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Problem 1

Let ,, and all exceed 1, and let be a positive number such that log = 24,

log = 40, and log = 12. Find log

Solutions 1

The logarithmic notation doesn't tell us much, so we'll first convert everything to the

equivalent exponential expressions.

will be easy to isolate and .

Solution 2

Therefore, .

Hence, .

Problem 2

minimum value taken by for in the interval .

Solution

.

Adding these together, we find that the sum is equal to , of which the minimum value

is attained when .

(for example, if and , ). Thus, our two "cases" are

(if ) and (if ). However, both of these cases give us as

the minimum value for , which indeed is the answer posted above.

Problem 3

Solution

extraneous since is positive. So, we have as the only solution for .

Substituting back in for ,

Problem 4

A machine shop cutting tool is in the shape of a notched circle, as shown. The radius of the

circle is cm, the length of is 6 cm, and that of is 2 cm. The angle is a

right angle. Find the square of the distance (in centimeters) from to the center of the circle.

Solution 1

Because we are given a right angle, we look for ways to apply the Pythagorean Theorem. Let

the foot of the perpendicular from to be and let the foot of the perpendicular

from to the line be . Let and . We're trying to find .

and , resulting in .

Solution 2

draw the midpoint of .

. Then, notice that . Thus the two blue

triangles are congruent.

Then the Pythagorean Theorem shows .

Problem 5

Suppose that the sum of the squares of two complex numbers and is and the sum of

the cubes is . What is the largest real value that can have?

Solution

Solution 1

and

Because we are only left with and , substitution won't be too bad. Let

and .

We get and

Because we want the largest possible , let's find an expression for in terms of .

Root Theorem may be used here, along with synthetic division)

Solution 2

Because we are looking for a value of that is real, we know that , and thus

.

Expanding will give two equations, since the real and imaginary parts

must match up.

actually complex conjugates.

.

Now, evaluating the real part of , which equals (ignoring the odd

powers of , since they would not result in something in the form of ):

yield:

Since the problem is looking for to be a positive integer, only positive half-

integers (and whole-integers) need to be tested. From the Rational Roots theorem, =

5

10, = 5, = 2 all fail, but does work. Thus, the real part of both numbers is , and

their sum is

Solution 3

Start by assuming x and y were roots of some polynomial of the form So then

2 7

and Substituting = 2 we arrive at the polynomial

From rational root theorem we find the roots to be Since

is the sum of the roots and is maximized when b is -4, the answer is

Problem 6

Solution

Solution 1

First, we try to find a relationship between the numbers we're provided with and . We

realize that and both and are greater or less than by .

Applying the Binomial Theorem, half of our terms cancel out and we are left with

. We realize that all of these terms are divisible by

except the final term.

Solution 2

where . Thus

, and can finish the same way.

Problem 7

Twenty five of King Arthur's knights are seated at their customary round table. Three of them

are chosen - all choices being equally likely - and are sent of to slay a troublesome dragon.

Let be the probability that at least two of the three had been sitting next to each other. If

is written as a fraction in lowest terms, what is the sum of the numerator and the

denominator?

Solution

Solution 1

We can use Complementary counting by finding the probability that none are sitting next to

each other and subtracting it from .

Imagine the other (indistinguishable) people are already seated, and fixed into place.

There are places to place , followed by places to place , and places to place

after and . Hence, there are ways to place in between these people

with restrictions.

Without restrictions, there are places to place , followed by places to place , and

places to place after and . Hence, there are ways to place in

between these people without restrictions.

.

Solution 2

There are ways to pick a pair of knights from the trio, and there are ways to

determine which order they are seated. Since these two knights must be attached, we let them

be a single entity, so there are configurations for the entities.

However, this overcounts the instances in which the trio sits together; when all three knights

sit together, then two of the pairs from the previous case are counted. However, we only want

to count this as one case, so we need to subtract the number of instances in which the trio sits

together (as a single entity). There are ways to determine their order, and there are

configurations.

Solution 3

Number the knights around the table 1-25. There are two possibilities: All three sit next to

each other, or two sit next to each other and one is not sitting next to the other two.

Case 1: All three sit next to each other. In this case, you are picking , ,

... . This makes combinations.

Case 2: Like above, there are ways to pick the pair of knights sitting next to each other.

Once a pair is picked, you cannot pick either of the two adjacent knights. (i.e. if you pick

, you may not pick 4 or 7). Thus, there are ways to pick the third knight,

for a total of combinations.

Thus, you have a total of allowable ways to pick the knights. The

Solution 4

Pick an arbitrary spot for the first knight. Then pick spots for the next two knights in order.

Case 1: The second knight sits next to the first knight. There are 2 possible places for this out

of 24, so the probability of this is . We do not need to consider the third knight.

Case 2: The second knight sits two spaces from the first knight. There are 2 possible places

for this out of 24, so the probability is . Then there are 3 places out of a remaining 23 for

the third knight to sit, so the total probability for this case is

Case 3: The second knight sits 3 or more spaces from the first knight. There are 20 possible

places for this out of 24, so the probability is . Then there are four places to put the last

Problem 8

Solution

. If , then the factor of appears twice in the denominator. Thus, we

need to appear as a factor three times in the numerator, or . The largest such

prime is , which is our answer.

Problem 9

Solution

Solution 1

The equality holds when .

by the Intermediate Value Theorem this value is attainable).

Solution 2

also add back .

This results in .

the same methods in Solution 1; thus the answer is .

Solution 3

solution. To minimize , take the derivative of and set it equal to zero.

relative minima by finding the derivatives of other points near the critical points. However,

answer is .

Problem 10

beginning with that has exactly two identical digits. How many such numbers are there?

Solution

Suppose the two identical digits are both one. Since the thousands digits must be one, the

other one can be in only one of three digits,

Because the number must have exactly two identical digits, , , and .

Hence, there are numbers of this form.

Suppose the two identical digits are not one. Therefore, consider the following possibilities,

Problem 11

The solid shown has a square base of side length . The upper edge is parallel to the base and

has length . All other edges have length . Given that , what is the volume of the

solid?

Solution

Solution 1

First, we find the height of the figure by drawing a perpendicular from the midpoint of

to . The hypotenuse of the triangle is the median of equilateral triangle , and one of

the legs is . We apply the Pythagorean Theorem to find that the height is equal to .

Next, we complete the figure into a triangular prism, and find the volume, which is

Now, we subtract off the two extra pyramids that we included, whose combined volume is

Solution 2

Extend and to meet at , and and to meet at . Now, we have a regular

tetrahedron , which has twice the volume of our original solid. This tetrahedron has

side length . Using the formula for the volume of a regular tetrahedron, which is

, where S is the side length of the tetrahedron, the volume of our original solid

is:

Problem 12

The length of diameter is a two digit integer. Reversing the digits gives the length of a

perpendicular chord . The distance from their intersection point to the center is a

positive rational number. Determine the length of .

Solution

any square roots. Either or must be 11. However, cannot be 11, because

both must be digits. Therefore, must equal eleven and must be a perfect square

(since ). The only pair that satisfies this condition is , so our

answer is .

Problem 13

follows. Arrange the number in the subset in decreasing order and then, beginning with the

largest, alternately add and subtract succesive numbers. For example, the alternating sum for

is and for it is simply . Find the sum of all such

alternating sums for .

Solution 1

Then the alternating sum of plus the alternating sum of with 7 included is 7. In

mathematical terms, . This is true because when we take an alternating sum,

each term of has the opposite sign of each corresponding term of .

Because there are of these pairs, the sum of all possible subsets of our given set is .

However, we forgot to include the subset that only contains , so our answer is

.

Solution 2

Consider a given subset of that contains 7; then there is a subset which contains all

the elements of except for 7, and only those. Since each element of has one element

fewer preceding it than it does in , their signs are opposite; so the sum of the alternating

sums of and is equal to 7. There are subsets containing 7, so our answer is

.

Problem 14

In the adjoining figure, two circles with radii and are drawn with their centers units

apart. A to , one of the points of intersection, a line is drawn in such a way that the chords

and have equal length. ( is the midpoint of ) Find the area of the square with

a side length of .

Solution

Solution 1

First, notice that if we reflect over we get . Since we know that is on circle and

is on circle , we can reflect circle over to get another circle (centered at a new

point with radius ) that intersects circle at . The rest is just finding lengths:

know that , , and , we can find the third side of the

triangle using Stewart's Theorem or similar approaches. We get . So now we

have a kite with , , and , and all we

need is the length of the other diagonal . The easiest way it can be found is with the

Pythagorean Theorem. Let be the length of . Then

Solution 2

Draw additional lines as indicated. Note that since triangles and are isosceles,

the altitudes are also bisectors, so let .

.

for triangle , we have .

Subtracting, .

Solution 3

Let . Angles , , and must add up to . By the Law of

Cosines, . Also, angles and equal and

. So we have

Taking the of both sides and simplifying using the cosine addition identity gives .

Solution 4

Observe that the length of the area where the two circles intersect can be found explicitly as

. Let , then the power of point with regards to the larger circle gives

Problem 15

The adjoining figure shows two intersecting chords in a circle, with on minor arc .

Suppose that the radius of the circle is , that , and that is bisected by .

Suppose further that is the only chord starting at which is bisected by . It follows

that the sine of the minor arc is a rational number. If this fraction is expressed as a

Solution

Let be any fixed point on circle and let be a chord of circle . The locus of

midpoints of the chord is a circle , with diameter . Generally, the circle can

intersect the chord at two points, one point, or they may not have a point of intersection.

By the problem condition, however, the circle is tangent to BC at point N.

. Thus, .

Notice that the distance equals (Where

is the radius of circle P). Evaluating this,

subtraction formula to obtain ,

. It follows that

, resulting in an answer of .

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