa based on HVSI sequences gave origin to several sub-clusters with global frequen-
or 33,00063,000 obtained using RFLPs [15]. cies around 10% being, after its predecessor haplogroup
M (53%), the second most abundant haplogroup in India
The other major branch that left Africa gave rise mainly [9]. U7 with a minor implantation in Europe but third in
to Caucasoid lineages which is congruent with a northern frequency in India [9] and also not detected in North Af-
route through the Levant. With a lower bound of rica might have had a similar expansion as U2. The main
43,00053,000 yr BP this branch spread into at least radiation of haplogroup U5 occurred in Europe. It has
three main clusters. One comprises haplogroups X and A been stated that this lineage entered Europe during the
with only a shared mutation between them and different Upper Paleolithic [2], most probably from the Middle
geographic distributions. Whereas A is widespread in East-Caucasus area. The great divergence found here for
Asia, X is mainly restricted to Europe. Curiously, repre- the two U5 representatives is in agreement with the old
sentatives of both clusters have been detected in native age proposed for this haplogroup. Finally, U6 traces the
Americans raising the possibility that some American In- first detectable Paleolithic return to Africa of ancient
dian could have European ancestry [18]. Nevertheless, X Caucasoid lineages. It has been mostly found in North-
haplotypes have recently been detected in Central Asia. west Africa, with a global estimated age of 47,000 years
These Asian X haplotypes lack the 225A mutation, as the [28] reflecting an old human continuity in that rather
majority of the American X, pointing to this area as the isolated area. The fact that in Europe it has only been de-
most probable source for the dispersal of the New World tected in the Iberian Peninsula [29] rules out a possible
founders [19]. The second cluster groups minor haplo- European route, unless a total lineage extinction in all
groups W, I and N1b, the three are present although in the path is invoked. On the other hand, its presence in
low frequencies in Europe, Near East and Caucasus but Northeast Africa [30], albeit in low frequencies, reinforc-
only I and N1b have been also detected in Egypt and Ara- es its way through North Africa. A third possibility could
bia [2]. The last group radiated around 39,00052,000 be that this lineage never went out of Africa but its coa-
yr BP, giving at least four ancestral clusters. One of them lescence with clades which all had prominent expansions
originated haplogroup B that expanded to Eastern Asia, in Eurasia weakens this option. U3 has also been found
reaching Japan and southeastern Pacific Archipelagos with a comparatively higher frequency in Northwest Af-
[20,21]. In early studies, this clade was defined by the 9- rica [29] and might have followed the same route as U6,
bp COII-tRNALys deletion but after that it has been however, as its star-like expansion in the Caucasus has
found with independent origins on other haplogroup been dated around 30,000 yr BP [30], it most probably
backgrounds [2224]. In this study we have detected reached Africa in a posterior expansion. This out of Afri-
this deletion on an Iberian haplotype belonging to haplo- ca and back again hypothesis has also been suggested for
group I. Curiously, it was also found in an Italian haplo- Y-chromosome lineages [31]. Subsequent Neolithic and
type I [25]. However, the 9-bp deletion was absent in a historic expansions have doubtlessly reshaped the hu-
wide screen that we carried out on Iberian and North- man genetic pool in wide geographic areas but mainly as
west African I haplotypes. The detection in two Mediter- limited gene flow, not admixture, between populations.
ranean populations of I haplotypes harboring the 9-bp Consequently, the continental origin of the major haplo-
deletion points to the existence in this area of a subset of groups can still be detected and the earliest human
I haplotypes that share a recent common ancestor. As routes inferred through them.
happens with A, haplogroup B has not been found in
BMC Genetics 2001, 2:13 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2156/2/13

Table 2: Oligonucleotide pairs used in the amplification and sequencing

Fragment Annealing
Name CRS reference Sequence (5'3') size (pb) temp.(C)

L16340 (1631816340) AGCCATTTACCGTACATAGCACA 681 52


H408 (429408) TGTTAAAAGTGCATACCGCCA
L382 (362382) CAAAGAACCCTAACACCAGCC 603 56
H945 (964945) GGGAGGGGGTGATCTAAAAC
L923 (902923) GTCACACGATTAACCCAAGTCA 607 56
H1487 (15081487) GTATACTTGAGGAGGGTGACGG
L1466 (14451466) GAGTGCTTAGTTGAACAGGGCC 629 58
H2053 (20732053) TTAGAGGGTTCTGTGGGCAAA
L2025 (20042025) GCCTGGTGATAGCTGGTTGTCC 609 52
H2591 (26122591) GGAACAAGTGATTATGCTACCT
L2559 (25382559) CACCGCCTGCCCAGTGACACAT 591 56
H3108 (31283108) TCGTACAGGGAGGAATTTGAA
L3073 (30513073) AAAGTCCTACGTGATCTGAGTTC 640 52
H3670 (36903670) GGCGTAGTTTGAGTTTGATGC
L3644 (36253644) GCCACCTCTAGCCTAGCCGT 623 58
H4227 (42474227) ATGCTGGAGATTGTAATGGGT
L4210 (41894210) CCACTCACCCTAGCATTACTTA 625 55
H4792 (48134792) ACTCAGAAGTGAAAGGGGGCTA
L4750 (47294750) CCAATACTACCAATCAATACTC 599 52
H5306 (53275306) GGTGATGGTGGCTATGATGGTG
L5278 (52595278) TGGGCCATTATCGAAGAATT 593 58
H5832 (58515832) GACAGGGGTTAGGCCTCTTT
L5781 (57625781) AGCCCCGGCAGGTTTGAAGC 626 58
H6367 (63876367) TGGCCCCTAAGATAGAGGAGA
L6337 (63186337) CCTGGAGCCTCCGTAGACCT 601 58
H6899 (69186899) GCACTGCAGCAGATCATTTC
L6869 (68506869) CCGGCGTCAAAGTATTTAGC 578 58
H7406 (74277406) GGGTTCTTCGAATGTGTGGTAG
L7379 (73587379) AGAAGAACCCTCCATAAACCTG 580 56
H7918 (79377918) AGATTAGTCCGCCGTAGTCG
L7882 (78617882) TCCCTCCCTTACCATCAAATCA 506 56
H8345 (83668345) TTTCACTGTAAAGAGGTGTTGG
L8299 (82808299) ACCCCCTCTAGAGCCCACTG 603 56
H8861 (88828861) GAGCGAAAGCCTATAATCACTG
L8799 (87798799) CTCGGACTCCTGCCTCACTCA 638 58
H9397 (94169397) GTGGCCTTGGTATGTGCTTT
L9362 (93429362) GGCCTACTAACCAACACACTA 609 56
H9928 (99509928) AACCACATCTACAAAATGCCAGT
L9886 (98659886) TCCGCCAACTAATATTTCACTT 617 56
H10462 (1048110462) AATGAGGGGCATTTGGTAAA
L10403 (1038310403) AAAGGATTAGACTGAACCGAA 612 56
H10975 (1099410975) CCATGATTGTGAGGGGTAGG
L10949 (1093010949) CTCCGACCCCCTAACAACCC 617 58
H11527 (1154611527 CAAGGAAGGGGTAGGCTATG
L11486 (1146711486 AAAACTAGGCGGCTATGGTA 629 56
H12076 (1209512076 GGAGAATGGGGGATAGGTGT
L12028 (1200812028 GGCTCACTCACCCACCACATT 615 58
H12603 (1262312603 ACGAACAATGCTACAGGGATG
L12572 (1255312572 ACAACCCAGCTCTCCCTAAG 591 56
H13124 (1314313124 ATTTTCTGCTAGGGGGTGGA
L13088 (1306813088 AGCCCTACTCCACTCAAGCAC 618 58
H13666 (1368513666 AGGGTGGGGTTATTTTCGTT
L13612 (1359313612 AAGCGCCTATAGCACTCGAA 614 56
H14186 (1420614186 TGGTTGAACATTGTTTGTTGG
L13612 (1359313612 AAGCGCCTATAGCACTCGAA 614 56
H14186 (1420614186 TGGTTGAACATTGTTTGTTGG
L14125 (1410414125 TCTTTCTTCTTCCCACTCATCC 602 58
BMC Genetics 2001, 2:13 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2156/2/13

Table 2: Oligonucleotide pairs used in the amplification and sequencing (Continued)


H14685 (1470514685 CATTGGTCGTGGTTGTAGTCC
L14650 (1462914650 CCCCATTACTAAACCCACACTC 604 58
H15211 (1523215211 TTGAACTAGGTCTGTCCCAATG
L15162 (1514315162 CTCCCGTGAGGCCAAATATC 597 58
H15720 (1573915720 GTCTGCGGCTAGGAGTCAAT
L15676 (1565715676 TCCCCATCCTCCATATATCC 524 56
H16157 (1618016157 TGATGTGGATTGGGTTTTTATGTA
L15996 (1597515996 CTCCACCATTAGCACCCAAAGC 446 58
H16401 (1642016401 TGATTTCACGGAGGATGGTG

Conclusions strap resampling with 1000 replications (PHYLIP


After coming out of Africa, modern humans first spread Package 3.5c, [http://evolution.genetics.washing-
to Asia following two main routes. The southern one is ton.edu/phylip.html] ). Minimum estimates of coales-
represented by haplogroup M and related clades that are cence ages, and 95% confidence intervals, were based on
overwhelmingly present in India and eastern Asia. The mean divergence among lineages for the coding region
northern one gave a posterior radiation that, through and a constant evolutionary rate of 1.7 10-8 per site per
Central Asia, again reached North and East Asia carry- year that has been inferred for this region on the basis of
ing, among others, the prominent lineages A and B. Later 53 complete mtDNA sequences [7].
expansions, can be detected by the presence of subclades
of haplogroup U in India and Europe. There were also re- Accesion numbers
turns to Africa, most probably from the same two routes. Sequences are available in GenBank (accession nos.
The return from India could be detected by the presence AF381981-AF382013)
of derivatives of M in Northeast Africa, and the arrival of
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