07-Mech SNL 15.0 L05 Buckling

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07-Mech SNL 15.0 L05 Buckling

© All Rights Reserved

- Structural Reviewer
- ES FEM Mindlin Plate
- vessel calculation
- Buckling
- Robotic Tasks Using Path Control: Two Case Studies
- 5. Maths - Stability Analysis of a Generalized Seir Epidemic Model With Limited Resource for Treatment
- ASTM F1759-2004-Part 3
- Structural Reviewer
- Design_Prelim_0.pdf
- BGSCM14C08ExProb
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- Zhong
- 1506.01808.pdf
- 2
- Problem 261
- Rod Buckling
- KAaldor kalecki
- this-1
- A. Comech, J. Cuevas and P.G. Kevrekidis- Discrete peakons
- Steady State Stability

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Buckling Analysis

ANSYS Mechanical

Introduction to Structural Nonlinearities

1 2013 ANSYS, Inc. July 16, 2014

Chapter Overview

A. Background on Structural Stability

D. Nonlinear Stabilization

The capabilities described in this Chapter are generally applicable to ANSYS

Structural licenses and above.

A. Background on Structural Stability

Many structures require an evaluation of their structural stability. Thin

columns, compression members, and vacuum tanks are all examples of

structures where stability considerations are important.

The instability could be global (such as a snap-through) or local (such as yielding

or buckling at a concentrated load or support).

the application of special nonlinear techniques.

3 2013 ANSYS, Inc. July 16, 2014

... Background on Structural Stability

At the onset of instability (buckling) a structure will have a very large change in

displacement {u} under essentially no change in the load (beyond a small load

perturbation).

F F

u

Stable Unstable

... Background on Structural Stability

An idealized fixed end column will exhibit the following behavior under

increasing axial loads (F).

F F

F

Bifurcation Point Unstable Equilibrium

Neutral Equilibrium

Fcr

u

Stable Equilibrium

... Background on Structural Stability

Bifurcation Point

the solution are possible.

at the critical load (Fcr), the column can buckle

to the left or to the right. Thus two load paths

are possible. In the case of real structures the P

existence of geometric imperfections or force

perturbations (P 0) will determine the direction

of the load path.

u

... Background on Unstable Structures

Stable, Unstable, and Neutral Equilibrium

concave upward the equilibrium is stable, the ball will return to its

original position if perturbed. If the surface is concave downward

the equilibrium is unstable, if perturbed the ball will roll away. If

the surface is flat the ball is in neutral equilibrium, if perturbed the

ball will remain in its new position.

... Background on Structural Stability

Critical Load

perturbing force (P 0) is introduced and then removed, the

column will return to its original position. At values F > Fcr the

column is in unstable equilibrium, any perturbing force will cause

collapse. At F = Fcr the column is in neutral equilibrium, and this is

defined as the critical load.

... Background on Structural Stability

Limit Load

In real structures the critical load can rarely be achieved. A

structure generally will become unstable at a load lower than the

critical load because of imperfections and nonlinear behavior.

F

Bifurcation Point

instability occurs below

Fcr critical load.

... Background on Structural Stability

Analysis techniques for pre-buckling and collapse load analysis include:

Linear Eigenvalue Buckling

Nonlinear Buckling Analysis (using Stabilization)

F

Nonlinear

Linear Buckling Idealized Load Path

Eigenvalue

Imperfect Structures

Buckling

Load Path

Pre-buckling u

B. Linear (Eigenvalue) Buckling Procedure

A linear buckling analysis is based on a classic eigenvalue problem.

To develop the eigenvalue problem, first solve the load-displacement

relationship for a linear elastic pre-buckling load state {P0}; i.e. given {P0}

solve for

{P0} = [Ke]{u0}

to obtain

{u0} = the displacements resulting from the applied load {P0}

{s} = the stresses resulting from {u0}

... Linear (Eigenvalue) Buckling Procedure

Assuming the pre-buckling displacements are small, the incremental

equilibrium equations at an arbitrary state ({P}, {u}, {s}) are given by

where

[Ke] = elastic stiffness matrix

[Ks(s)] = initial stress matrix evaluated at the stress state {s}

... Linear (Eigenvalue) Buckling Procedure

At the onset of instability (the buckling load {Pcr}), the structure can

exhibit a change in deformation {u} in the case of

{P} 0

equilibrium equations for the pre-buckling range we have

The above relation represents a classic eigenvalue problem.

... Linear (Eigenvalue) Buckling Procedure

Hence, for a linear buckling analysis, the eigenvalue problem below is solved

to get the buckling load multiplier li and buckling modes yi:

K li S y i 0

Where:

[K] = stiffness matrix (constant)

[s] = stress stiffness matrix (constant)

i = ith buckling load factor

i = ith buckling mode shape

Linear elastic material behavior is assumed.

Small deflection theory is assumed

Nonlinear properties, if defined, are ignored.

It is important to remember these assumptions related to performing linear

buckling analyses in Mechanical.

14 2013 ANSYS, Inc. July 16, 2014

Linear (Eigenvalue) Buckling Procedure

A Static Structural analysis will need to be performed prior to (or in conjunction

with) a buckling analysis.

Linear (Eigenvalue) Buckling Procedure

Any type of geometry supported by Mechanical may be used in

buckling analyses:

Solid bodies

Surface bodies (with appropriate thickness defined)

Line bodies (with appropriate cross-sections defined)

Only buckling modes and displacement results are available for line bodies.

Although Point Masses may be included in the model, only inertial loads

affect point masses, so the applicability of this feature may be limited in

buckling analyses

For material properties, Youngs Modulus and Poissons Ratio are required as

a minimum

Linear (Eigenvalue) Buckling Procedure

depending on type and initial status.

Contact Type

Initially Touching Inside Pinball Region Outside Pinball Region

Bonded Bonded Bonded Free

No Separation No Separation No Separation Free

Rough Bonded Free Free

Frictionless No Separation Free Free

Linear (Eigenvalue) Buckling Procedure

At least one structural load, which causes buckling, should be applied to the

model:

All structural loads will be multiplied by the load multiplier (l) to determine the buckling

load (see below).

Compression-only supports are not recommended.

The structure should be fully constrained to prevent rigid-body motion.

F x l = Buckling Load

by a multiplication factor (l) until the critical

(buckling) load is reached

Linear (Eigenvalue) Buckling Procedure

Special considerations must be given if constant and proportional loads are

present.

The user may iterate on the buckling solution, adjusting the variable loads until the load

multiplier becomes 1.0 or nearly 1.0.

Consider the example of a column with self weight WO and an externally applied force A.

A solution can be reached by iterating while adjusting the value of A until l = 1.0. This

insures the self weight = actual weight or WO * l WO .

Linear (Eigenvalue) Buckling Procedure

Buckling analyses are always coupled to a structural analysis within the project

schematic.

The Pre-Stress object in the tree contains the results from a structural analysis.

The Details view of the Analysis Settings under the Linear Buckling branch allows the

user to specify the number of buckling modes to find.

Linear (Eigenvalue) Buckling Procedure

After setting up the model the buckling analysis can be solved along with the static

structural analysis.

A linear buckling analysis is more computationally expensive than a static analysis on the

same model.

The Solution Information branch provides detailed solution output.

Linear (Eigenvalue) Buckling Procedure

After the solution is complete, the buckling modes can be reviewed:

The Load Multiplier for each buckling mode is shown in the Details view as well as the

graph and chart areas. The load multiplier times the applied loads represent the

predicted buckling load.

Fbuckle = (Fapplied x l)

Linear (Eigenvalue) Buckling Procedure

Interpreting the Load Multiplier (l):

The tower model below has been solved twice. In the first case a unit load is applied. In

the second an expected load applied (see next page)

Linear (Eigenvalue) Buckling Procedure

Interpreting the Load Multiplier (l):

BucklingLoad l

BucklingLoad

l Safety _ Factor

Actual _ Load

Linear (Eigenvalue) Buckling Procedure

The buckling load multipliers can be reviewed in the Timeline section of the

results under the Linear Buckling analysis branch

It is good practice to request more than one buckling mode to see if the structure may

be able to buckle in more than one way under a given applied load.

... Workshop

Please refer to your Workshop Supplement for instructions on:

W5A- Linear (Eigenvalue) Buckling

C. Background on Nonlinear Buckling Techniques

illustrates the idealized load path, an imperfect structures load path, and

the actual dynamic response of the structure.

Bifurcation

Point Imperfect Structures

Load Path

Idealized

Static Actual Dynamic

Behavior Response

Pre-buckling Post-buckling u

... Background on Nonlinear Buckling Techniques

There are various analysis techniques available in WB-Mechanical for solving

the nonlinear static force deflection response of a structure. These techniques

include:

Load Control

Displacement Control

Nonlinear Stabilization

... Background on Nonlinear Buckling Techniques

Load Control:

Consider the snap through analysis of the shallow arch shown below. When

the solution to a problem is performed with incrementally applied forces (F)

the solution is performed using load control.

F

Can Fapp be

achieved with

Fapp

F load control?

F u

... Background on Nonlinear Buckling Techniques

Load Control:

The difficulty of using load control with the Newton-Raphson is that the

solution can not progress past a point of instability. At the point of instability

(Fcr) the tangent stiffness matrix KT is singular. Using load control, the

Newton-Raphson method will not converge. However, this type of analysis

can be useful to characterize the pre-buckling behavior of a structure.

achieved using

Fcr KT = 0 load control.

KT < 0 u

... Background on Nonlinear Buckling Techniques

Displacement Control:

When the arch is loaded with an incrementally applied displacement, as

opposed to a force, the solution is performed using displacement control. The

advantage of displacement control is that it produces a stable solution beyond

Fcr. (The imposed displacement provides an additional constraint at the point

of instability.)

with displacement

Fapp

control. (Fapp is now

UY the reaction force at

the imposed

u displacement UY.)

UY

... Background on Nonlinear Buckling Techniques

Displacement Control:

The disadvantage of displacement control is that it only works when you

know what displacements to impose! If the arch is loaded with a pressure

load as opposed to a concentrated force, displacement control is not

possible.

P

With a more complicated

loading it is generally not

clear which displacements

to impose.

... Background on Nonlinear Buckling Techniques

Dynamics:

A static stability problem using load control, can be solved by using a

nonlinear transient dynamic analysis.

With a dynamic analysis the softening response will not be calculated

when the structure snaps-through (it will be a dynamic snap).

The main disadvantage of dynamics is that it is not always easy to damp

out unwanted dynamic effects (ringing).

Fapp

F Dynamic

Response

F u

... Background on Nonlinear Buckling Techniques

Force-controlled with Arc-length method

Typical force-controlled method uses Newton-Raphson (NR) method by default. With

this approach (NR) the applied loads are always increased, causing problems at the

point of buckling.

The arc-length method, however, adjusts the applied load based on a relationship

between the calculated incremental displacement and the arc-length radius, thus

enabling the applied load to decrease, if needed As a result, this can help capture

post-buckling behavior beyond the point of instability.

F

ri

ri Arc Length Radii

Converged Substeps

ri ri

Equilibrium Path

ri

Click to edit Master text styles

u

Arc-length method is not directly exposed in WB-Mechanical, but can be

implemented with command object using ARCLEN, MAXARC, MINARC commands

34 2013 ANSYS, Inc. July 16, 2014

... Background on Nonlinear Buckling Techniques

Nonlinear stabilization

Nonlinear stabilization can be thought of as adding artificial dampers to all of the

nodes in the system.

Before the critical load, the system may have low displacements over a given

timestep this can be thought of as a low pseudo velocity thus less resistive force

from the artificial dampers.

When buckling occurs, larger displacements occur over a small timestep, thus large

pseudo velocity and hence large resistive force. Thus stiffness matrix at the limit

point is not singular.

D

Path OACD is traceable.

State O

A C

State A KT=

0

O Click to editBMaster text styles

State D

D Nonlinear Stabilization

Nonlinear stabilization can be understood as adding an artificial damper or

dashpot element at each structural element node

The solver calculates a damping force (fd) proportional to the relative pseudo

velocity of the two nodes of the artificial dashpot element.

The pseudo velocity is calculated as a displacement increment divided by the time

increment of the substep

f

d

Nonlinear Stabilization

With the dashpot model from previous slide in view:

Any DOF that tends to be unstable has a large displacement increment causing

a large damping (stabilization) force; this force, in turn, reduces the

displacements at the DOF so that stabilization is achieved.

For the DOFs that are stable, the dashpot elements have little effect on the

results because the displacements and the stabilization forces are small relative

to the physical forces.

The coefficient used to calculate the stabilization force is also referred to as the

damping factor.

Although it has the same physical meaning and unit as physical damping, it is

purely numerical in nonlinear stabilization.

Nonlinear Stabilization

There are two methods available in Mechanical for controlling the stabilization

force

Energy

Damping factor calculated automatically

Factor can vary from element to element.

Best suited for local instability (i.e. plasticity)

Damping

User defines a damping factor directly.

Same factor used for all applicable elements.

Recommended when user has a specific damping

factor in mind.

starting first with the Energy method and switching to the Damping method in a

subsequent restart

38 2013 ANSYS, Inc. July 16, 2014

Nonlinear Stabilization

Energy Method

Energy Dissipation Ratio

Ratio of the work done by stabilization forces to the

element potential energy.

Should be large enough to circumvent the

divergence, but small enough to avoid excessive

stiffness. (Typically between 0 and 1.0)

It is a good practice to examine the energies after the solution has completed

because the energy dissipation ratio of the solution could be greater than the

ratio initially specified.

Nonlinear Stabilization

Regardless of which method is employed,

user has general options for how to apply

the stabilization force

Constant Option: Maintains the damping

factor as an unchanged constant during each

substep of a load step.

Reduced Option: Reduces the damping factor

linearly to zero at the end of a load step.

difficulties may occur if stabilization is suddenly deactivated in a

subsequent load step. This can have the effect of a step change in loading.

In such a case, use the reduced option.

Nonlinear Stabilization

There are also three activation options for

controlling stabilization for the first substep

- NO: Stabilization is not activated (Default)

- ON NONCONVERGENCE: Activate Stabilization only

when min time increment is reached and the analysis

has still not converged

- YES: Activate Stabilization regardless of time

increment for first substep.

because the structure is initially stable, assuming the time increment is

reasonable.

Stabilization is designed to overcome physical instabilities (i.e. properly

constrained models that fail due to buckling and/or localized material

yielding). It will not resolve numerical instabilities associated with ill

conditioned matrices (poorly constrained structures).

Nonlinear Stabilization

In addition, user can receive feedback on

magnitude of Stabilization Forces relative to the

overall imbalance forces

- When the L2-norm of the stabilization force exceeds

the L2-norm of the internal force multiplied by the

stabilization force coefficient, the Solver issues a

message displaying both the stabilization force norm

and the internal force norm. Refer to Section

15.13.2 of Theory Manual for detailed description of

L2-norm calculations.

- Default is 0.2 (=20%)

- The message is intended to alert user to the

presence of an excessive stabilization force in the

run.

- User can choose to tighten or loosen this tolerance

depending on the application

Nonlinear Stabilization

When Stabilization has been activated, it is always a good practice to determine

the extent of its influence on results accuracy

One way to do this is to post process the Strain Energy of the system and compare it

to the Stabilization Energy created by the artificial damping introduced to bring

about convergence

As a general rule, the stabilization energy should be small (<<10% of strain energy) in

comparison

43 2013 ANSYS, Inc. July 16, 2014

Nonlinear Stabilization

It is also helpful to examine the reaction forces and moments to gain an

understanding of how much Stabilization forces are introducing fictitious loads

into model

Summary

Many structures require an evaluation of their structural stability.

Instability problems usually pose convergence difficulties and therefore

require the application of special nonlinear techniques.

Nonlinear stabilization can be understood as adding an artificial damper or

dashpot element at each structural element node

There are two methods available in WB-Mechanical for controlling the

stabilization force, Energy and Damping.

When Stabilization has been activated, it is always a good practice to

determine the extent of its influence on results accuracy by postprocessing

the stabilization energy and comparing with strain energy as well as

examining the force and moment reactions.

... Workshop

Please refer to your Workshop Supplement for instructions on:

W5A- PostBuckling with Stabilization

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