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Rachel Golden

Professor Graves

Language 120

28 August 2017

An Annotated Bibliography of Bootstraps

Victor Villanueva Jr. Bootstraps. National Council of Teachers of English. Urbana, Illinois 1993.

In this excerpt from the book Bootstraps, the author, English professor Victor

Villanueva Jr., describes his personal experiences and uses pathos to convey the difficulty of

learning as a minority student to professors. He uses first person and third person narratives to

tell the story of his own journey as a minority student. Published by the National Council of

Teachers of English, this book aims to teach professors that rhetoric comes in all forms.

Depending on your background, rhetoric can look and feel very different from your own form of

it, but that doesnt make it incorrect. Villanuevas professors often commented on his different

approaches to assignments and he credits this to his Puerto Rican heritage and his background.

By conveying his feelings towards his professors and showing the separation between students

and teachers that he felt during his time in college, Villanueva aims to bridge this divide between

professors and students, especially the minority students. He explains if he were to ever

become a professor it, would make sense to me, what matters most is what the reader finds.

He understands, unlike his professors, that rhetoric is unique to the individual and if more

teachers were able to understand this, the separation felt by minority students could be


An Annotated Bibliography of Mother Tongue

Amy Tan. Mother Tongue. The Opposite of Fate: A book of musings. 1989.
In this essay taken from the book The Opposite of Fate: A book of musings, written by

Chinese-American writer Amy Tan, Tan describes personal experiences to show immigrant and

minority readers the complex role non-native English speaking family play in ones development

in the English language. While describing her educational development as a child, Tan notes

that her mothers broken English had a significant impact on her ability to speak and learn

English as well. Although she admits feeling ashamed of her mothers inability to correctly form

grammatically sound sentences in English, Tan realizes that broken English should have no

impact on the overall meaning and message her mother tried to get across. Without following

the numerous grammatical rules of the English language, her mother was still an incredibly

smart woman and Tan disliked how people looked down on her academic abilities simply

because she wasnt a native English speaker. Tan noticed her teachers pushing her towards the

subjects of math and science, and away from studies of English. Without a solid background

and home base of English, Tan found it difficult to take standardized English tests and she

relates this to her lack of formal English at home. By understanding that her relationship with

English would be different than those who went home to native English speakers, Tan was able

to accept her challenge and overcome it. Although broken English was spoken at home Tan

was able to adapt how she spoke depending on her audience, allowing for less formal speech

when her mother was around, and more formal speech when surrounded by her peers. Her

ability to learn English was influenced by her mothers broken English but Tan used this only

as motivation to grow as a student and person.

An Annotated Bibliography of The Quare Gene

Tony Earley. The Quare Gene. Somehow Form a Family. Algonquin Books of Chapel Hill. 2002.
In the excerpt, The Quare Gene, taken from the book of compiled narratives,

Somehow Form a Family, American novelist, Tony Earley, aims to address how he discovered

himself and how his Western North Carolinian roots shaped him. By addressing his own history

and how he came to find the world for himself, Earley aims to show lost readers the way to be

found in life through your familial roots. Earley starts this narrative by providing background on

his heritage and Western North Carolina dialect by talking about his experience with the word

quare. Deemed archaic by scholarly dictionaries, quare still had great significance and

meaning in Earleys family home. The use of this one word gave Earley a greater insight to his

familial roots and he began to understand why he spoke differently than his classmates. Earley

began adjusting his speech depending on his audience and he found this uncomfortable and

difficult. Worried what others might think, Earley was forced to make cautious decisions while

speaking, thinking carefully about the pronunciation of each word and grammatical basics. He

started off his early life with a strong dialect, using words many wouldnt normally use, but

ended up adjusting his speech and exiling words like quare in his everyday vernacular. He

found the end to the era of his familial tongue starting with himself. At first Earley feels guilt and

remorse for his disregard for his family's dialect, but he reflects on it shaping him identically as

his genes had and how it connected him to his family. Although he did not make a point to

increase the dialects through another lifespan he knows his tongue holds him just as true to his

family as his blood does.

An Annotated Bibliography of Revision Strategies of Student Writers and Experienced Adult


Nancy Sommers.Revision Strategies of Student Writers and Experienced Adult Writers. College

Composition and Communication. Vol. 31. No. 4. December 1980.

In the essay, Revision Strategies of Student Writers and Experienced Adult, taken from

the College Composition and Communication textbook, author and director of expository writing

at Harvard University Nancy Sommers, aims to bridge the gap between the revision of

experienced writers work, and student writers work. Sommers describes her efforts to

understand the different forms of revision by writers with different experience levels in her study

on students and professors. Both were asked to write different types of essays and revise each

three times. Sommers observed that student writers mostly revised word choices and sentence

structure, focusing on small parts of the entire essay. On the other hand Sommers found

experienced writers reviewed the essays as a whole and looked at the overall form and

message of the essay. This contrast between experienced and inexperienced writers can be

seen in their writings and Sommers study aims to address these differences and help both

students and teachers understand how to better revise their work and understand the revision

process of others work.

An Annotated Bibliography of Teaching the Conventions of Academic Discourse

Teresa Thonney. Teaching English in the Two-Year College, vol. 38, no. 4, May 2011, pp. 347-


In the essay Teaching the Conventions of Academic Discourse, taken from the

textbook, Teaching English in the Two-Year College, professor of English, Teresa Thonney,

tries to dispel the theory that general academic courses arent beneficial to college students and

their discourse writing. After analyzing twenty-four different pieces of academic writing from

different discourses Thonney came to find a general set of rules academic writers follow and

general concepts they include in their writings. By analyzing these different texts Thonney

hopes to reach out to other professors of English and encourage them to keep students

engaged in their general writing courses. Using the central ideas she found in each of the texts,

Thonney supports her claim that although academic writing varies, there are ways to teach the

basics and help students be more prepared for writing within their intended majors. Thonney

mentions teaching students to notice how academic writing is dynamic and how it differs from

discourse to discourse. She also talks about helping students practice academic writing

principles. Using different professors beliefs, and her own discoveries about academic writing,

Thonney creates a compelling argument for the use of general academic writing courses and

the benefits they have for students.

An Annotated Bibliography of Disciplinarity and Transfer: Students' Perceptions of Learning to


Linda S. Bergman & Janet Zepernick.WPA: Writing Program Administration, vol. 31, no. 1-2,

2007, pp. 124-51.

In this essay, taken from Volume 31 of the Writing Program Administration textbook,

authors and teachers of writing at the Midwestern technological university, Linda S. Bergman

and Janet Zepernick, use the evidence from their in depth study to analyze the way college

students perceive writing in English courses and first-year introductory English courses. By

identifying central ideas college students have about writing in college, the professors aim to

teach other professors how to teach English better, in a way students will carry the information

with them in the long run. The study determined that most students found English courses as

trivial and they denied learning much from them. The creative and personal writing served no

purpose for their studies later on and they took nothing away from their first-year English

classes. Students preferred writing in their field specific classes, and said that they gained much

more relative information about writing in those classes as opposed to English classes. By

presenting this information, and the implications surrounding it, Bergman and Zepernick hope to

make more teachers aware of how students are learning English in their classes. This essay

aims to draw attention to college classes, specifically English classes, and how professors can

change their teaching style in order for students to better gain important writing skills and

Annotated Bibliography of Factors Associated With Meniscus Repair in Patients Undergoing

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

Ronald W.B. Wyatt, MD, , Maria C.S. Inacio, PhD, Kate D. Liddle, BS, Gregory B. Maletis, MD.

The American Journal of Sports Medicine. Vol 41. Issue 12. Pp 2766-2771.

Doctors throughout the medical community have had to address the increase of anterior

cruciate ligament (ACL) tears within the past ten years. A collection of doctors put together a

study on the association between meniscus repairs within an ACL surgery and external factors.

These factors include but are not limited to; the age, sex, and race of the patient, along with the

level of experience of the doctor performing the surgery and the available resources within the

hospital in which the surgery took place. After putting their results together and analyzing them

doctors Ronald Wyatt, Maria Inacia, Kate Liddle, and Gregory Maletis published their study in

The American Journal of Sports Medicine. Their attempt to draw attention to the factors that

influence meniscus repairs were aimed at other doctors within the medical field. By displaying

their results in graphs and explaining the meaning of them the doctors aim to show their findings

to the medical community in order to put into light the large number of menisci that have to be

repaired along with the ACL when it is torn. When meniscus tears are ignored there are often

many more problems down the road for the patient. Ultimately the goal of every doctor is to help

their patients and this study aims to make this attainable for ACL tear patients.
Annotated Bibliography of Writing from Sources, Writing from Sentences

Rebecca Moore Howard, Tricia Serviss, and Tanya Rodriguez. Writing and Pedagogy, vol. 2,

no. 2, 2010, pp. 177-92

The use of sources can be a tricky concept in writing. Although sources add depth and

credibility to claims made by a writer, sometimes they arent used correctly leading the reader to

question the writers integrity and knowledge on the subject. Three English professors, Rebecca

Moore Howard, Tricia Serviss, and Tanya Rodriguez address this concern in their essay

Writing from Sources, Writing from Sentences, published in Writing and Pedagogy, vol. 2.

Using results from their study, the writers address the use of quotations and information from

different sources in 18 academic essays written by students. They found that the use of

paraphrasing and patchwriting has a very fine line between honest academic writing and

plagiarism. When writers use information from other sources often times the message may get

mixed up or analyzed incorrectly. This brings into question the knowledge of the writer and

whether or not they truly understood the quote they were using or if they were simply using it for

credibility. With the results of their study these professors aim to address this writing concern to

help both teachers and writers use sources more efficiently and accurately in their writing.
Annotated Bibliography of Annoying Ways People Use Sources

Kyle Stedman. Writing Spaces: Readings on Writing, Volume 2

Everyone aims to make their writing better in some way or another. A good way

to do this is to look at your audience to see what they want and how they will react to

your writing. Professor of writing at Rockford University, Kyle Stedman, aims to address

this aspect of writing in his essay Annoying Ways People Uses Sources, published in

the academic textbook Writing Spaces: Readings on Writing, Volume 2. Using a

common comparison to slow drivers driving in the fast lane on the highway, Stedman

aims to show how writers can be annoying in their everyday writing as well. Stedman

mentions six different ways writers can change the use of quotations in their work to

make it less annoying for their readers. Things like when quotes come out of nowhere,

or when paragraphs start or end with a quote, or when too many quotes are used are

some ways writing can be particularly annoying to readers. He says the best way to
address this is to anticipate a readers uneasiness in regards to quotes, in order for

them to get the best overall view of your writing. Often times writers dont intentionally

use quotes incorrectly, but by addressing this concern, Stedman hopes that this will

shed some light on the issue in order to make writers more aware of how they use

quotes so that their writing will be better understood in the end.

Annotated Bibliography of Why I Need You to Use I

McKinney Maddalena. Writing Spaces: Readings on Writing, Volume 1

Similar to many writers, when growing up and first learning how to write the use

of the first person pronoun I was absolutely unacceptable. Many remember their early

English teachers scolding them for being informal and improper when they used I in

their writings. Assistant professor of English at the University of North Carolina at

Wilmington, Mckinney Maddalena, tries to refute this outdated theory of writing without

the use of I in her essay Why I Need You to Use I, published in the textbook Writing

Spaces: Readings on Writing, Volume 1. Maddalena uses numerous examples of

academic writers incorporating I in their work to show writers the use of I can be

appropriate and better support your claim when writing. Maddalena hopes the use of I

will no longer be taboo in writing and will be a more commonly utilized tactic. She

argues that I helps writers with clarity, integrity, ownership, and rhetorical
sophistication. Through examples of I writing Maddalena aims to convince writers that

the use of I is okay and she encourages writers to implement this in their writing.