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Title of Paper Goes Here And I Will Also Add Here the Unnecessary Words APA Format Sixth

A Research Paper presented


To the faculty of
School of Business and Accountancy
Holy Angel University
Angeles City

HAU LOGO

In partial fulfillment of the requirement for the Degree of


Bachelor of Science in Accounting Technology

Names of Group Members

Month and Year Submitted


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Table of Contents
Preliminaries

Title Page i

Approval Sheet ii

Table of Contents iii

Abstract iv

Introduction 1

Background of the Study (Company Profile) 4

Objective of the Study 4

Review of Related Literature 6

Statement of the Problem 11

Research Frameworks

Theoretical Framework 12

Conceptual Framework 13

Operational Framework 14

Scope and Limitation

Method

Research Design 16

Participants 17

Sources of Data 17

Research Instruments 18

Ethical Consideration 18

Procedure 19

Results and Discussion 21


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Recommendations

References 37

Appendices (better to present them in separate sheet) 39

Appendix A 40

Appendix B 41

Certificate of Plagscan Review 42


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Abstract

An abstract is a single paragraph, without indentation, that summarizes the key points of the

manuscript in 150 to 250 words. For simpler student papers in XResearch classes, a somewhat

shorter abstract is fine (as is only one space after each period). The purpose of the abstract is to

provide the reader with a brief overview of the paper.

Keywords: writing, template, sixth, edition, APA format, self-discipline, is, very, good
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Next Page will be your Introduction, begin your Introductory part without placing the

heading Introduction. Remember your part 1 covers, Introduction, Company Background up to

Scope and Limitation without placing the said headings, the basis of your readers will be your

table of content. In the introductory part, state the necessity of your research paper, what are

major issues or business dilemma that the management must address in the case of a business

research.

The Introduction:

The introduction is an important part of your research paper. While your introduction should

be relatively concise, accomplishing the goals below will take more than one paragraph. In your

introduction, you should accomplish the following:

1. Capture the interest of the reader. Perhaps you can do this by pointing out a puzzle that we

dont yet understand or a controversy in current scholarship. Perhaps you can draw on the

normative importance of your topic to draw the reader in. Make someone want to know what you

have to say.

2. Preview your argument and conclusions and provide a roadmap through the paper let the

reader know where you are going and what to expect.

Company Background

Brief History then proceed with the current dilemma or existing practices or process and

connect it with what your Research Paper tries to solve or prove. Right after the company

background, will be your research objectives.

Begin all your paragraphs except in the abstract with an indent. Paragraphs must not be

more than eight sentences, normally it consist of five sentences. Right after the company

background will be the objectives of the study, please enumerate them (1,2,3,ect.). The
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objectives must be stated in declarative form which co-inside with the research problems. Thus,

the number of research problems will be the same as the number of research objectives. You may

present your objectives as such:

The researcher aims at achieving the following objectives:

(1)..

(2)..

(3)..

Followed by the significance of the Study in paragraph form..What is the significance of

the research study to the company, clients of the company, external parties of the companies,

future researchers or perhaps to accountancy students.


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Title of Paper Gets Repeated Here Exactly As It Appears On Title Page

After the Introduction and/or Company Background will be your Review of Related

Literature (RRL). Note that the title of your paper appears at the top of your RRL even though

other sections begin with headings like Method, Results and so on. The rest of the text in

this template provides hints about properly generating all the parts of your APA-formatted paper.

The Review of Related Literature presents all the principles, variables, models, statistical

methods, definition of terms with proper citations. RRL must solidify the said principles, ideas,

and variables in order to give background for the foundation of the study from book authors or

previous researchers. It is like a story telling of what your paper will present without stating your

opinion as the researcher. An statement in the RRL without corresponding citation is an opinion

of from the researcher, thus all statements must have a corresponding citation. There are two

ways to present citations, example (1) According to Valix (2016) assets are resources of the

business entity with economic future benefits. or (2) Assets are resources of the business entity

with economic future benefits (Valix 2016). If a number of authors have the same claims ( Valix

2016; De Leon 2015; David 2014). The and or amber sign & will be presented in RRL and

References section differently. In the RRL use only & if it is enclosed in an open closed

parenthesis, or else it should be spelled out. De Leon and Guillermo (2016) define cost

accounting as the intersection of financial accounting and management accounting. Or you may

present it this way: Cost accounting is the intersection of Financial Accounting and Management

Accouting ( De Leon & Guillermo, 2016) which is called as parenthetical citation.

APA style specifies that major components of the paper (abstract, method, results &

discussions, recommendation, references,) each begin on a new page with the heading centered

at the top of the page. The body of the text is typically divided into sections with headings such
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as Method, Results, and Discussion (see at http://www.apastyle.org/manual/related/sample-

experiment-paper-1.pdf if you wish).

The Literature Review:

You must demonstrate your understanding of the current state of theory and evidence on

your topic and the ways in which your proposed project improves upon existing work. In other

words, you must review the relevant literature.

The most common mistake that students make in writing a literature review for a research

paper is to lose sight of its purpose. You include the literature review to explain both the basis

for and contribution of your research project. The literature review should be focused on issues

directly relevant to your study and should be organized in a way to call attention to the

contributions of your research. The purpose of the literature review is NOT to show that you

have read a lot of material. Summarizing as many books and articles as you can, whether or not

they relate directly to your research question, is not a good strategy.

Short, well focused literature reviews are more effective than long, meandering ones. At

the same time, you must demonstrate your understanding for the current state of the field. A

literature review should not be merely a technical reporting of what has been done before, but a

creative organization of past work that helps to frame and build your argument. Good literature

reviews order individual articles and books into groups, producing typologies that help readers to

see unresolved debates, inconsistencies, and new questions clearly and quickly. By organizing

past research in this way, you can convince the reader that your research, which will help to

resolve these debates and/or inconsistencies or answer these new questions, is particularly

important.

Howard S. Becker, in his book,


Writing for Social Scientists
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(U of Chicago Press, 1986) describes a literature review as follows:

Imagine you are doing a woodworking project, perhaps making a table. You have

designed it and cut out some of the parts. Fortunately, you neednt make all of the parts yourself.

Some are standard sizes and shapes. Some have already been designed and made by other

people. All you have to do is fit them into the places you left for them, knowing that they were

available. That is the best way to use the literature. You want to make an argument, instead of a

table. You have created some of the argument yourself. But you neednt invent the whole thing.

Other people have worked on your problem or problems related to it and have made some of the

pieces you need. You just have to fit them in where they belong (141-142).

There are many possible ways of designing a literature review that can be effective.

There is not one correct way to organize and report on the current state of the field. At the same

time, it is very important to choose an organization scheme and to move purposefully from one

point to another, guiding the reader to a conclusion. Your literature review should be designed to

lead the reader to the conclusion that your research is an important next step in our understanding

of the phenomenon in question.

Pay careful attention to defining important terms.

If you are studying success or effectiveness of international cooperation in a

particular area, we need to know what that means to you. If you are discussing the impact of

bargaining power on outcomes in international relations, we need to know what you mean by

the concept of bargaining power. If you are studying international mediation, you must explain

what actions do and do not constitute mediation by your definition. Be as concrete and specific

as you can be in defining your terms and identifying your causal mechanisms. Please note that
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conceptual definitions are different from operational definitions you should define your

concepts separately from the measurements you employ in your empirical research.

Research Problems or Questions.

Present your research questions right after your RLL. The researcher would like to solve

the following research problems: then itemize them (1)(2)..(3) like the objectives

they are not presented in a paragraph form. Then your hypotheses.

The Theory (Argument) and Hypotheses:

Drawing on your literature review, you must explain your argument to your reader clearly

and fully. This requires that you (1) identify the assumptions you are making and (2) show how

you derive expectations about causal mechanisms and causal effects in a logical manner from

those assumptions. Theories must (1) provide a discussion of cause; (2) advance the goal of

inference-- that is, be generalizable to a class of events beyond those you study; (3) be

falsifiable (in other words, you must be able to identify evidence that, if uncovered in empirical

evaluation, would convince you your theory was wrong). Try also to identify the bounds of the

theory. Under what conditions should it apply, and under what conditions would we expect it not

to apply? Your argument should lead you to one or more hypotheses that you intend to evaluate

in this paper.

Remember hypotheses must specify an expected relationship between an independent

variable and a dependent variable. State the hypotheses you intend to evaluate clearly and

explicitly. Be careful not to conflate multiple ideas, and be as specific as your argument allows

you to be. Please number your hypotheses and set them out from the text so they are absolutely

apparent to the reader.


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Note: A Qualitative type of research must have a hypotheses, while a Qualitative type of

research does not have.

Research Frameworks.

Still on the part one of your research paper. Present the research frameworks accordingly:

Theoretical Framework (Summary of theories which were discussed in the RRL) is optional.

Conceptual Framework (mandatory), Operational Framework (needed if is an action research, or

your proposing an improvement in the company system in the case of business research).

Note: Before presenting your diagram, present first the discussion pertinent to your

frameworks. The caption should be Figure 1. Theoretical Framework located at the lower end

left side. Next will be Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4. One figure per page and follow the

margin of one inch all sides.

While if the data presented is in the form of Table.. Table 1 then next line will be the

title of the Table then present the table. In this case the title of the table is the one italicize. But

just the same, present first the discussion pertinent to the data in the table before the table itself.

Scope and Limitations

Sets the boundaries of your research paper.

Part 2 (Method)

The Research Design:

In this section, you will explain to the reader how you intend to evaluate your hypotheses

empirically. You must explain:

1. To what population should the hypothesis apply?

What sample will you study, and how and why did you select this sample? Make sure to

explain any unavoidable bias due to truncated variation in the dependent variable.
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2. What is your unit of analysis, and how have you have measured your dependent

variable and independent variables? You must explain where you got your information from, and

how you determined values of the variables what were your coding rules? You should provide

summary statistics (frequencies or means) for each variable. Keep in mind that this step is

necessary even if you are evaluating only a few cases and using words rather than numbers in

your evaluation. You must still explain what criteria you used to determine whether (for

instance) a state had a lot of bargaining power or very little, or whether a cooperative agreement

was highly institutionalized or not and how you obtained information about the cases.

3. What, if any, control variables are necessary to include in your analysis? Why do you

include these control variables? Where did you get information on these variables, and what

were your coding rules?

Remember that research designs are indeterminate when they include more independent

and control variables than observations. They can also be indeterminate when independent

variables (or independent and control variables) are too highly correlated with one another. Make

sure that your analysis does not suffer from these problems!

Sub-headings of Method: (1) Research Design (2) Participants (3) Sources of Data (4)

Research Instruments (5) Ethical Considerations (6) Research Procedure.

Note: starting Method or the Part 2 or final part of your research paper. Indicate the

sub-headings with left indention.

The Research Results:

Here you must present your analysis (tables or graphs) and a discussion of the results. In

constructing your tables or graphs, make sure that you provide clear labels and a title. Readers

looking at the table or graph should be able to see with no difficulty the relationship you intend
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to demonstrate and the population of cases that you examined. It is important, however, that you

not only present the data in tables, but also explain it in words. Readers should be able to

understand your key results simply from reading the text.

Not only should you present the data, but you should also evaluate the analysis. Based on

these data, what conclusions do you reach about your hypotheses? Are there weaknesses in the

tests of the hypotheses?

Are there particular cases that stand out as not matching expected patterns? Why might

that be? It is useful to think as skeptically as you can about your findings and think of any other

possible interpretation. How sure are you (in other words, how much uncertainty do you have)

about the conclusions you draw based on this research?

The Conclusion:

In the conclusion, you should accomplish these goals:

1. Summarize what the reader has learned. What did you argue and what did the evidence

show?

2. Discuss directions for future research. What does this project lead you to believe must

be studied in the future? Did your analysis raise new questions? Were there things that you

would have liked to be able to evaluate but were unable to?

3. Explain why your work was important. How did it advance scholarship and normative

goals?

The particulars:

Citation:

All sources cited in the text must appear in the bibliography. Do not include sources in

the bibliography that are not cited in the text.


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Any information that is not common knowledge requires citation. When you report the

ideas of others, you must offer appropriate credit. Citations are required whenever you discuss

ideas from another authors work, not only when you quote directly. Plagiarism is a crime and a

violation of the Rice University Honor Code. Please be sure to familiarize yourself with the Rice

Honor Councils publications, Academic Fraud and the Honor Council. In general, if you have

any questions as to whether a citation is required, I encourage you to cite the source.

Every direct quotation must be followed immediately by a citation including the source

and the page number. Avoid direct quotations except when they significantly enhance your

argument. For instance, it may make sense to offer a direct quotation from a state leader when

discussing current policy, especially if there is a single statement that defines the current policy.

Generally, however, it is not necessary to quote those analyzing the policy directly. It is usually

possible to make the point as strongly in your own words while offering appropriate

acknowledgment to your source.

When you paraphrase an argument from a research source, it is always necessary to offer

appropriate credit. Other peoples ideas always require citation. Indisputable facts, like the date

Pearl Harbor was attacked by the Japanese, do not require citation. Any facts that are not

indisputable, however, like survey results or economic impact assessments, do require citation.

In addition, factual information that varies over time and/or by source should be cited. For

instance, the percentage of the U.S. budget spent on defense varies over time; the source from

which you draw such information is relevant. You are always encouraged to err on the

conservative side and cite more often rather than less often.

If you draw several sentences or a paragraph of ideas from a single source, it is

acceptable to cite the source once at the end of the paragraph or group of sentences rather than at
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the end of every sentence. It is not acceptable, however, to proceed to a new paragraph without

crediting the ideas in the first paragraph. Thus, every paragraph which includes any material

requiring citation should contain citation(s).

Examples of parenthetical citation: quotation:

The convincing evidence has led one eminent scholar of international relations to

conclude that the relationship between democracy and peace "comes as close as anything we

have to an empirical law in international relations" (Levy 1988, 663).

Paraphrase:

According to T. Clifton Morgan and Sally Howard Campbell (1991), democratically

elected executives must respond to public opinion; they often share decision making power with

other political bodies; and they face highly institutionalized political competition. These

constraints make it more difficult for a chief executive to make unpopular political decisions.

Some traditional liberal thinkers argue that democratic political structures have pacific

effects on international behavior because decisions for war are placed in the hands of those who

suffer most (Schumpeter 1919, Kant 1795).

Under methods, specify the sub-headings with left indention for the following; Research

Design, Participants, Sources of Data, Research Instruments, Ethical Considerations, Research

Procedure, Some papers have multiple studies in them so the body could have multiple sections

and subsections within it.


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Sections can be further divided into subsections with headings. An example is a Method

section divided into Participants, Materials, and Procedure subsections. Unlike in earlier editions

of the APA manual, the sixth edition tells you to bold headings (but not the title above or

anything on the title page). Below are examples.

Heading Level 1

Heading Level 2

Heading Level 3 (Note the Indent, Bold and Period).

Heading Level 4.

Heading Level 5 (Lets Hope You Never Have to Get to Level 5 or even Level 4).

In addition to Citations and References

Check your assigned reading materials for rules about citations (which occur within the

text of the paper) and references (which are listed in their own separate section at the end of the

paper). Remember that you can find a lot of answers to formatting questions with a careful

online search. But when youre looking at information online, you may want to evaluate the

information youre reading by considering where the information is coming from, whether the

information might refer to an older edition of APA format and whether other online sources

agree with the information youve found. When in doubt, follow the latest edition of the APA

manual.

About a References Section

An example of a References section is located further down in this template. Note that

APA uses the "hanging indent" style for references. The easiest way to create hanging indents is
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to type each reference without worrying about the hanging indent. Then, when you are finished,

select all the references at once (and nothing else) and apply the hanging indent.

Many APA format rules are not mentioned or demonstrated in this document. If APA

formatting is driving you crazy and youd like a distraction, how about alleviating peoples

suffering with a simple click? The Hunger Site (http://www.thehungersite.com/) is just what

Wikipedia says it is.

Additional pointers research paper should be:

1. Font style: Times New Roman.

2. Double spaced. Do not justify the alignment of the paragraphs.

3. In font size (11 ) with reasonable (i.e., approximately 1") margins.

4. Stapled in order with pages numbered.

5. Preceded by a title page with a meaningful title.

6. Divided into sections with appropriate subheadings.

7. Compliant with rules regarding citation.

8. Written with excellent grammar, spelling, and style.


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References

Ajournalarticle, R. H., & Seabreeze, R. M. (2002). Title of article goes here and Ill add that only

the volume number (22) is recorded after the journal title: Regardless of what some

sources say, the edition number and download information is unnecessary in Paul Roses

classes. Journal of Research in Personality, 22, 236-252.

BOnlinesourcesareconfusing, S. O. (2010). Search for answers at www.apastyle.org. Journal of

Check Apastyledotorg, 127, 816-826. doi: 10.1016/0022-006X.56.6.893*

Cmagazinearticle, B. E. (1999, July). Note that names on this page also identify what kind of

source it is: Each source type has to be formatted in a different way. [Special issue].

Prose Magazine, 126 (5), 96-134.

Donlinemagazineornewsletterarticle, B. E. (1999, July). Did you notice alphabetical references.

[Special issue]. Hot Prose, 126 (5). Retrieved from http://www.hotprose.com

Gbookreference, S. M., Orman, T. P., & Carey, R. (1967). Writers book. New York: Lu

Publishing.

Oencyclopedia, S. E. (1993). Words. In The new encyclopedia Britannica (vol. 38, pp. 745-

758). Chicago: Forty-One Publishing.

Qchapter, P. R., & Inaneditedvolume, J. C. (2001). Scientific research papers. In Stewart, J. H.

(Ed.), Research papers are hard work but boy, are they good for you (pp. 123-256). New

York: Lucerne Publishing.

Rnewspaper articles without authors appear to sharply cut risk of schizophrenia. (1993, July 15).

The Washington Post, p. A12.

* On p. 189, the 6th ed. manual says We recommend that when DOIs are available, you include
themso you can skip the DOI if you cant find it. Footnotes like this arent appropriate in a
real references section.
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Appendix

Place supporting and bulky groups of information in the appendixes. A typical student paper

should not have an appendix, but theses and dissertations usually do. If you have multiple groups

of information, create multiple appendixes. Label each appendix with a capital lettere.g.,

Appendix A, Appendix B, Appendix Cand of course you should refer to them in the text (e.g.,

The full survey is available in Appendix B).


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Table 1

Correlations Among and Descriptive Statistics For Key Study Variables

Dist.

M (SD) Sex Age Income Educ. Relig. Intol.

Sex 1.53 (.50) .07 -.09 .02 .14 .06

Age 31.88 (10.29) .08 .19* .20* .01

Income 2.60 (1.57) .04 -.14 -.09

Education 3.44 (1.06) -.29* -.06

Relig. 1.21 (.30) -.19*

Dist. Intol. 3.75 (1.19)

Notes. Ns range from 107 to 109 due to occasional missing data. For sex, 0 = male, 1 = female.

BHF = babies hoped for. Dist. Intol. = distress intolerance. Relig. = religiosity.

* p < .05.
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Amount that
Alcohol
Frugality Gets Spent
Consumption
on Alcohol

Figure 1. This simple path model, adapted from results in a Journal of Consumer Behaviour

paper, is an example of a figure.