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focal point of airframe and structure 1

Focal Points
Airframe and

Prepared by: Ahmad Bijad


2 focal point of airframe and structure

Focal Point of Airframe and Structure, Systems, Parts

Author: Ahmad Bijad

First Edition: 1390/2012

Print Run: 1100

ISBN: 978-600-92233-6-7

Publisher: vania


Tel: 66755824-09121866558 22024140-3

Price: 110000Rials

focal point of airframe and structure 3

Aircraft Structures ................................................................... 7

General.................................................................................... 23

Flight control surfaces ............................................................ 35

Wing ....................................................................................... 43

Wing fuel tanks....................................................................... 53

Flight control system .............................................................. 57

Landing gear ........................................................................... 75

Welding .................................................................................. 95

Deicing system ...................................................................... 101

Hydraulic & Pneumatic power systems................................. 111

Fire protection system ........................................................... 127

Cabin atmosphere control system.......................................... 133

Cooling system ...................................................................... 143

Glossary ................................................................................. 147

Enclosed................................................................................. 167

Weight & Balance ................................................................. 197

Wood, Fabric, Covering & Doping ....................................... 207

Fuel & Fuel system............................................................... 225

Welding & Sheet metal......................................................... 241

Hydraulic system .................................................................. 269

Fluid lines & Fitting ............................................................ 295

Aircraft hardware, Material & Processes.............................. 303

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focal point of airframe and structure 5

In the name of who thought thinking and writing

In education background everything are in ability, be better that

give to somebody who seek to learn.

By salutation to all;

After providing books with these title: Focal point of piston

engine & Focal point of turbine engine that secure the aeronautics
majors idea persuade I that provide a book about the Focal point of
airplane structure and body and produce it to students and scholar.

In this book was tried that including the collection of main

subjects, question and complete /short answer for scholars reading
who are desirous of Airframe. Hop that can produce services in this
background .

It is not out of regular that I divulge myself appreciation and thanks

to guidance and helping of masters scholars and students that were my
encourager in this background and due to be more beneficial the
previous books set.

We should find for tuneless in our failure defect; that gravity

Lows is alike for everybody.

Ahmad Bijad

6 focal point of airframe and structure

focal point of airframe and structure 7

Aircraft Structures
*/ The airplane in flight is subjected to natural force which are:


*/ The structure of the airplane must be strong enough to support these

forces without breaking up, eve n when it is fully loaded, this
condition being known as GROSS WEIGHT or ALL UP

*/ Other stresses found in flight, include IMPACT STRESS which

tries to separate the airplane parts by the forces of impact, and

*/ Other stresses found at this same time included NEGATIVE

PRESSURE STRESES which tries to push the empennage
horizontal surfaces downward and finally BENDING MOMENT
or STRESS which result from the wings trying to bend upward
from the fuselage.

*/ There are five major stresses to which all aircraft are subjected:



*/ TENSIONE: The stress that attempts to stretch the component.

*/ COMPRESSION: The stress or force that tends to squeeze the part

(makes it shorter).

*/ TORSION: Or twist is that stress which tends to twist the part.

8 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ SHEAR: Is the force which acts in such a way as to make two parts
slide past each other.

*/ BENDING: The stress in which a combination of tow forces act

upon a member or structure part.

*/ The Tensile strength of a material is measured in p.s.i. (pounds per

square inch) and is calculated by dividing the load (in pounds)
required to pull the material apart by its cross-sectional area (in
square inches).

*/ The Compressive strength of a material is also measured in p.s.i.

compression is the stress that tends to shorten or squeeze aircraft

*/ The Torsional strength of a material is its resistance to twisting or


*/ Aircraft parts, especially screws, bolts, and rivets, are often subject
to a Shearing force.

*/ bending stress is a combination of compression and tension.

*/ We can appreciate that when a certain torque is applied to a nut and

bolt combination by means of a torque wrench, we are in reality,
stretching (straining) the bolt .

*/ The airframe of a fixed-wing aircraft is generally considered to

consist of five principal unites:



*/ The airframe components are constructed from a wide variety of

materials and are joined by rivets, bolts, screws, and welding or

focal point of airframe and structure 9

*/ The aircraft components are composed of various parts called

structural members, i.e., stringers, longerons, ribs, bulkheads,

*/ Aircraft structural members are designed to carry a load or to resist


*/ Every part of the aircraft must be planned to carry the load to be

imposed upon it.

*/ When the airplane is divide and then suddenly pulled out of the dive,
the LOAD factor increases.

*/ In violent turn, the load factor may become just as great as in the
sudden dive and pullout.

*/ The airplane is a rigid STRUCTURE in that it is rigidly and

ruggedly constructed to carry the above mentioned loads and

*/ An extra strong gust or turbulence in flight will bend the wing up

and down permanently deforming them.

*/ The fuselage is the main structure or body of the aircraft. It provides

space for cargo, controls, accessories, passengers, and other

*/ There are Two general types of fuselage construction, the TRUSS

type, and the MONOCOQUE type.

*/ A truss type is a rigid framework made up of members such as

beams, struts, and bars to resist deformation by applied load. The
truss-framed fuselage is generally covered with fabric.

*/ The truss type fuselage frame is usually constructed of steel tubing

welded together in such a manner that all members of the truss can
carry both tension and compression loads.

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*/ In some aircraft, principally the light, single-engine models, truss
fuselage frames are constructed of aluminum alloy and may be
riveted or bolted into one piece, with cross-bracing by using solid
rods or tubes.

*/ The monocoque (single shell) fuselage relies largely on the strength

of the skin or covering to carry the primary stresses.

*/ The design may be divided into three classes:


*/ The true monocoque assemblies, and bulkheads to give shape to the

fuselage, but the skin carries the primary stresses.

*/ To overcome the strength/weight problem of monocoque

construction, a modification called semi-monocoque construction .

*/ In addition to formers assemblies, and bulkheads, the semi-

monocoque construction has the skin reinforced by longitudinal

*/ The semi-monocoque fuselage is constructed primarily of the alloys

of aluminum and magnesium, although steel and titanium are
found in areas of high temperatures.

*/ Primary bending loads are taken by the longerons, which usually

extend across several points of support.

*/ The longerons are supplemented by other longitudinal members,

called stringers.

*/ Stringers are more numerous and lighter in weight than longerons.

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*/ The vertical structural members are referred to as bulkheads,

frames, and

The heaviest of these vertical member are located at intervals to

carry concentrated loads and at points where fittings are used to
attach other units, such as wings, power plant, and stabilizers.

*/ The stringers are smaller and lighter than longerons and serve as fill-

*/ There is often little difference between some ring, frame, and


*/ Stringers and longerons prevent tension and compression from

bending the fuselage.

*/ Stringers are usually of a one-piece aluminum alloy constructing,

and are manufactured in a variety of shapes by casting, extrusion,
or forming.

*/ Longerons, like stringers, are usually made of aluminum alloy;

however, they maybe of either a one-piece or a built-up

*/ The metal skin or covering is riveted to the longerons ,

bulkheads, and other structural members and carries of the lodes
the fuselage skin thickness will vary with the load carried and the
stresses sustained at a particular location.

*/ The bulkheads, frames, stringers, and longerons facilitate the

design and construction of a streamlined fuselage, and add to the
strength and rigidity of the structure.

*/ Fuselages are generally constructed in tow or more sections.

*/ On small aircraft, they are generally made in tow or three sections,

while larger aircraft maybe made of as many as six sections.

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*/ There are various numbering systems in use to facilitate location of
specific wing frames, fuselage, bulkheads, or any other
structural members on an aircraft.

*/ To located structures to the right or left of the center line of an

aircraft, many manufacturers consider the center line as a zero
station for structural member location to its right or left.

*/ FUSELAGE STATIONS: ( Fuss. Sta. or F. S. ) Are numbered in

inches from a reference or zero point known as the reference

*/ BUTTOCK LINE or BUTT LINE:(B.L.) Is a width measurement

left or right of, and parallel to, the vertical center line.

*/ WATER LINE: (W.L.) is the measurement of height in inches

perpendicular from a horizontal plane located a fixed number of
inches below the bottom of the aircraft fuselage.

*/ AILERON STATION: (A.S.) is measured outboard from, and

parallel to, the inboard edge of the aileron, perpendicular to the rear
beam of the wing.

*/ FLAP STATION: (F.S.) is measured perpendicular to the rear

beam of the wing and parallel to, and outboard edge of the flap.

*/ NACELLE STATION:(N.C. or Nac. Sta.) is measured either

forward of or behind the front spar of the wing and perpendicular to
a designated water line.

*/ There maybe horizontal stabilizer stations ( H.S.S.) , vertical

stabilizer station (V.S.S.) or power plant station (P.P.S.).

*/ NOSE LANDING GEAR: supports the nose of the airplane on the

ground during the landing, taxing and parking operations.

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*/ NOSE LANDING GEAR DOORS : close over the nose landing

gear when it is retracted into the fuselage, thus forming an
aerodynamic faired low drag area at the nose.

*/ NOSE SECTION : of the fuselage is one of the sections of the

complete fuselage, the fuselage being broken down into three
sections. The nose section houses the flight crew.

*/ CREW ENTRY DOOR: is used to permit the flight crew to enter

the aircraft without going through the passenger cabin which is in
the next fuselage section aft.

*/ POWER PLANT: contains the engine and the propeller. The

engine covering is called the cowling and covers the entire power

*/ INNER WING: carries the main weight of all the airplane and as
such is the most heavily constructed part of the airplane.

*/ OUTER WING: is divided into LH and RH . Thus we see that this

is five section wing; LH outer wing, LH inner wing, center
section ; RH inner wing, RH outer wing .

*/ WING TIP: both LH and RH , complete the wing assembly and

also carry the navigation lights

*/ The LH tip carries the red light and the RH wing carries the green
light and white light in the tail.

*/ WINDSHIELD: sometimes called WINDSCREEN, is installed in

the front of the airplane to provide viewing for the flight crew.

*/ CENTER FUSELAGE SECTION: is that heavily constructed

primary structure which houses the passengers as well as the
baggage, all otherwise known as PAYLOAD.

14 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ FUSELAGE TAIL SECTION: attaches to the center fuselage
section by means of rivets or bolts and on top of it is supported the
tail surfaces (fixe and moveable).

*/ VERTICAL STABILIZER: is a metallic structure attached to the

tail section to help the aircraft maintain directional stability.

*/ VERTICAL FIN TIP: is attached to the vertical fin to give the fin a
smooth control , and attach the radio antenna.

*/ RUDDER: is a metallic and sometimes fabric covered moveable

surface is used to control the flight of the airplane around the
vertical axis of the airplane .It is operated by RUDDER PEDALS
in the flight compartment.

*/ RUDDER TAB: is a small moveable surface which is operated by

the pilot with a small wheel control.

*/ The tab serves to keep the airplane on a straight path, without

having to move the rudder constantly.

*/ TAIL CONE: is a fairing ( streamlined aerodynamic shape) used to

give smooth contour to the airplane.

*/ ELEVATOR SPRING CONTROL TAB: is a small tab, operated

by means of the cable control system to help ( by air pressure)
move the heavy elevators. Each elevator has one such tab.

*/ ELEVATOR TRIM TAB: is mounted on the elevator and keeps

the airplane balanced around the lateral axis.

*/ ELEVATOR: moved by means of the fore-aft movement of the

control column, control the movement of the aircraft about the
lateral axis.

*/ HORIZONTAL STABILIZER TIP: forms the rounded end of the

stabilizer assembly itself.

focal point of airframe and structure 15

*/ HORIZANTAL STABILIZER: is a metallic structure used to give

the airplane stability around the lateral axis.

*/ TAIL SKID: is used to protect the airplane structure in case the

airplane takes-off or lands in a nose too high attitude .

*/ WING FILLET: is a tertiary structure used to give in aerodynamic

from (fairing) to the square joint existing between the fuselage and
canter wing attachment.

*/ EMERGENCY EXIT: window size in shape and existing in

various locations on both sides of the fuselage, is used to permit
exit from the airplane in cases of emergency.

*/ MAIN ENTRANCE DOOR: open outward and is where all

passengers enter to pass into the main cabin.

*/ WING FLAPS: are metallic structures found on LH and RH inner


*/ WING FLAP VANE: is part of the wing flaps and operate in

conjunction with the flaps.

*/ AILERON SPRING CONTROL TAB: two on each side of the

fuselage, are used in aiding the movement of the heavy LH and RH

*/ AILERON: LH and RH are controlled by the movement of the

control wheel in the flight cabin, and control the movement of the
airplane around the longitudinal axis.

*/ In operation, when one aileron moves UP the other aileron moves

DOWN, causing the airplane to go into a BANK or ROLL .

*/ NACELL: is that structural component that that supports the engine

installation, and in the case of engine nacelle #2 and #3 , will
permit the entry of the retractable main landing gear.

16 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ MAIN LANDING GEAR DOORS: are used to close the area in
the nacelle structure into which the landing gear retracts.

*/ MAIN LANDING GEAR: supports the entire weight of the

airplane when it is on the ground.

*/ RADOME: is always found in the front of the airplane and formed

by a fiberglass structure, it houses the antenna used for the radar
navigation system.

*/ The modern airplane has grown into a giant of large proportions and
complex construction .

*/ The greatest design idea introduced into modern airplane is known

as FAIL SELF STRUCTURE which means that the structure is
designed with the idea in mind if there is a failure of any part in the
airplane, the surrounding parts should be able to support the
additional load placed upon them, without failing.

*/ Failsafe design is classified into three classes; the three different

types of fail safe design are:




*/ LOAD DROPPING STRUCTURE: is a type of fail safe feature

which means that as on structural member starts to fail, it starts to
deflect and also tends to yield.

*/ Load dropping structure softening of the parts immediately causes

the load to transfer itself to the unfiled member and thus being
relieved of the load.

focal point of airframe and structure 17

*/ BACK UP STRUCTURE: means that the part is designed to carry

the load, as is normal, plus extra strength built into it for safety

*/ If the part fails for some reason, it breaks completely and the one
piece becomes worthless.

*/ In the back up design, the part is made of two sections or pieces and
joined together (one section carrying the design load and the other
section carrying the safety margin load.

*/ If one part fails, the remaining part can safety carry the load until the
aircraft arrives safety at its base of operations.

*/ REDUNDANT STRUCTURE: is the concept wherein a structure

containing many parts to make up the assembly distributes and
carries the design load plus the safety factor load.

*/ If one of the parts fails, the load of the failed part is divided up
between the remaining airworthy members and safety carried by

*/ Generally speaking, fuselages are classified into major groups, ;




steel tubing forming the strong fuselage which is then covered by

grade a fabric.

*/ The fuselage truss is further classified into two groups which are the

*/ The PRATT TRUSS: is the most popular of this type of fuselage

and it consists of fore-aft running tubular members called

18 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ Between upper LONGERONS and the lower LONGERONS ,
there are found VERTICAL MEMBERS which, running
perpendicularly, join the upper longerons and lower longerons.

*/ The space formed by the vertical members is called a BAY.

*/ In the WARREN TRUSS type fuselage, very similar to the PRATT

TRUSS type , the only difference is that there are no vertical
members across the bays.

*/ The diagonal members are the only components that join the fore
and aft running longerons.

*/ The fuselage skin or covering carries part of the flight load, this skin
or covering is known as STRESSED SKIN.

*/ The fuselage is assembled using only CIRCULAR RINGS to which

the load carrying skin (stressed skin ) is attached.

*/ The nose of the aircraft usually serves as the zero measure point or
ZERO STATION POINT from which the bulkheads (also called
FUSELAGE FRAMES0S ) are located, in inches from the zero
station point.

*/ In the case of stringers, these may be numbered so that the top

stringer is number one and downward, or vice versa.

*/ The modern all metal jet airliner is usually broken down into three
sections, also known as SHELLS (because of their almost round

*/ These sections are the NOSE SECTION, CENTER SECTION,


*/ These section are finally fixed together (SPLICED) by means of

rivets and bolts to form the fuselage shape.

focal point of airframe and structure 19

*/ The semi-monocoque construction of the pressurized fuselage


*/ The fuselage skin panels in this area taper from 0.080 to 0.050 at
the tail section area and to 0.040 at the nose area; using 2024
aluminum ALCLAD for long ANTI-FATIGUE LIFE and 7075
aluminum ALCLAD for great stiffness and strength.

*/ The DETAIL PARTS being constructed in JICS and FIXTURES

to be assembled together and thus make up a SUB ASSEMBLY.

*/ The small rib bracket attached to the rib of a flap section is

considered a DETAIL PART.

*/ The attachment of the skin covering to these other members

(stringers and bulkheads) is accomplished by either of three
methods shown below:

(A) RIVETTING; attaching skin using rivets,

(B) SPOT WELDING; electrical resistance welding of skin,

(C) ADHESIVE BONDING; attaching skin using high strength


*/ RIVETTING normally uses the 82 degree countersunk rivet for

attaching the skin covering at the frames and stringers.

*/ To avoid the apex (coning point0 of the rivet from being in line with
the skin attach line (skin lap), the rivet is installed with the
countersunk head on the outside of the section and protruding

*/ After the upset head is formed on the inside, the protruding

manufactured head is shaved with a RIVET SHAVER so that it is
smooth (FLUSH) with the skin.

20 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ As we can see above, the shaving of the head of the 82 degree rivet
is not satisfactory in some opinions, so another manufacture uses
100 degree (AN426) with the manufactured head outside of the
skin panel.

*/ The NACA riveting method, the process consists of installing from

the inside out, instead of from the outside in.

*/ All modern transport aircraft have pressurized cabins. These are

formed by the cylindrical center section of the fuselage, and
sometimes include the forward and aft ends of the fuselage .

*/ The pressurized area is closed at the forward end of the fuselage by

the FRONT PRESSURE DOME (closed bulkhead) and closed at
the rear end by the REAR PRESSURE DOME.

*/ At sea level, the barometric pressure is 14.71 lbs psi and we, as
humans, can sustain that pressure and breathe freely.

*/ As we go higher into space, the air becomes thinner (LESS DENSE)

and thus we can no longer breathe. Thus in an airplane flying at
25000 feet, where the barometric pressure is 5.451 lbs psi , we
cannot breathe.

*/ There is higher air pressure inside the cabin than there is on the
outside of the cabin and this difference in pressure is known as

*/ Cabin differential pressure: it can be said that the airplane itself is

flying at a specified altitude, the cabin is flying at a lower altitude.

*/ A pressurized fuselage is more strongly built than a non-pressurized


*/ The pressurized cabin is a breathing vehicles and expands when

pressurized ( airplane taking off) and exhales and controls when
depressurized (airplane landing).

focal point of airframe and structure 21

*/ The pressurized airplane is exposed to many possible classes of

damage which could cause sudden loss of pressurized in a short
period of time.

*/ (A) FOREGIN OBJECT DAMAGE: (F.O.D.) ; foreign object

falling from sky and striking the pressurized fuselage.

*/ (B) FOREGIN OBJECT DAMAGE (F.O.D.): Foreign object

striking the aircraft as it is on the take-off run.

*/ (C) METAL FATIGUE: With constant breathing by pressurized

cabin, the structural material will tend to wear out and crack.


will cause of carelessness of installation of equipment, such as
radio, etc .


INSTALATION: As result from improperly installed windshield,
since the fuselage expands more than glass panels during the
pressurization process.

*/ ALIGNMENT CHECK: also known as tine symmetry check, is

used to check to see if the airplane is not deformed or twisted in
any way that would cause it to fly erratically or inefficiently.

*/ One of the design practices used to maintain the structural integrity

of the FAIL SAFE feature known as the TEAR STOPPER or
RIP STOPER, which in case the fuselage skin cracks, or tears.

*/ The limiting of crack extension is further assured by the closer

spacing of bulkhead frames (usually 20spacing).

*/ Normally the SAFETY FACTOR for normal construction is 1.5 but

in cases of pressurized load carrying structure.

22 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ The passenger cabin windows also employ the fail safe feature of
BACK UP STRUCTURE in the three window panes are used in
each window position.

focal point of airframe and structure 23

*/ Rigging is the final adjustment and alignment of the various
component section to provide the proper aerodynamic reaction.

*/ Tow important considerations in all assembly and rigging operations


1- Proper operation of the component in regard to its aerodynamic

and mechanical function.

2- Maintaining the aircrafts structural by the correct use of

materials , hardware, and safetying devices.

*/ Assembly and rigging must be done in accordance with the

requirements prescribed by the aircraft manufacturer.

*/ The rigging of control systems varies with each type of aircraft,

therefore, it would be impracticable to define a precise procedure.

*/ VAerodynamics is the since of the action of air on an object.

*/ In effect, aerodynamic is concerned with three distinct parts:


*/ Air is mixture of gases composed principally of nitrogen and

oxygen .

*/ Atmospheric pressure at sea level is 14.7 p.s.i. (pounds per square


*/ An important consideration is that atmospheric pressure varies with

altitude. The higher an object rises above sea level, the lower the

24 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ Density is a term that means weight per unit volume. Since air is a
mixture of gases, it can be compressed.

*/ The density of gases is governed by the flowing rules:

1- Density varies in direct proportion with the pressure.

2- Density varies inversely with the temperature.

*/ Air at high altitudes is less dense than air at low altitudes, and a
mass of hot air is less dense than a mass of cool air.

*/ Changes in density affect the aerodynamic performance of aircraft.

*/ Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air.

*/ The maximum amount of water vapor that air can hold varies with
the temperature.

*/ Water vapor weight approximately 5/8 as much as an equal amount

of perfectly dry air.

*/ An aircraft in flight is acted upon by four forces:

1- Gravity, or weight, the force that pulls the aircraft toward the

2- Lift, the force that pushes the aircraft upward.

3- Thrust, the force that moves the aircraft forward.

4- Drag, the force that exerts a braking action.

*/ Air has no force or power, except pressure, unless it is in motion .

*/ RELATIVE WIND : The flow of air around an object caused by

the movement of either the air or the object, or both , is called
relation wind.

focal point of airframe and structure 25

*/ The terms speed and velocity are often used interchangeably,

but they do not means the same.

*/ Speed is the rate of motion, and velocity is the rate of motion in a

particular direction in relation to time.

*/ The blades of a propeller are so designed that when they rotate, their
shape and position cause a higher pressure to be built up behind
them than in front of them so that they will pull the aircraft

*/ The difference in curvature of the upper and lower surfaces of the

wing builds the lift force.

*/ Air flowing over the top surface of the wing must reach the
trailing edge of the wing in the same amount of time as the air
flowing under the wing.

*/ The air passing over the top surface moves at a greater velocity than
the air passing below the wing because of the greater distance it
must travel along the top surface.

*/ Lift can be increased by increasing the angle of attack, the wing

area, the free stream velocity, or the density of the air, or by
changing the shape of the airfoil.

*/ The chord of an airfoil or wing section is an imaginary straight line

which passes through the section from the leading edge to the
trailing edge .

*/ Angle of attack is defined as the angle between the chord line of the
wing and the direction of the relative wind.

*/ The center of pressure moves along the airfoil chord as the angle of
attack changes.

*/ The center of pressure moves forward with increasing angle of

attack and rearwards as the angle of attack decreases.

26 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ The angle of attack changes as the aircrafts attitude changes.

*/ When the angle of attack is increased gradually toward a positive

angle of attack, the lift component increase rapidly up to a certain
point and then suddenly begin to drop off.

*/ When the critical angle is reached the air ceases to flow smoothly
over the top surface of the airfoil and begins to burble, or eddy.

*/ The distribution of the pressure force over the airfoil varies with the
angle of attack .

*/ When angle increases , the center of pressure moves forward ; and as

the angle decreases, the center of pressure moves back.

*/ The acute angle the wing chord makes with the longitudinal axis of
the aircraft is called the angle of incidence.

*/ The angle of incidence in most is a fixed, built-in angle.

*/ When the leading edge of the wing is higher than the trailing edge,
the angle of incidence is said to be positive.

*/ Wing area is measured in squares feet and includes the part blanked
out by the fuselage.

*/ If the wing area is doubled, all other variables remaining the same,
the lift and drag created by the wing is doubled . If the area is
tripled, lift and drag are tripled.

*/ Turbulence and skin friction are controlled mainly by the fineness

ratio, which is defined as the ratio of the chord of the airfoil to the
maximum thickness.

*/ If the wing has a high fineness ratio, it is a vary thin wing. A thick
wing has a low fineness ratio.

focal point of airframe and structure 27

*/ A wing with a high fineness ratio produces a wing amount of skin


*/ A wing with a low fineness ratio produces a large amount of


*/ Efficiency of a wing is measured in terms of the lift over drag (L/D)


*/ The shape of the airfoil is the factor which determines the angle of
attack at which the wing is most efficient; it also determines the
degree of efficiency.

*/ High -lift wing and high lift devices for wings have been
developed by shaping the airfoils to produce the desired effect .

*/ The amount of lift produced by a airfoil will increase with an

increase in wing camber.

*/ Camber is positive when departure from the chord line is outward,

and negative when it is inward.

*/ High-lift wing have a large positive camber on the upper surface

and the slight negative camber on the lower surface.

*/ Wing flaps cause an ordinary wing to approximate this same

condition by increasing the upper camber and by creating a
negative lower camber.

*/ The larger the wingspan as compared to the chord, the greater the
lift obtained. This comparison is called aspect ratio.

*/ The higher the aspect ratio, the greater the lift. In spite of the
benefit from an increase in aspect ratio, it was found that definite
limitations were of structural and drag considerations.

*/ CENTER OF GRAVITY: Gravity is the pulling force that tends to

draw all bodies in the earths sphere to the center of the earth.

28 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ The center of gravity may be considered as a point at which all the
weight of the aircraft is concentrated .

*/ Center of gravity is of major importance in an aircraft, for its

position has a great bearing upon stability.

*/ In all type of flying, flight calculations are based on the magnitude

and direction of four forces:


1-Weight; Is the force of gravity acting downward upon everything

that goes into the aircraft, such as the aircraft itself, the crew, the
fuel, and the cargo.

2-Lift; Acts vertically and by so doing counteracts the effects of


3-Drag; Is a backward deterrent force and is caused by the

disruption of the airflow by the wings, fuselage, and protruding

4-Thrust; Produced by the power plant is the forward force that

overcomes the force of drag.

*/ The force of lift and drag are the direct result of the relationship
between the relative wind and aircraft.

*/ Awing may have various airfoil section from root to tip, with taper ,
twist, and sweepback.

*/ When the lift force is in equilibrium with the weight force, the
aircraft neither gains nor loses altitude.

*/ When the lift is greater than weight, the aircraft gains altitude.

*/ The turbine engine causes a mass of air to be moved backward at

high velocity causing a reaction forward that moves the aircraft.

focal point of airframe and structure 29

*/ In a propeller /engine combination , the propeller is actually two or

more revolving airfoils mounted on a horizontal shaft.

*/ Before the aircraft being to move, thrust must be exerted. It

continues to move and gain speed until thrust and drag are equal.

*/ A similar rule applies to the two forces of thrust and drag.

*/ As long as the thrust is less than the drag, the aircraft travels more
and more slowly until its speed is insufficient to support it in the

*/ When drag equal thrust, the aircraft flies at a steady speed.

*/ If an aircraft is flying on a level course, the lift force acts vertically

to support it while the drag force acts horizontally to hold it back.

*/ The total amount of drag on a aircraft is made up of many drag

forces, but for our purposes, we will only consider three:

1- parasite drag, 2- profile drag, 3- induced drag.

*/ Parasite drag; is made up of a combination of many different drag


*/ Profile drag; may be considered the parasite drag of the airfoil. The
various components of parasite drag are all of the same nature as
profile drag.

*/ Induced drag: Lift increases with an increase in angle of attack,

induce drag also increases as the angle of attack becomes
greater. This occurs because as the angle of attack is increased,
there is a greater pressure difference between the top and bottom of
the wing. This cause more violent vortices to be set up, resulting in
more turbulence and more induced drag.

*/ The axis which extends lengthwise through the fuselage from the
nose to the tail is called the longitudinal axis.

30 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ The axis which extends crosswise , from wing tip to wing tip, is the
lateral axis.

*/ The axis which passes through the center, from top to bottom, is
called the vertical axis.

*/ Motion about the longitudinal axis resembles the roll of a ship from
side to side.

*/ The motion about the longitudinal axis called roll.

*/ Motion along the lateral (cross wing) axis is called pitch.

*/ An aircraft move about its vertical axis in a motion which is

termed yaw.

*/ ROLL, PITCH, and YAW - the motion an aircraft makes about its
longitudinal, lateral, and vertical axes are controlled by three
control surfaces.

*/ ROLL is produced by the ailerons, which are located at the

trailing edges of the wings.

*/ PITCH is affected by the elevators, the rear portion of the

horizontal tail assembly.

*/ YOW is controlled by the rudder , the rear portion of the vertical

tail assembly.

*/ Three terms that appear in any discussion of at ability and control




*/ Stability is the characteristic of an aircraft which tends to cause it to

fly (hands off) in a straight and level flight path.

focal point of airframe and structure 31

*/ Maneuverability is the ability of an aircraft to be directed along a

desired flight path and to with stresses imposed.

*/ Controllability is the quality of the response of an aircraft to the

pilots commands while maneuvering the aircraft.

*/ Static stability; an aircraft is in a state of equilibrium when the sum

of all the forces acting on the aircraft and all the moments is equal
to zero.

*/ The three types of static stability are defined by the character of

movement following some disturbance from equilibrium .

*/ POSITIVE static stability exists when the disturbed object tends to

return to equilibrium.

*/ NEGATIVE static stability or instability exists when the disturbed

object tends to continue in the direction of disturbance.

*/ NEUTRAL static stability exists when the disturbed object has

neither the tendency to return nor continue in the displacement
direction, but remains in equilibrium in the direction of disturbance.

*/ DYNAMIC stability; while static stability deals with the tendency

of a displaced body to return to equilibrium, dynamic stability deals
with the resulting motion with time.

*/ In general, an object demonstrates positive dynamic stability if the

amplitude of motion decrease with time.

*/ If the amplitude of motion increases with time , the object is said to

possess dynamic stability.

*/ Any aircraft must demonstrate the required degrees of static and

dynamic stability .

*/ Usually , positive dynamic stability is required in an aircraft design

to prevent objectionable continued oscillations of the aircraft.

32 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ LONGITUDINAL stability: When an aircraft has a tendency to
keep a constant angle of attack with reference to the relative wind
that is, when it does not tend to put its nose down and dive or lift
its nose and stall-it is said to have longitudinal stability.

*/ Longitudinal stability refers to motion in pitch.

*/ The horizontal stabilizer is the primary surface which controls

longitudinal stability.

*/ When conditions are such that the airflow creates equal forces up
and down, the forces are said to be equilibrium.

*/ DIRECTIONAL stability: Stability about the vertical axis is

referred to as directional stability . The aircraft should be designed
so that when it is in straight and level flight it remains on its course
heading even though the pilot takes hands and feet off the controls.

*/ The vertical stabilizer is the primary surface which controls

directional stability.

*/ When an aircraft is in a sideslip or yawing, the vertical tail

experiences a change in angle of attack with a resulting change in
lift [not to be confused with the lift created by the wing].

*/ The change in lift, or side force , on the vertical tail creates a

yawing moment about the center of gravity which tends to return
the aircraft to its original flight path.

*/ Directional stability is also aided by using a large dorsal fin and

a long fuselage.

*/ The high Mach number of supersonic flight reduce the

contribution of the vertical tail to directional stability.

*/ Vertical (belly) fins may be added as a additional contribution to

directional stability.

focal point of airframe and structure 33

*/ LATERAL stability; We have seen that pitching is motion about

the aircrafts lateral axis and yawing is motion about its vertical
axis. Motion about its longitudinal (fore and aft) axis is a lateral
or rolling motion.

*/ The tendency to return to the original attitude from such motion is

called lateral stability.

*/ The lateral stability of an airplane involves consideration of rolling

moments due to sideslip.

*/ A sideslip tends to produce both a rolling and a yawing motion.

*/ With the relative wind from the side, the wing into the wind is
subject to an increase in angle of attack and develops an increase
in lift.

*/ The wing away from the wind is subject to a decease in angle of

attack and develop less lift.

*/ When a wing is sweptback, the effective dihedral increases

rapidly with a change in the lift coefficient of the wing.

*/ Sweepback is the angle between a line perpendicular to the

fuselage center line and the quarter chord of each wing airfoil

*/ The wing into the wind develops more lift ,and the wing out of the
wind develops less.

*/ Generally , the effective dihedral is kept low, since high roll due to
sideslip can create problems. Excessive dihedral effect can lead to
Dutch Roll, difficult rudder coordination in rolling maneuvers, or
place extreme demands for lateral control power during crosswind
takeoff and landing.

34 focal point of airframe and structure

focal point of airframe and structure 35

*/ The flight control surfaces are hinged or movable aircraft designed
to change the attitude of the aircraft during flight. These surfaces
may be divided into three groups, usually referred to as the
primary group, secondary group, and auxiliary group.

*/ The primary group includes the ailerons, elevators and rudder.

These surfaces are used for moving about its three axes.

*/ The ailerons and elevators are generally operated from the

cockpit by a control stick on single engine aircraft and by wheel
and yoke assembly on multi engine aircraft.

*/ The rudder is operated by foot pedals on all type of aircraft.

*/ Secondary Group; Included in the secondary group are the trim

tabs and spring tabs. Tabs are small airfoils into the trailing edges
of the primary control surfaces.

*/ Each trim tab is hinged to its parent primary control surface, but is
operated by an independent control.

*/ Spring tabs are similar in appearance to trim tabs, but serve and
entirely different purpose.

*/ Spring tabs are used to aid the pilot in moving the primary control

*/ Auxiliary Group; Included in the auxiliary group of flight control

surfaces are the wing flaps, spoilers, speed brakes, and slats.

36 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ Wing flaps are used to give the aircraft extra lift and are hinged to
either the trailing edge or leading edge of the wing.The flaps,
slots and spoilers are aircraft secondary surfaces that are classified
as LIFT DEVICES (flap and slots) because they aid in
maintaining aircraft lift, and ANTI-LIFT DEVICES(spoilers and
speed brakes) because they are used to spoil lift in a controlled
manner as we shall see.

*/ The purpose of wing flaps in an airplane is to maintain lift at slower

speed than normal.

*/ Mounted on each wing, the effect of a wing , the effect of a wing

flap is to vary the effective camber of the wing, even though it is
usually accompanied by a substantial increase in drag.

*/ Flaps may be operated, as in the case of the plain type, by manual

operation, or they may be electrically or hydraulically operated
as in the case of the larger types of flaps.

*/ The PLAIN FLAP, one installed on each wing trailing edge,

inboard of the ailerons, resembles an aileron in its configuration.

*/ The SPLIT FLAP, one installed on each wing trailing edge inboard
of the ailerons, in more efficient than the plain flap.

*/ A more efficient flap, the SLOTTED FLAP, is more effective

because in this type, rather than create a large, a space is provided
between the wing trailing edge and the flap.

*/ The VANE FLAP is very similar to the slotted flap except that
here we have added a small vane that rune longitudinally between
the wing trailing edge and the flap leading edge that adds a little
more of the vitally needed lift at slow aircraft speeds.

*/ The FOWLER FLAP, the most efficiently type constructed and this
type flap is used on many aircraft. At normal flight speed, the flaps
are UP and have no effect on lift or drag .

focal point of airframe and structure 37


come into land at still a slower speed and at higher angle of attack
without stalling, the leading edge flap is used.

*/ This flap is extended from the cockpit together with the TE FLAP
so that here again we have a variable area wing that maintains the
lift at slow speed and high angle of attack.

*/ Tow hydraulic actuating cylinders operate the flaps, and so that

both flaps move downward together, a mechanical bus system
(both flaps tied in together) provides the synchronized flap

*/ When the selector lever is operated, hydraulic pressure is directed

to the UP or DOWN parts of the four actuating cylinders to operate
the flaps DOWN or UP to the neutral position.

*/ The FLLOW-UP cable system is also connected to the large drum

on the rear spar and as the flaps move in one direction or another.


control the pitching action of the airplane in conjunction with the
elevators .

*/ Moveable horizontal stabilizer system basically is one in which the

pilot, by means SELECTOR CONTROL in the cockpit.

*/ Wing flaps on most older type aircraft were hinged to the trailing
edge of the wing inboard of the ailerons.

*/ Spoiler or speed brakes are for the purpose of decreasing wing

lift; however, their specific design, function, and use vary with
different aircraft.

*/ Slats are movable control surfaces attached to the leading edges of

the wings.

38 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ The motion of the aircraft about the longitudinal axis is called
rolling or banking. The ailerons are used to control this

*/ Ailerons are the movable surfaces of an otherwise fixed-surface

wing .

*/ Aileron respond to side pressure applied to the control stick.

*/ Pressure applied to move the stick toward the right raises the right
aileron and lowers the left aileron, causing the aircraft to bank to
the right.

*/ Ailerons are linked together by control cables so that when one

aileron is down, the opposite aileron is up.

*/ The up aileron, on the opposite end of the wing, decreases lift on that
end of the wing.

*/ The primary control surfaces on the aerodynamic boost type we

are already familiar with the ailerons controlling the rolling action,
the elevators controlling the pitching action and the rudder
controlling the yawing action .

*/ On studying the RH aileron, we find that it contains a TRIM TAB

that is operated by a cable control from the cockpit (TRIM TAB
WHEEL) used for the purpose of normal aircraft trimming during
the flight.

*/ The LH aileron contains two SPRING CONTROL TABS that are

directly connected into the aileron cable system to help the pilot
move the ailerons more easily.

*/ The increased lift on to wing whose aileron is down, raises this

wing . This causes the aileron to roll about its longitudinal axis.

focal point of airframe and structure 39

*/ As a result of the increased lift on the wing with the lowered aileron,
drag is also increased.

*/ Differential aileron travel provides more aileron up travel than

down travel for a given movement of the control stick or wheel in
the cockpit.

*/ The spoiler, or speed brakes as they are also called, are plates
fitted to the upper surface of the wing.

*/ The purpose of the spoilers is to disturb the smooth airflow across

the top of the airfoil thereby creating an increased amount of drag
and a decreased amount of lift on the airfoil.

*/ The SPOILERS are known as ANTI-LIFT DEVICES because by

being raised into the airflow over the wing, they spoil the lift of
the wing.

*/ Spoilers are used primarily for lateral control.

*/ When the spoilers are used as a speed brake, they are all deflected
upward simultaneously.

*/ Some spoilers are automatic in operation in that they come into

effect only at a high angle of attack.

*/ A fixed spoiler may be a small wedge affixed to the leading edge of

the airfoil.

*/ The fixed spoiler causes the inboard portion of the wing to stall
ahead of the outboard portion which results in aileron control
right up to the occurrence of complete wing stall.

40 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ Turning the nose of the aircraft causes the aircraft to rotate about
its vertical axis. Rotation of the aircraft about vertical axis is
called yawing. This motion is controlled by using the rudder.

*/ The rudder is a movable control surface attached to the trailing

edge of the vertical stabilizer.

*/ If the rudder is moved to the left, it induces a counterclockwise

rotation and the aircraft similarly turns to the left.

*/ The rudder can also be used in controlling a bank or turn.

*/ The rudder has one tab and this tab plays two roles, one is cable
operated TRIM TAB by the control wheel in the cockpit, and also
is a SPRING CONTROL TAB , being connected to the rudder
control system and being operated by it from the cockpit pedals.
This system now also being of the AERODYNAMIC BOOST

*/ The main function of the rudder is to turn the aircraft in flight.

*/ When an aircraft begins to slip or skid, rudder pressure is applied

to keep the aircraft headed in the desired direction (balanced).

*/ Slip or side slipping refers to any motion of the aircraft to the side
and downward the inside of a turn.

*/ Skid or skidding refers to any movement upward and outward

away from the center of a turn.

focal point of airframe and structure 41


*/ When the nose of an aircraft is raised or lowered, it is rotated
about its lateral axis. Elevators are the movable control surfaces
that cause this rotation. They are normally hinged to the trailing
edge of the horizontal stabilizer.

*/ The elevators are used to make the aircraft climb or dive and also to
obtain sufficient lift from the wings to keep the aircraft in level
flight at various speeds.

*/ If the elevator is rotated up, it decreases the lift force on the tail
causing the tail to lower and the nose to rise.

*/ If the elevator is rotated downward, it increases the lift force on

the causing it to rise and the nose to lower.

*/ Some aircraft use a movable horizontal surface called a stabilator.

*/ The stabilator serves the same purpose as the horizontal

stabilizer and elevator combined.

*/ Aircraft empennages have been designed which combine the

vertical and horizontal stabilizers.

*/ This arrangement is referred to as a butterfly or vie tail.

*/ To control surfaces are hinged to the stabilizers at the trailing edges.

*/ The stabilizing portion of this arrangement is called stabilator, and

the control portion is called the ruddervator.

*/ The ruddervator can be operated both up or down at the same


*/ The ruddervator can be made to move opposite each other by

pushing the left or right rudder pedal.

42 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ If the right rudder pedal is pushed, the right ruddervator moves
down and the left ruddervator moves up.

*/ In the case of high speed aircraft where flight control surfaces are
too heavy to move, hydraulic power used to operate these control
surfaces. Although there are several transport aircraft which
employ powered flight control systems, (FULLY POWERED

*/ We can now that the complete system consists of two subsystem .

These are the mechanical cable system and the hydraulics
pressure system.

focal point of airframe and structure 43

*/ The wing of an aircraft are surfaces which are designed to produce
LIFT when moved rapidly through the air .

*/ The wing, like the fuselage, may be constructed in sections.

*/ The particular design for any given aircraft depends on a number or

factors, such as size, weight, use of the aircraft, desired speed in
flight and at landing, and desired rate of climb.

*/ The wings of a fixed-wing aircraft are designated left and right,

corresponding to the left and right sides of the operator when
seated in the cockpit.

*/ The wings of some aircraft are of cantilever design; that is, they are
built so that no external bracing is needed.

*/ Wings are of the CANTILEVER TYPE ( require no external

bracing)or of the SEMI-CANTILEVER TYPE (which require
external bracing).The wings of the semi-cantilever type are also
known as BRACED WINGS.

*/ Aircraft wings range from the METALLIC CONSTRUCTION

TYPE which employ aluminum alloys through their construction to
the WOOD & FABRIC TYPE which employ wood parts covered
by fabric.

*/ Sometimes a wood/fabric type will employ wood, steel, aluminum

and finally , fabric covering for its construction.

*/ Between the spare, there is found the DRAG WIRES used to resist
the DRAG LOADS and the ANTI-DRAG WIRES which keep
the wing from moving forward (loads opposite from drag).

44 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ The COMPRESSION MEMBERS are used to keep the spars
evenly spaced and resist any tendency to close themselves together
in compression.

*/ Built up aluminum ribs are used in some type of aircraft wings and
these are made up of CAPSTRIPS running along the top and
bottom chamber of the ribs.

*/ Stamped ribs are also used widely and these are manufactured by
the process of stamping.

*/ The stamped ribs may be formed in one piece or in three section

known as the nose section, canter section and the tail section.

*/ The skin is part of wing structure and carries part of the wing

*/ Other aircraft wings use external bracings ( struts, wires, etc.) to

assist in supporting the wing and carrying the aerodynamic and
landing loads.

*/ Both aluminum alloy and magnesium alloy are used in wing

construction .

*/ The internal structure is made up of spans and stringers running

span wise, and ribs and formers running chord wise

*/ The spars are the principal structural member of the wing.

*/ The spar is the heart of the wing and it runs span wise along the
wing interior.

*/ The BUILT UP SPAR is a widely used type of spar and can be

made up of 4130 steel with its sections welded together.

focal point of airframe and structure 45

*/ The aluminum built up spar may be made up with BULB ANGLES

with a WEB between them or may be made up the SPAR WEB
may be installed and riveted to extruded T extrusion angles.

*/ The built up aluminum BOX SPAR consisting of the upper and

lower spar caps made up of aluminum heat treated sheets that are
riveted to FLANGED VERTICAL WEBS to from the spar.

*/ The normal metal covered wing is covered with stressed skin. This
means that metal covering (SKIN) carries part of the structural load
of the wing.

*/ The skin to rib method is used on medium size transport aircraft,

and basically it consists of attaching the rib flanges directly to the
skin covering by means of aluminum rivets.

*/ The skin to corrugation to rib method is used on larger and

heavier type aircraft to give the added required strength.

*/ Where the airplane weight is much higher, the skin to stringer to

rib method is used.

*/ The skin is attached to the internal members and may carry part of
the wing stresses.

*/ From the skin they are transmitted to the ribs and from the ribs to the

*/ Fuselage, landing gear, and on multi-engine aircraft, the nacelles or

pylons .

*/ One commonly used type is made up of a center section with outer

panels and wing tips.

*/ Another arrangement may have wing stubs as an integral part of the

fuselage in place of the center section.

46 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ Drain holes are also placed in the lower surface to provide for
drainage of accumulated moisture or fluids.

*/ Various points on the wing are located by station number.

*/ Wing station 0(zero) is located at the center line of the fuselage, and
all wing station are measured outboard from that point, in inches.

*/ In general, wing construction is based on one of three fundamental



*/ The monospar wing incorporates only one main longitudinal

member in its construction.

*/ Ribs or bulkheads supply the necessary contour or shape to the


*/ The multi-spar wing incorporates more than one main longitudinal

member in its construction.

*/ The box beam type of wing construction uses two main

longitudinal member with connecting bulkheads to furnish
additional strength and give contour to the wing.

*/ Typical wing leading and trailing edge shapes are:

(1) Tapered leading edge, straight trailing edge,

(2) Tapered leading and trailing edges,

(3) Delta wing,

(4) Swept back wings,

(5) Straight leading and trailing edges,

(6) Straight leading edge, tapered trailing edge .

focal point of airframe and structure 47

*/ Placed between the bulkheads and the smooth outer skin so that the
wing can better carry tension compression loads.

*/ Depending on the desired flight characteristics, wings are built in

many shaped and size.

*/ Some skin planks are MILLED (chemically or mechanically) to

maintain the required strength and at the same be light in weight.

*/ The skin covering may be STRETCH FORMED (for good contour

forming) or may be TAPERED (for the varied required strengths at
different parts of the wing) without having to carry excess weight
during flight.

*/ In addition to the particular configuration of the leading and trailing

edges, wings are also designed to provide certain desirable flight
characteristics, such as greater lift, balance, or stability

*/ Some common wing forms are: LOW WING, HIGH WING,


*/ The wing tip may be square, rounded, or even pointed.

*/ Both the leading edge and the trailing edge of the wing may be
straight or curved.

*/ One or both edges may be tapered so that the wing is narrower at the
tip than at the root where it joints the fuselage.

*/ The main structural of a wing are the spars, the ribs or bulkheads,
and the stringers or stiffeners.

*/ Spar are the principal members of the wing .

*/ Wing spars correspond to the longerons of the fuselage.

48 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ The run parallel to the lateral axis , or toward to tip of the wing, and
are usually attached to the fuselage by wing fittings, plain beams,
or truss system.

*/ Spars may be made of metal or wood depending on the design

criteria of a specific aircraft. Most aircraft recently manufactured
use spars of solid extruded aluminum or short aluminum extrusions
riveted together to from a spar.

*/ The ( I ) beam construction for a spar usually consists of a web

( a deep wall plate) and cap strips, which are extrusions or formed

*/ Cap strips are extrusions, formed angles, or milled sections to

which the web is attached.

*/ Some spar plate webs are constructed differently . Some have no

stiffeners; other contain flanged holes for reducing weight.

*/ A structure may be designed so as to be considered fail safe.

( one member of a complex structure fail, some other member
would the load of the failed member.

*/ Most Metal spars are built up from extruded aluminum alloy

sections, with riveted aluminum alloy web sections to provide extra

*/ As a rule, a wing has two spars. One spar is usually located near the
front of the wing, and the other about two-thirds of the distance
toward the wings trailing edge.

*/ When other structural members of the wing are placed under load,
they pas most of the resulting stress on to the wing spars.

*/ The most common types of wooden ribs are the plywood web , the
lightened plywood web, and the truss types.

focal point of airframe and structure 49

*/ Rib caps, often called cap strips, are usually made of the same
material as the rib itself, especially when using wooden ribs.

*/ Various types of rib are to the wing rib, sometimes called Plain
rib or even Main rib ,nose ribs and the butt rib.

*/ Nose rib is also called a false rib, since it usually extends from the
wing leading edge to the front spar or slightly beyond.

*/ The wing rib, or plain rib, extends from the leading edge of the
wing to the rear spar and in some cases to the trailing edge of the

*/ The wing butt rib is normally the heavily stressed rib section at the
inboard end of the wing near the attachment point to the fuselage.

*/ A butt rib may be called a bulkhead rib or a compression rib, if it

is designed to receive compression loads that tend to force the wing
spars together.

*/ The ribs are laterally weak , they are strengthened in some wings by
tapes that are woven above and below rib sections to prevent
sidewise bending of the ribs.

*/ Drag and antidrug wires are crisscrossed between the spars to from
a truss to resist force acting on the wing in the direction of the wing

*/ The wing attachment fitting, provide a means of attaching the wing

to the aircraft fuselage.

*/ The wing tip is often a removable unit, bolted to the outboard end of
the wing panel.

*/ The wing-tip assembly is of aluminum alloy construction.

*/ The wing tip cap is secured to the tip with countersunk screws and
is secured to the interspar structure at four points with -in. bolts.

50 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ The tip leading edge contains the heat anti-icing duct.

*/ Wing-heated air is exhausted through a louver on the top surface of

the tip.

*/ Wing position lights are located at the center of the tip and are not
directly visible from the cockpit.

*/ Some wing tips are equipped with a Lucite rod to transmit the light
to the leading edge.

*/ The wing is made up of spars, ribs, and lower and upper wing
skin covering.

*/ The top and bottom wing skin covers are made up of several
integrally stiffened sections.

*/ A wing which is constructed to allow it to used as a fuel cell or tank

is referred to as a Wet-Wing.

*/ Both aluminum honeycomb and fiber glass honeycomb

sandwich material are commonly used in the construction of wing
and stabilizer surfaces, bulkheads, floors, control surfaces, and
trim tabs.

*/ Aluminum honeycomb material is made of aluminum foil

honeycomb core, bonded between sheets of aluminum.

*/ Fiber glass honeycomb material consists of fiber glass honeycomb

core bonded between layers of fiberglass cloth.

*/ Honeycomb panels are usually a lightweight cellular core

sandwiched between two thin skins or facing materials such as
aluminum , wood, or plastic.

*/ Aircraft honeycomb material is manufactured in various shapes, but

is usually of the constant thickness or tapered core types.

focal point of airframe and structure 51

*/ The WING ATTACH FITTINGS are made of 4130 steel and are
used to attach the wing to the fuselage.

*/ FITTINGS: are used to attach the ailerons which are installed in the
aileron cut out area.

*/ The LAMINATED WOOD SPAR: is not found in too much use as

it is more expensive to make. This spar is usually made up straight
grained flat spruce plates ( laminates) which are glued together
with case-in Glue (no nails are used) and held under pressure
while drying.

*/ The ROUTED SPAR: is another type of spar made of solid spruce

which is then cut out to give it its desired shape.

*/ the WING SLATS: are the auxiliary airfoil section mounted on the
leading edge of the wing to maintain high lift at high angle of

*/ With the use of SLATES, the aircraft can land at higher angle of
attack and stall maintain high lift qualities (let us say 22degrees)
and the resulting drag would decrease the airplanes speed without
stalling, thus resulting in a shorter landing run for the airplane.

*/ The popular types of SLATS in use are the ATUMATIC


*/ The automatic mechanical type usually consists of several slate

attached together on the on the LE of each wing a symmetrical
manner. These EXTEND and RETRACT automatically by
running along slat.

*/ The hydraulically operated slats consists of several sections of

slats that are mounted in the LE of each wing and these extend and
retract by the action of ACTUATING CYLINDERS that are
operated by hydraulic controls in the cockpit.

52 focal point of airframe and structure

focal point of airframe and structure 53


* / Fuel is carried in the airplane in three ways:




*/ The built up tank: consists of a metal tank (usually aluminum)

made of sections and panels assembled and welded together (5052
aluminum ); the walls being the top panel, bottom panel, side
panels and end panels.

*/ Inside the built up tank there are found BAFFLES (rib like structure
with lightening holes) used to give the tank rigidity and also
prevent the sloshing of the fuel in the tank.

*/ The structural parts inside of the tanks are the fuel sump, located on
the lowest bottom part of the tank to accumulate all fuel for feeding
to the engines.

*/ Built up tanks can be repaired by welding (tank is made out of

welded aluminum alloy) using the correct welding rod and flux, but
before attempting to weld the tank, it should be completely free of
fuel fumes.

*/ If possible, the tank should be steam cleaned for longer periods to

assure complete removal of explosive vapors.

*/ After the above is accomplished, the tank should be washed with

liberal quantities of hot water to completely remove all traces of
chemical wash (the 5% solution).

54 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ when testing built up tank for leakage and before installing the tank
in the airplane, the tank should be placed in a holding fixture and
an air pressure of 3.5 lb maximum applied, and all outlet and inlet
ports should be plugged.

*/ the FULL CELL also known as the BLADDER TYPE or BAG

TYPE is another type of installation used for storage of fuel.

*/ The bladder type fuel cell is made up of various layers of

rubberized fabric assembled together to give the fuel cell its
strength, leak proof qualities and shape.

*/ Bladder type of cell is usually installed in wing bays and the fuel
cell is separated from the structure (for protection) by fiberglass
liners (walls) and these are bolted to the structure.

*/ Other fuel cell installation systems make use of LACING CORD

which is installed so that it runs through perforated lugs on the fuel
cell and liner panels and thus also support the tank and help
maintain its shape.

*/ The INTEGRAL FUEL TANK is the type that uses the structural
area of the wing itself to from the top, sides and bottom of the tank.

*/ The integral fuel tank installation is the most widely used on modern
transport aircraft because of lightness and development of tight and
very efficient sealants and sealing methods.

*/ Two basic methods are used for sealing the fuel tank areas and joints
against leakage. These are the SEAL STRIP METOD and the

*/ The SEAL STRIP METHOD: is the one that uses a synthetic

rubber seal strip between the faying (joining) surfaces of structural
parts of the integral type tank.

focal point of airframe and structure 55

*/ The FILLET METHOD is widely used for integral tank sealing

and in this method, the joints, after they are riveted together, are
sealed with a manually applied coating of sealing compound (in the
form of putty) of a prescribed height (fillet).

*/ Some manufacturers will apply the same process as above by hand

filleting all joints and riveted areas and then instead of using the
hand sloshing method will use the fill and drain Method.

*/ During high speed flight any small constant vibration in the control
surfaces (flutter) will cause structural failure of part of aircraft
structure which could load to disaster. To avoid this dangerous
condition, all control surfaces are mass balanced (addition of
weight forwarded of the hinge line) so that the surface will be
balanced dynamically (balanced in flight) .

*/ The exact balance is maintained (the manufacturer does allow

some small limits) any dope, paint or structural repair on the
control surface will affect its balance and therefore any time that
this accomplished a balance check is required.

*/ When checking for correct STATIC BALANCE, after a repair has

been made on a control surface, one of the methods used is the

*/ Another method used is the SLIDING WEIGHT METOD which is

used to establish whether or not the balance of a surface is out of
limits. This method eliminates the possibility of mathematical error

56 focal point of airframe and structure

focal point of airframe and structure 57

*/ The flight control systems are those systems which control the
movement of the airplane through the air, whether in climbing
motion (elevator), banking motion (aileron) or turning motion

*/ The flight control systems are broken down into two main
categories which are the PRIMARY FLIGHT CONTROL and

*/ The primary flight control surfaces are those which control the
basic movement of the airplane around the three axes of flight.
These controls and what they do, are as follows:

AILERONS ----- > movement around longitudinal axis ----->

BANKING,ELEVATORS -----> movement around lateral axis
-----> PITCHING,

RUDDER----->movement around vertical axis -----> YAWING.

*/ The directional control of a fixed-wing aircraft takes place around

the lateral, longitudinal, and vertical axes by means of flight
control surfaces.

*/ Control devices are hinged or movable surfaces through which the

attitude of an aircraft is controlled during takeoff, flight, and

*/ The primary group of flight control surfaces consists of ailerons,

elevators and rudders.

58 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ Ailerons are attached to the trailing edge of both wings of an

*/ Elevators are attached to the trailing edge of the horizontal


*/ Rudder is hinged to the trailing edge of the vertical stabilizer.

*/ Primary control surfaces are similar in construction and vary only

in size, shape, and methods of attachment.

*/ The primary control surfaces are usually made of an aluminum

alloy structure built around a single spar member of torque tube.

*/ Ribs are fitted to the spar at the leading and trailing edge and are
joint together with a metal strip.

*/ The ribs , in many cases, are formed from flat sheet stock. They
are seldom solid; more often, the formed, stamped-out ribs are
reduced in weight by holes which are punched in the metal.

*/ On some aircraft , a control surface may serve a dual purpose. For

example, one set of control surfaces, the elevators, combines the
functions of both ailerons and elevators

*/ The secondary flight control surfaces are considered those that

help make the control of the aircraft around the above mentioned
axes more smooth and almost automatic, as well make the flight

*/ The secondary or auxiliary group of control surfaces consists of

such as trim tabs , servo tabs, flaps, spoilers, and leading edge

*/ Purpose for to reduce the force required to actuate the primary

controls, to trim and balance the aircraft in flight, to reduce landing
speed or shorten the length of the landing roll, and to change the
speed of the aircraft in flight.

focal point of airframe and structure 59

*/ The control surfaces in secondary flight control surfaces group are

known as the TRIM TABS, which are attached to the primary
surfaces, are operated by the pilot, in the cockpit by separate
controls that is , each TRIM TAB has its own control in the

*/ Should the airplane be slightly tail heavy, because of bad cargo

loading, the pilot would have to fly pushing his control column
forward enough to get the airplane level.

*/ The pivoting around the CENTER OF GRAVITY, causes the nose

of airplane to move upward and thus place the airplane in straight
and level position. Of course, if too much tab is used, the airplane
will take a too much NOSE UP position, therefore.

*/ Aileron are primary control surfaces which make up part of the total
wing area.

*/ Ailerons are movable through a per-designed arc and are usually

hinged to the aileron spar or rear wing spar.

*/ The aileron are operated by a (side-to-side) movement of the

aileron control stick, or a turning motion of the wheel on the
yoke .

*/ The aileron are interconnected in the control system to operate

simultaneously in opposite directions.

*/ The opposing action results in more lift being produced by the wing
on one side of the fuselage than on the other , resulting in a
controlled movement or roll due to unequal aerodynamic forces on
the wings.

*/ Large aircraft may used all-metal ailerons, except for fiber glass
trailing edges, hinged to the rear wing spar in at least four places.

*/ The complex lateral control system in large turbo-jet aircraft is far

more sophisticated than the type employed in a light airplane.

60 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ During low-speed flight all lateral control surfaces operate to
provide maximum stability.

*/ The aileron nose tapers and extends forward of the aileron hinge

*/ The major part of the skin area of the inboard ailerons in aluminum
honeycomb panels.

*/ The outboard ailerons are made up of a nose spar and ribs covered
with aluminum honeycomb panels .

*/ The outboard ailerons are located in the trailing edge of

each outboard wing section.

*/ Aileron balance panels reduce the force necessary to position and

hold the ailerons.

*/ The increasing load on the balance panel counteracts the

increasing load on the ailerons.

*/ Auxiliary wing flight surfaces: Include trailing edge flaps,

leading edge flaps, speed brakes, spoilers, and leading edge

*/ The number and type of auxiliary wing flap surfaces on an aircraft

vary widely, depending on the type and size of aircraft.

*/ Wing flap are used to give the aircraft extra lift. They reduce the
landing speed, thereby shortening the length of the landing
rollout to facilitate landing in small or obstructed areas by
permitting the gliding angle to be increased without greatly
increasing the approach speed.

*/ Clearance between the aileron nose and wing structure provides a

controlled airflow area necessary for balance panel action.

focal point of airframe and structure 61

*/ Full balance panel force is not required for small angles of aileron
displacement because the manual force necessary to rotate the
control tab through small angles is slight.

*/ Most flaps are hinged to the lower trailing edges of the wings,
inboard of the ailerons.

*/ Leading edge flaps are also used, principally on large high-speed


*/ Some common types of flaps are:

1- Plain flap,

2- Split flap,

3- Fowler flap,

4- Leading edge flap,

5- Triple-slotted trailing edge flap

*/ The plain flap forms the trailing edge of the wing when the flap is in
the up (or retracted) position. It contains both the upper and lower
surface of the wing trailing edge.

*/ The plain split flap is normally housed with the under surface of the

*/ The plain split flap is similar to a plain flap except that the upper
surface of the wing extends to the flap trailing edge and dose not
droop with the flap.

*/ Plain split flap is also called the split-edge flap.

*/ Aircraft requiring extra wing area to aid lift often use Fowler flaps.

62 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ Fowler flaps system houses the flaps flush under the wings much as
dose the plain split flap system. But, instead of the flaps hinging
straight down from a stationery hinge line .

*/ Triple-slotted segmented flap used on some larger turbine aircraft.

*/ The triple-slotted type of trailing edge flap system provides high lift
for both takeoff and landing.

*/ Each triple-flap consists of a fore-flap, a mid-flap, and an aft-flap.

*/ The leading edge flap is similar in operation to the plain flap ,that
is, it is hinged on the bottom side, and, when actuated, the leading
edge of the wing extends in the downward direction to increase the
camber of the wing.

*/ each leading edge flap has three gooseneck hinges attached to

fittings in the fixed wing leading edge, and a hinged fairing is
installed on the trailing edge of each flap.

*/ Speed brakes, sometimes called dive flaps or dive brakes, serve to

slow an aircraft in flight.

*/ The brakes themselves are manufactured n many shapes, and their

location depends on the design of the aircraft and the purpose of the

*/ The brake panels may be located on certain parts of the fuselage or

on the wing surfaces.

*/ Brakes on the fuselage are small panels that can be extended into the
smooth airflow to create turbulence and drag.

*/ Wingtype brakes may be multiple-finger channels extending

above and below the wing surfaces to break up sooth airflow.

*/ Usually speed brakes are controlled by electrical switches and

actuated by hydraulic pressure.

focal point of airframe and structure 63

*/ Another type of air brake is a combination of spoilers and speed


*/ A typical combination consists of spoiler flaps located in the upper

wing surfaces ahead of the ailerons.

*/ When the operator wishes to use both air brakes and spoilers, he can
slow the flight speed and maintain lateral control as well.

*/ Spoilers are auxiliary wing flight control surfaces, mounted on the

upper surface of each wing.

*/ Most spoiler system can also be extended symmetrically to serve a

secondary function as speed brakes.

*/ Spoiler systems are equipped with separate ground and flight


*/ Most spoiler panels are bonded honeycomb structures with

aluminum skin.

*/ one of the simplest yet most important devices to aid the pilot of an
aircraft is the TAB attached to a control surface.

*/ TABS: Even though an aircraft has inherent stability, is dose not

always tend to fly and straight and level.

*/ The weight of the load and its distribution affect stability.

*/ Climbing or gliding, it is necessary to apply pressure on the controls

to keep the aircraft in the desired attitude.

*/ Tab dose not take the place of a control surface, it is mounted on or

attached to a movable control surface and causes easier movement
or better balance of the control surface.

*/ Tabs can be moved up or down by means of a crank or moved

electrically from the cockpit.

64 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ All aircraft, except a few of the very lightest types, are equipped
with tabs that can be controlled from the cockpit.

*/ Tabs on some of the aircraft are usually adjustable only when the
aircraft is on the ground.

*/ Flight control trim tab types are:



*/ TRIM TABS; trim the aircraft in flight. To trim means to correct

any tendency of the aircraft to move toward an undesirable flight

*/ Trim tabs control the balance of an aircraft so that it maintains

straight and level flight without pressure on the control column,
control wheel, or rudder pedals.

*/ Trim tabs are either controlled from the cockpit or adjusted on the
ground before taking off.

*/ Trim tabs are installed on elevators, rudders, and ailerons.

*/ SERVO TABS; servo tabs are very similar in operation and

appearance to the trim tabs just discussed.

*/ Servo tabs, sometimes referred to as flight tabs, are used primarily

on the large main control surfaces.

*/ Servo tabs aid in moving the control surface and holding it in the
desired position.

*/ With the use of a servo tab less force is needed to move the main
control surface.

focal point of airframe and structure 65

*/ BALANC TABS; The linkage is designed in such a way that when

the main control surface is moved, the tab moves in the opposite

*/ SPRING TABS; Spring tabs are similar in appearance to trim tabs,

but servo an entirely different purpose.

*/ Spring tabs are used for the same purpose as hydraulic actuators;
that is to aid in moving a primary control surface.

*/ The deflection of the spring tabs is directly proportional to the

aerodynamic load imposed upon the aileron; therefore at low
speeds the spring tab remains in a neutral position and the aileron is
a direct manually controlled surface.

*/ AILERON TRIM TAB : is moved upward, causing the RH aileron

to move downward which in turn causes the RH wing to move
upward the sufficient amount to keep the airplane TRIMMED or
BALANCED (straight and level flight).

*/ RADDER TRIM TAB : is used in the same manner as above,

except that in this case, the tab keeps the airplane straight and level
wing regard to the vertical axis.

*/ The horizontal stabilizer stabilizes the airplane around the lateral

axis and the elevators connected to it movement around this axis,
and finally the trim tab helps keep the airplane in a straight and
level position with regard to this axis.

*/ The vertical stabilizer stabilizes the airplane around the vertical axis
and the rudder connected to it controls the movement around this

*/ The secondary controls are for the tabs, with the aileron tab wheel on
the front of the pedestal with L&R movement, the elevator tab
control wheel on the left and right side of the pedestal with fore and
aft movement, and flying.

66 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ The rudder tab control wheel on the V of the windshield which has
the clockwise (right) movement and counterclockwise
movement (left) for movement of the airplane nose.

*/ generally speaking, flight control systems are also classified by their

means of operation.


on small to medium type aircraft.


SYSTEM-----> used on large aircraft with large area control


-----> used on large aircraft with heavy control surfaces.


used with high speed aircraft with hard to hard to move



*/ The mechanical operated flight controls are broken down into

two groups which are :



*/ The cable operated system consists of STEEL CABLE (7x7 or

7x19 ) which runs from the CONTROL TORQUE TUBE,(in this
case, on elevator system) which is used to convert linear
movement into rotary movement.

*/ Hollow aluminum or steel rods or tubing that connect the control to

the control surface by means of the torque tube.

focal point of airframe and structure 67

*/ When primary control surfaces are extremely large, making it

difficult for the pilot to move the control surface, the aerodynamic
boost control system is used.

*/ AERODYNAMICS BOOST SYSTEM type of control system, the

pilot applies 10% pressure on the control while the remaining
90% of pressure on the control surface is applied by the airstream.

*/ The elevators are free floating (moving freely around their hinges)
and the control column directly connects to the large servo tab.

*/ When the pilot moves the column back (as in nose up), the flowing
push/pull rod moves aft to a gear box which converts linear
movement into rotary movement whish is delivered to the
following steel shaft which is a TORQUE TUBE.

*/ Movement aft of the control column causes the servo tab to move
down , and then by aerodynamic boost or help, the elevator moves
upward, and the airplane pivoting about the CG (center of gravity)
causes it to take a nose up attitude.

*/ When the airplane uses large heavy surfaces in the flight control
system and the airplane is also of the high speed type, the
movement of the surfaces becomes more difficult. Since the
aerodynamic boost system is not strong enough for this work the

*/ As in the case of a climb condition, the pilot moves the control

column back.

*/ In the 1/2powered boost system we resort to a powered control

system known as a boost system in which the force required to
move the control surface is added to what supplied by the pilot and
if the power should fail, even though heavy to operate, the pilot can
manually move the control surfaces enough to land safety .. thus
the powered system.

68 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ The airplane will continue to climb with the PARALLELOGRAM in
the squared position.

*/ If there is a failure in the hydraulic system, the pilot can override the
system and operate manually by applying more personal force to
make the control surface move.


strong force resisting the airplane column movement is caused by
the airstream acting on the control surfaces because of the high
speed of the airplane, the FULL POWERED flight system used.

*/ In the flight control system fully powered case , the pilot moves
the control column back (as in the elevators system) and thus
position to an ACTUATING CYLINDER, which mounted on a
cradle attached to the aircraft structure, moves along the cradle
working a push/pull rod which moves the control surface.

*/ The basic difference between the flight control system fully power
and the powered boost system, is that there is no direct
connection between the control column and the control surface, and
in the case of failure of the normal hydraulic system, the
used to operate the control surfaces.

*/ The cable operated flight control is widely used aircraft, ranging

from small airplane to large transport aircraft . These cables
systems are used to operate the primary control surfaces (rudder,
elevators and ailerons) and to operates surfaces (the trim tabs use to
maintain the aircraft straight and level as required).

*/ BELL CRANK: made of steel or aluminum is found in the system

end is used to transmit force and at the same time create a change
of direction of this force.

focal point of airframe and structure 69

*/ The bell crank is usually found in push-pull system and in a cable

system it is actuated by a small push pull rod which forms the end
of the cable control system (output).

*/ The QUADRANT is a section of a 360 degree circle and moves

through a small arc( approx 100 degrees). It is usually made of
aluminum and is found on the bottom of the control column and
operated by it to impart force and motion to the cable system.

*/ The PULLY, made of metal or synthetic material is round in shape

with a groove around its periphery, this groove permits the control
cable to ride in it so that the cable run alignment is maintained.

*/ Is also used to provide a change in direction of the cable run.

*/ To assure that the control cable dose not jump out of the pulley
groove, CABLE GUARDS, made of aluminum or steel are used.

*/ The FAIRLEAD made out of phenolic materials is used as guide to

protect the cable against wear by a structural part that it might rub

*/ The rudder control system consists of a dual set of rudder pedals (

one set for the pilot and one set for the co-pilot) located in the front
of the airplane.

*/ The movement of these pedals controls the movement of the rudder

at the aft end of the airplane.

*/ The rudder and pedals are connected to one another by means of

carbon steel control cable running under the floor the cabin and
tensioned to the proper tension by means of turnbuckles. The cable
used varies 1/16 to 3/16 and of the 7x7 and 7x9 types.

*/ The rudder pedals are adjustable forward and aft to accommodate for
pilots of differing statures and the rudder pedals are connected to
one another by means of two torque tubes with a horn attached to
each tube to which the control cables attach.

70 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ Rudder pedal is synchronized by means of a run around cable
(Balance cable) witch when pushing in one pedal, the other pedal
moves in the opposite direction.

*/ To determine the amount of tension on a cable, a tensiometer is


*/ Protractors are tools for measuring angles in the degrees.

*/ Various types of protractors are used to determine the travel of flight

control surfaces.

*/ One protractor that can be used to measure aileron, elevator, or wing

flap travel is the universal propeller protractor.

*/ Rigging fixtures by the templates are special tools (gages) designed

by the manufacture to measure control surface travel.

*/ Small aircraft usually have fixed pegs or blocks attached to the

fuselage parallel to or coincident with the datum lines.

*/ A spirit level and a straight edge are rested across the pegs or blocks
to check the level of the aircraft.

*/ The alignment checks specified usually include:

(1) Wing dihedral angle.

(2) Wing incidence angle.

(3) Engine alignment.

(4) Horizontal stabilizer incidence.

(5) Horizontal stabilizer dihedral.

(6) Verticality of the fin.

(7) A symmetry check.

focal point of airframe and structure 71

*/ Checking Dihedral: The dihedral angle should be checked in the

specified position using the special boards provided by the aircraft

*/ Checking Incidence: Incidence is usually checked in at least two

specified positions on the surface of the wing to ensure that the
wing if free from twist.

*/ Checking Fin Vertically: After the rigging of the horizontal

stabilizer has been checked, the verticality of the vertical stabilizer
relative to the lateral datum can be checked.

*/ Checking Engine Alignment: Engine are usually mounted with the

thrust line parallel to the horizontal longitudinal plane of symmetry.

*/ Symmetry Check : The precise figures, tolerances and checkpoints

for a particular aircraft will be found in the applicable service or
maintenance manual.

*/ There are two ways in which a control surface may be out of static
balance. They are under balance and over balance .

*/ If the RH pedal is depressed the rudder will move the RIGHT and
cause the nose of the airplane to move to the RIGHT.

*/ The SPOLER are known as ANTI-LIFT DEVICES because by

being raised into the airfoil over the wing, they spoil the lift of the

*/ Spoilers are found in sets in equal amounts on the left wing and the
right wing and sometimes are connected to the aileron system to
help the ailerons do their work more efficienciently. (This type of
spoiler is called FLIGHT SPOILER) .

*/ Spoiler act as anti-lift devices when they all move up together to

spoil the lift across the entire wing when the airplane is on the
ground just after landing.( This type of spoiler is called GROUND

72 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ High-lift devices are used in combination with airfoil in order to
reduce the takeoff or landing speed by changing the lift
characteristics of an airfoil during the landing or takeoff phases.

*/ Two high-lift devices commonly used on aircraft:

A - One of these is known as a also, and is used as a passageway

through the leading edge of the wing.

B - The other high-lift device is known as a flap. It is a hinged

surface on the trailing edge of the wing.

*/ The type of flaps in use on aircraft include:

1-Plain, 2- Split, 3- Fowler, 4- Slotted.

*/ The plain is simply hinged to the wing and forms a part of the wing
surface when raised.

*/ The split flap gets its name from the hinge at the bottom part of the
wing near the trailing edge permitting it to be lowered from the
fixed top surface.

*/ The fowler flap fits into the lower part of the wing so that it is flush
with the surface.

*/ When the flap is operated, it slides backward on tracks and tilts

downward at the same time.

*/ The slotted flap is like the fowler flap in operation, but in

appearance it is similar to the plain flap.

*/ The slot thus opened allows a flow of air over the upper surface of
the flap.


*/ The layer of air over the surface which is slower moving in relation
to the rest of the slipstream is called the boundary layer.

focal point of airframe and structure 73

*/ The laminar boundary layer increases in thickness with increased

distance from the wing leading edge.

*/ Boundary layer control devices are additional means of increasing

the maximum lift coefficient of a section.

*/ The thin layer of air adjacent to the surface of an airfoil shows

reduced local velocities from the effect of skin friction.

*/ At high angles of attack, the bounding layer on the upper surface

tends to stagnate (come to a stop) .

*/ When stagnate happens, the airflow separates from the surface and
stall occurs.

*/ Boundary layer control devices for high-lift applications feature

various devices to maintain high velocity in the boundary layer and
delay separation of the airflow.

*/ Slats are movable control surfaces attached to the leading edge of

the wing.

*/ Control of the boundary layers kinetic energy can be accomplished

using slats and the application of suction to draw off the stagnate
air and replace it with high-velocity air from outside the boundary
layer .

*/ When the slat is closed, it forms the leading edge of the wing.

*/ When in the open position (extended forward), a slot is created

between the slat and the wing leading edge.

*/ Controlling boundary layer air by surface suction allows the wing to

operate at higher angles of attack.


The tools for measuring surface travel primarily include protractors,

rigging fixtures, control templates, and rollers.

74 focal point of airframe and structure

focal point of airframe and structure 75

*/ The landing gear is the assembly that supports the aircraft during
landing or while it is resting or moving about

on the ground.

*/ The landing gear is constructed of strong heat treated steel parts

because of the high weight it must support.

*/ The typical landing gear, of the kind used for main landing gear on
large aircraft, consists of the following parts:

(a) The TRUNNION FITTING of the landing gear,

(b) The STRUT of the landing gear.

(c) The AXLE ASSEMBLY of the landing gear,

(d) The TORQUE LINK(SCISSORS) of the landing gear,

(e) The SIDE SWAY BRACE of the landing gear.

*/ The trunnion of the landing gear, located on the top part of the
landing gear and used to attach the landing gear to the wing or

*/ The strut of the landing gear usually contains a mixture of air and
oil under pressure and is made up of a cylinder and piston

76 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ The strut is the strongest part of the landing gear and it supports
the weight of the gear as well as absorb the shock of landing and

*/ The axel assembly of the landing gear used to attach the landing
gear wheel and tire to the landing gear.

*/ The torque links (scissors) of the landing gear connect the fixed
part of the shock strut to the axel side of the shock strut.

*/ The purpose of the torque links is to keep the axel assembly from
pulling away from the strut and also to keep the lower part of the
strut from rotating around its vertical axis.

*/ The side sway brace of a heavy structure connecting the strut to the
aircraft structure and it keeps the landing gear from moving

*/ When the brace is connected to the fore and aft axis of the strut
assembly, to keep the landing gear in line, it is called a drag
brace or drag strut.

*/ The landing gear of a fixed-wing aircraft consists of main and

auxiliary units, either of which may or may not be retractable.

*/ The main landing gear forms the principal support of the aircraft on
land or water and may include any combination of wheels, floats,

*/ Shock-absorbing equipment, brakes, retracting mechanism with

controls and warning devices, cowling, fairing, and structural
members necessary to attach any of the foregoing to the primary

*/ The landing gear has shock struts to absorb the shock of landing and

focal point of airframe and structure 77

*/ A gear retraction mechanism, the landing gear attaches to the

aircraft structure and enables the gear to extend and retract. The
landing arrangement either has a tail wheel or nose wheel.

*/ The auxiliary landing gear consists of tail or nose wheel

installations, outboard pontoons, skids, etc., with necessary cowling
and reinforcement.

*/ The conventional landing gear is one that, besides having the main
landing gear in its normal location, the auxiliary gear (tail
landing gear) is located at the bottom of the tail section.

*/ When the auxiliary landing gear is located under the nose of the
airplane, the landing gear is known as tricycle landing gear (nose
gear airplane).

*/ Some aircraft employ sets of landing gear that are located one
behind the other, all located under the fuselage. This type of
landing gear is known as tandem landing gear and because of
this, we will use an auxiliary landing gear on each wing tip
known as outrigger landing gear.

*/ Many aircraft are equipped with a tricycle gear arrangement.

*/ Landing gear arrangements having a nose wheel are usually

equipped for nose wheel steering.

*/ When only one wheel is attached to each axle, it is known as a

single wheel type.

*/ When the wheels are mounted, side by side on the same axel it is
known as a dual wheel type.

*/ The tandem wheel type landing gear has one single wheel located
behind the other wheel.

78 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ When two wheels are located behind two wheels on the same strut
assembly, this installation is known as the dual tandem type

*/ The dual tandem type landing wheel installation is also known as

the bogie type landing gear (widely used on heavy type of
transport aircraft).

*/ The dual tandem type landing gear installation consists of two sets
of shells, two per axle and mounted in sets one behind the other.

*/ Nose wheel aircraft are protected at the fuselage tail section with a
tail skid or bumper.

*/ Wheel and tires or (skis), the landing gear forms a stabilizing

contact with the ground during landing and taxiing.

*/ Brakes installed in the wheels enable the aircraft to be slowed or

stopped during movement on the ground.

*/ The nose gear arrangement has at least three advantages:

(1) It allows more forceful application of the brakes for higher

landing speeds without nosing over.

(2) It permits better visibility for the pilot during landing and

(3) It tends to prevent aircraft ground-looping by moving the

aircraft c.g. forward of the main wheels. Forces acting on the c.g.
tend to keep the aircraft moving forward on a straight line rather
than ground-looping.

*/ The number and location of wheels on the main gear vary. Some
main gears have two wheels

focal point of airframe and structure 79

*/ Mechanical latch system-landing gear on some airplanes are

controlled simultaneously by control cables connected to a single
control handle located in the cockpit.

*/ The control handle has three positions:

(a) Latch raised; which releases the latch so that hydraulic

pressure can retract the actuating cylinder and at the same time
retract the retractable main landing gear.

(b) Spring lock; When the landing gear is extended receives and
by spring pressure on the latch itself, forces the latch to fall into
the actuating cylinder slot thus locking the landing gear.

*/ Positive lock; Which firmly locks the latch inside the actuating
cylinder slot and further assuring that the latch does not loose by
looking the control handle by a spring locking clip, located in the

*/ Multiple wheels spread the aircrafts weight over a larger area in

addition to providing a safety margin if one tire should fail.

*/ Aircraft may use four or more wheels. When more than two wheels
are attached to one strut .

*/ The attaching mechanism is referred to as a BOGIE.

*/ The number of wheels that are included in the bogie is determined

by the gross design weight of the aircraft and the surfaces on which
the loaded aircraft may be required to land.

*/ The tricycle arrangement of the landing gear consist of air/oil

shock struts, main gear alignment units, support units,
retraction and safety devices, auxiliary gear protective devices,
nose wheel steering system, aircraft wheels, tires, tubes, and
aircraft brake systems.

80 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ Shock struts are self-contained hydraulic units that support an
aircraft on the ground and protect the aircraft structure by absorbing
and dissipating the tremendous shock loads of landing.

*/ Shock struts must be inspected and serviced regularly to function


*/ There are many different designs of shock struts, only information

of a general nature is in clouded in this section.

*/ A typical pneumatic/hydraulic shock strut use compressed whit

hydraulic fluid to absorb and dissipated shock loads, and is often
referred to as this air/oil or oleo strut.

*/ On some types of shock struts, a metering tube replaces the

metering pin, but shock strut operating is the same.

*/ Some shock struts are equipped with a damping or snubbing

device consisting of a recoil valve on the piston or recoil tube to
the rebound during the extension stroke and to prevent too rapid
extension of the shock strut.

*/ The majority of shock struts are equipped with an axle attached to

the lower cylinder to provide for installation of the wheels.

*/ A fitting consisting of a fluid filler inlet and air valve assembly is

located near the upper end of each shock strut to provide a means
of filling the strut with hydraulic fluid and inflating it with air.

*/ Shock struts without torque arms have spline piston heads and
cylinders which maintain correct wheel alignment.

*/ Nose gear shock struts are provided with an upper locating cam
attached to the upper cylinder and a mating lower locating cam
attached to the lower cylinder.

*/ The mating cams also keep the nose wheel in a striating ahead
position prior to landing when the strut is fully extended.

focal point of airframe and structure 81

*/ Some nose gear shock struts have attachments for installing an

external shimmy damper.

*/ Generally, nose gear struts are equipped with a locking (or

disconnect) pin to enable quick turning of the aircraft when it is
standing idle on the ground or in the hanger.

*/ Nose and main gear shock struts are usually provided with
jacking points and towing lugs.

*/ Jacks should always be placed under the prescribed points.

*/ when towing lugs are provided, the towing bar should be

attached only to these lugs.

*/ All shock struts are provided with an instruction plate which

gives brief instructions for filling the strut with fluid and for
inflating the strut.

*/ The metering pin is forced through the orifice and ,by its variable
shape, controls the rate of fluid flow at all points of the
compression stroke.

*/ At the end of the downward stroke, the compressed air is further

compressed, limiting the compression stroke of the strut.

*/ A sleeve, spacer, or bumper ring incorporated in the strut limits the

extension stroke.

*/ Deflating a shock strut can be a dangerous operation unless

servicing personnel are thoroughly familiar with high-pressure air

*/ Tow of the various types of high-pressure air valves currently in

use on shock struts .

82 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ The main landing gear consists of several components that enable
it to function. Typical of these are the torque links, trunnion and
bracket arrangements, drag strut linkages, electrical and
hydraulic gear-retraction devices, and gear indicators.

*/ Torque links ; keep the landing gear pointed in a straight-ahead


*/ One torque link connects to the shock strut cylinder, while the
other connects to the piston .

*/ The links are hinged at the center so that the piston can move up or
down in the strut.

* / The upper end of the drag strut connects to the aircraft structure,
while the lower end connects to the shock strut.

*/ The drag strut is hinged so that landing gear can be retracted.

*/ The landing gear is normally retracted by electrical or hydraulic

devices, or by a combination of these devices.

*/ An electrical gear retraction system, has the following features:

(1) A motor for converting electrical energy into rotary motion.

(2) A gear reduction system for decreasing the speed and

increasing the force of rotation.

(3) Other gears for changing rotary motion (at a reduced speed)
into push-pull movement.

(4) Linkage for connecting the push-pull movement to the

landing gear shock strut.

focal point of airframe and structure 83

*/ Devices used in a typical hydraulically operated landing gear

retraction system include actuating cylinders, selector valves, up
locks, down locks, sequence valves, tubing, and other
conventional hydraulic components.

*/ The wing landing gear retracts or extends when hydraulic pressure

is applied to the up or down side of the gear actuator.

*/ A wing landing gear locking mechanism located on the outboard

side of the wheel well locks the gear in the up position.

*/ The emergency extension system lowers the landing gears if the

main power system fails.

*/ Some aircraft have an emergency release handle in the cockpit.

*/ In some aircraft, design configurations make emergency extension

of the landing gear by gravity and air loads alone impossible or

*/ Hydraulic pressure for emergency operation of the landing gear

may be provided by an auxiliary hand pump, an accumulator,
or an electrically powered hydraulic pump, depending upon the
design of the aircraft.

*/ Accidental retraction of a landing gear may be prevented by such

safety devices as mechanical downlocks, safety switches, and
ground locks.

*/ To prevent accidental operation of the downlocks, electrically

operated safety switches are installed.

*/ A landing gear safety switch in the landing gear safety circuit is

usually mounted in a bracket on one of the main shock struts.

*/ The torque links spread apart or move together as the shock strut
piston extends or retracts in its cylinder.

84 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ When the strut is compressed (aircraft on the ground), the
torque links are close together, causing the adjusting links to
open the safety switch.

*/ During take-off, as the weight of the aircraft leaves the struts, the
struts and torque links extend, causing the adjusting links to close
the safety switch.

*/ Most aircraft are equipped with additional safety devices to

prevent collapse of the gear when the aircraft is on the ground.

*/ All types of ground locks usually have red streamers permanently

attached to them to readily indicate whether or not they are

*/ To provide a visual indication of landing gear position, indicators

are installed in the cockpit or compartment.

*/ Gear warning devices are incorporated on all retractable gear

aircraft and usually consist of a horn or some other aural device
and red warning light.

*/ Several designs of gear position indicators are available.

*/ One type displays movable miniature landing gears which are

electrically positioned by movement of the aircraft gear.

*/ Another type consists of two or three green lights which burn

when the aircraft gear is down and locked.

*/ A third type consists of tab-type indicators with markings up to

indicate that the gear is up and locked, a display of red and white
diagonal stripes to show when the gear is unlocked, or silhouette
of each gear to indicate when it locks in the down position.

*/ Under certain conditions nose landing gear vibrate and shimmy

during taxiing, takeoff , or landing.

focal point of airframe and structure 85

*/ If shimmy becomes excessive, it can damage the nose gear or

attaching structure.

*/ Many aircraft have nose wheel steering systems with built-in

features to prevent shimmy.

*/ Some aircraft have nose gear snubber to prevent shimmy.

*/ Light aircraft are commonly provided nose wheel steering

capabilities through a simple system of mechanical linkage
hooked to the rudder pedal.

*/ Most common applications utilize push-pull rods to connect the

pedals to horns located on the pivotal portion of the nose wheel

*/ A shimmy damper controls vibration, or shimmy ,through

hydraulic damping.

*/ The damper is either attached to or built integrally with the nose

gear and prevents shimmy of the nose wheel during taxiing,
landing, or takeoff.

*/ There are three types of shimmy dampers commonly used on


(1) The piston -type,

(2) Vane -type,

(3) Features incorporated in the nose wheel power steering

system of some aircraft.

*/ The piston -type shimmy damper consists of two major


(1)The cam assembly and (2) The damper assembly.

86 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ The shimmy damper is mounted on a bracket at the lower end of
the nose gear shock strut outer cylinder.

*/ The damper assembly consists of a spring-loaded reservoir piston

to maintain the confined fluid under constant pressure, and an
operating cylinder and piston.

*/ The landing gear warning lights and warning horn are controlled
by up and down switches on each landing gear, by throttle
switches in the throttle switches box and finally by micro switch
in the landing gear control handle.

*/ The lights consist of three green lights (one for each gear) and one
red light for unsafe condition.

*/ When all the gears are up and locked, the landing gear up switches
are opened by the movement of the landing gear .thus the red light
go out; and so ,as the airplane is in flight, all handle gear warning
light are out.

*/ With the airplane in flight and the landing gear in the up position
any moving back of any throttle will cause the landing gear
warning horn to sound the alarm.

*/ When the throttles are moved forward, the red light goes out and
the horn stops blowing.

*/ The vane-type shimmy damper is located on the nose wheel shock

strut just above the nose wheel fork and may be mounted either
internally or externally .

*/ If mounted internally, the housing of the shimmy damper is fitted

and second inside the shock strut, and the shaft is splinted to the
nose wheel fork.

focal point of airframe and structure 87

*/ If mounted externally , the housing of the shimmy damper is

bolted to the side of the shock strut, and the shaft is connected by
mechanical linkage to the nose wheel fork.

*/ A steer damper is hydraulically operated and accomplishes the

two separate functions of steering and /or eliminating

*/ Steer damper discussed here is designed for installation on nose

gear struts and is connected into the aircraft hydraulic system.

*/ Basically, a steer damper consists of a closed cylinder containing

rotary vane-type working chambers (similar to the vane-type
shimmy damper) and a valving system.

*/ In general, the independent brake system is used on small


*/ Independent brake system is termed independent because it has

its own reservoir and is entirely independent of the aircrafts
main hydraulic system.

*/ Independent brake systems are powered by master cylinders

similar to those used in the conventional automobile brake system.

*/ Power brake control valve systems are used on aircraft requiring a

large volume of fluid to operate the brake.

*/ A pressure ball-check power brake control valve releases and

regulates main system pressure to the brakes and relives thermal
expansion when the brakes are not being used.

*/ The main parts of the valve are the housing, piston assembly, and
tuning fork.

*/ The housing contains three chambers and ports: pressure inlet,

brake, and return .

88 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ A power brake (sliding spool type) control valve basically consists
of a sleeve and spool installed in a housing.

*/ The spool moves inside the sleeve, opening or closing either the
pressure or return port of the brake line.

*/ In some power brake control valve system, debooster cylinders

are used in conjunction with the power brake control valves.

*/ Debooster units are generally used on aircraft equipped with a

high-pressure hydraulic system and low-pressure brakes.

*/ Brake debooster cylinders reduce the pressure to the brake and

increase the volume of fluid flow.

*/ Power boost systems are used on aircraft that land too fast to
employ the independent brake system, but are too light in weight
to require power brake control valves.

*/ In power boost brake system , a line in tapped off the main

hydraulic system pressure line , but main hydraulic system
pressure is used only to assist the pedals through the use of power
boost master cylinders.

*/ Brake assemblies commonly used on aircraft are the single-disk,

dual-disk, multiple- disk, segmented rotor, or expander tube

*/ The single-and dual-disk types are more commonly used on

small aircraft.

*/ The multiple-disk type is normally used on medium-sized aircraft.

*/ The segmented rotor and expander tube types are commonly

found on heavier aircraft.

focal point of airframe and structure 89

*/ With the single-disk brake, braking is accomplished by applying

friction to both sides of a rotating disk which is keyed to the
landing gear wheel.

*/ There are several variation of the single-disk brake.

*/ Brake housings may be either the one-piece or divided type.

*/ The brake housing is attached to the landing gear axle flange by

mounting bolts.

*/ Hydraulic pressure from the brake control unit enters the brake
cylinders and forces the pistons and their pucks against the
rotating disk.

*/ When brake pressure is released, the return springs force the

pistons back to provide a preset clearance between the pucks
and the disk.

*/ The piston moves away from the disk until it stops against the head
of the adjusting pin.

*/ Maintenance of the single-disk brake may include bleeding ,

performing operational checks, checking lining wear, checking
disk wear, and replacing worn lining and disks.

*/ A bleeder valve is provided on the brake housing for bleeding the

single-disk brake.

*/ Dual-disk brakes are used on aircraft when more braking friction is


*/ The dual-disk brake is very similar to the single-disk type, except

that two rotating disks instead of one are used.

*/ Multiple-disk brakes are heavy-duty brakes, designed for use

with power brake control valves or power boost master cylinders.

90 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ The multiple-disk brake consists of a bearing carrier, four
rotating disks called rotors, three stationary disks called stators,
and circular actuating cylinder, an automatic adjuster , and
various minor components.

*/ When the hydraulic pressure is relived, the retracting springs

force the actuating piston to retract in to the housing chamber in
the bearing carrier.

*/ Maintenance of the multiple-disk brake may include bleeding,

checking disk for wear, replacing disks, and performing
operational checks.

*/ Bleeder valves are provided, making it possible to bleed the brake in

any position.

*/ The disks are checked for wear using a gage equipped with a
movable slide, a stop pin, and an anvil.

*/ Segmented rotor brakes are heavy-dry brakes, especially adapted

for use with high-pressure hydraulic system.

*/ Segmented rotor brakes may be used with either power brake

control valves or power boost master cylinders.

*/ The segmented rotor brake is very similar to the multiple-disk

type described previously.

*/ The brake assembly consists of a carrier, two pistons and piston

cup seals, a pressure plate, a auxiliary stator plate, rotor
segments, stator plates, a compensating shim, automatic
adjusters, and a backing plate.

*/ The pressure plate is a flat, circular, no rotating plate, notched

on the inside diameter to fit over the stator drive sleeves.

*/ The backing plate is the final unit in the assembly and is a non-
rotating plate with brake linings riveted to one side.

focal point of airframe and structure 91

*/ The expander tube brake is a low-pressure brake with 360 Deg.

Of braking surface .

*/ The expander tube is made of neoprene reinforced with fabric,

and has a metal nozzle through which fluid enters and leaves the

*/ The brake blocks are made of special brake lining material.

*/ The brake return springs are semi-elliptical or half-moon in


*/ When checking for leaks, make sure the system is under

operating pressure.

*/ Check all flexible hoses carefully for swelling, cracking, or soft

spots, and replace if evidence of deterioration is noted.

*/ Air in the system is indicated by a spongy action of the brake


*/ There are two general methods of bleeding brake system-bleeding

from the top downward (gravity method) and bleeding from the
bottom upward (pressure method).

*/ In the gravity method, the air is expelled from the brake system
through one of the bleeder valves provided on the brake assembly.

*/ In the pressure method, the air is expelled through the brake

system reservoir or other specially provided location.

*/ Aircraft landing wheel are usually made from either aluminum or

magnesium alloys. Either of these materials provides a strong,
lightweight wheel, requiring very little maintenance.

*/ Wheel used on most aircraft are of two general types.

(1)-The divided type; (2)-The demountable flange type.

92 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ Many main landing gear wheels are of the demountable flange type.

*/ The purpose of the demountable flange is to simplify tire

removal and installation.

*/ The bearing races are usually shrink-fitted into the hub of the
wheel casting and provide the surfaces on which the bearing ride.

*/ The bearings are the tapered roller type.

*/ Each bearing is made up of a cone and the rollers.

*/ Anti-skid brake systems are designed to permit efficient braking

torque throughout the landing roll and to prevent skidding of the
wheel and tire blowout.

*/ The anti-skid system operates in conjunction with the brakes, and

is an automatic electro hydraulic type control functioning through
the regular braking system.

*/ Anti-skid protection is provided by controlling metered brake


*/ Skid detection is provided by electrical generators mounted in the

axles of the main landing gear and driven by the aircraft wheels.

*/ Some systems provide locked-wheel, fail-safe, and skid-recovery


*/ The locked-wheel feature automatically functions to release the

brakes if the brakes are actuated prior to touchdown.

*/ The skid-recovery feature functions when skid-inducing pressure

reaches the wheel brakes.

*/ An indicator light, mounted in the cockpit, indicates if the system is


focal point of airframe and structure 93

*/ A continuous light indicates system malfunction, and a flashing

light indicates proper operation.

*/ Periodically, wheel bearings must be removed, cleaned,

inspected, and lubricated.

*/ When cleaning a wheel bearing, use a suitable cleaning solvent.

(Leaded gasoline should not be used.

*/ Occasionally it becomes necessary to adjust the landing gear

switches, doors, linkages, latches, and locks to assure proper
operation of the landing gears and doors.

*/ The adjustment of latches are of prime concern to the airframe


*/ A latch is used in landing gear systems to hold a unit in a certain

position after the unit has traveled through a part of, or all of, its

*/ There are many variations in latch design. However, all latches are
designed to accomplish the same thing.

*/ Cables on the landing gear emergency extension system are

connected to the sector to permit emergency release of the latch

*/ With the gear up and the door latched, inspect the latch roller for
proper clearance.

*/ Landing gear doors have specific allowable clearances which

must be maintained between doors and the aircraft structure or
other landing gear doors.

*/ The distance the landing gear doors open or close depends upon
the length of door linkage and the adjustment of the door stops.

94 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ The landing gear side brace consists of an upper and lower link,
hinged at the center to permit the brace to jackknife during
retraction of the landing gear.

*/ A locking link is incorporated between the upper end of the shock

strut and the lower drag link.

*/ There are several occasions when a retraction check should be


First; A retraction check should be performed during an annual

inspection of the landing gear system.

Second; When performing maintenance that might affect the

landing gear linkage or adjustment, such as changing an
actuator, make a retraction check to see whether everything is
connected and adjusted properly.

Third; It may be necessary to make a retraction check after a

hard or overweight landing has been made which may have
damaged the landing gear.

focal point of airframe and structure 95

*/ There are three type of flames commonly used for welding. These
are Neutral, Reducing or Carburizing , and Oxidizing.

*/ The neutral flame is produced by burning acetylene with oxygen in

such proportions as to oxidize all particles of carbon and hydrogen
in the acetylene.

*/ To obtain a neutral flame, gradually open the oxygen valve. This

shortens the acetylene flame and causes a feather to appear in
the flame envelope.

*/ To obtain a reducing flame, or carburizing, first adjust the flame

to neutral; then open the acetylene valve slightly to produce a white
streamer or feather of acetylene at the end of the inner cone.

*/ An oxidizing flame contains an excess of oxygen, which is the

result of too much oxygen passing through the torch.

*/ To obtain the oxidizing flame, first adjust the flame to neutral; the
increase the flow of oxygen until the inner cone is shortened by
about one-tenth of its length. The oxidizing flame has a pointed
inner cone.

*/ With each size of tip, a neutral , oxidizing or carburizing flame can

be obtained. It is also possible to obtain a harsh or soft flame
by increasing or decreasing the pressure of both gasses.

*/ Improper adjustment or handling of the torch may cause the flame to

backfire or, in very rare cases, to flashback .

96 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ A backfire may be causes by touching the tip against the work, by
overheating the tip, by operating the torch at other than
recommended pressures, by a loose tip or head, or by dirt or slag
in the end of the tip.

*/ A backfire is rarely dangerous, but the molten metal may be

splattered when the flame pops.

*/ A flashback is the burning of the gases within the torch and is


*/ Flashback is usually caused by loose connections, improper

pressures, or overheating of the torch.

Characteristics of a Good Weld;

*/ A completed weld should have the following characteristics:

(1) The seam should be smooth, the bead ripples evenly spaced,
and a uniform thickness.

(2) The weld should be built up, thus providing extra thickness at
the joint.

(3) The weld should be taper off smoothly into the base metal.

(4) No oxide should be formed on the base metal close to the weld.

(5) The weld should be show no signs of blowholes, porosity, or

projecting globules.

(6) The base metal should show no signs of burns, pits, cracks, or

*/ The weldable aluminum alloys used in aircraft construction are

1100, 3003, 4043, and 5052.

focal point of airframe and structure 97

*/ Never preheat aluminum alloys to a temperature higher than 800

deg. F. because the heat may melt some of the alloys and burn the

*/ Many aircraft parts are constructed of magnesium because of its

light weight, strength, and excellent machinability.

*/ Tow rod techniques are recommended for the welding of


1- One method requires that the filler rod be kept in the puddle at
all times.

2- The other method is the same as that used in welding aluminum.

*/ Brazing refers to group of metal-joining processes in which the

bonding material is a nonferrous metal or alloy with a melting point
higher than 800 deg F., but is lower than that of the metals being

*/ Brazing requires less heat than welding and can be used to join
metals that are damaged by high heat.

*/ A neutral flame is used for most brazing application.

*/ The principal of silver solder in aircraft work is in the fabrication of

high-pressure oxygen lines and other parts which must withstand
vibration and high temperatures.

*/ The joint must be physically clean, which means it must be free of

all dirt, grease, oil, and/or paint and also chemically clean.

*/ There are three type of joints for silver soldering:

Flanged joint, Lap joint, and edge joint.

*/ If a lap joint is used, the amount of lap should be determined

according to the strength needed in the joint.

98 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ Soft soldering is used chiefly for copper ,brass and coated iron in
combination with mechanical seams; that is seams that are riveted,
bolted, or folded.

*/ Soft soldering is also used where a leak proof joint is desired, and
sometimes for fitting joints to promote rigidity and prevent

*/ Soft soldering is generally performed only in very minor repair jobs.

*/ A soft soldering copper (called a soldering iron if it is electrically

heated is the tool used in soldering.

*/ Soft solders are chiefly alloys of tin and lead.

*/ Before starting to weld, the following typical list of items should be


(1) Is the machine in good working order?

(2) Have all connections been properly made?

Will the ground connection make good contact?

(3) Has the proper type and size electrode been selected
for the job?

(4) Is the electrode properly secured in the holder?

(5) Has sufficient protective clothing been provided, and is it in

good condition?

(6) Is the work metal clean?

(7) Dose the polarity of the machine coincide with that of the

(8) Is the machine adjusted to provide the necessary current for

striking the arc?

focal point of airframe and structure 99

*/ There are two essentially similar methods of striking the arc. The
first is a touch method, and the second is a scratch method.

*/ When using the touch method, the electrode should be held in a

vertical position, and lowered until it is an inch or so above the
point where the arc is to be struck.

*/ To strike the arc by the scratch method, the electrode is moved

downward until it is just above the plate and at an angle of 20Deg.
To 25Deg.

*/ Every particle of slag must be removed from the vicinity of the

crater before re-starting the arc this prevents the slag from
becoming trapped in the weld.

*/ There are four types welds commonly used in flat position welding .
They are:

1) the bead, 2)The groove,

3) The fillet, 4) The lap joint welds.

*/ Bead welds can be made by holding a short arc and welding in a

straight line at a constant speed with the electrode inclined 5 Deg.
To 15 Deg. In the direction of welding .

*/ Some of the characteristics of good bead welds are as follows:

1) They should leave very little spatter on the surface of the plate.
2) The arc crater, or depression, in the bead when the arc has been
broken should be approximately 1/16 in. deep.

3) The depth of the crater at the end of the bead can be used as a
measure of penetration into the base metal.

4)The bead weld should be built up slightly, without any weld

metal overlap at the top surface, which would indicate poor fusion.

100 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ Groove welding (Butt joint) be executed in either a butt joint or an
outside corner joint.

*/ Groove welds are made on butt joints where the metal to be welded
is 1/4 in. or more in thickness.

*/ Groove welds can be classified as either single groove or double


*/ Double- groove welds are welded from both sides. This type of weld
is used primarily on heavy metals to minimize distortion.

*/ Any groove weld made in more than one pass must have the slag,
spatter, and oxide carefully removed from all previous weld
deposits before welding over them.

*/ Fillet welds are used to make tee and lap joints. In welding tee
joints in the flat position, the two plates are placed to from an angle
of 90 Deg. between their surfaces.

*/ The procedure for making the lap joint fillet weld is similar to that
used for making the fillet weld in a tee joint. The electrode should
be held at angle of 30Deg to the vertical.

focal point of airframe and structure 101

*/ Rain , snow, and ice transportations ancient enemies . Flying has
added a new dimension, particularly with respect to ice.

*/ The tow types of ice encountered during flight are rime and glaze.

* / Rime ice forms a rough surface on the aircraft leading edges. It is

rough because the temperature of the air is very low and freezes the
water before it has time to spread.

* / Glaze ice forms a smooth, thick coating over the leading edges of
the aircraft.

*/ When the temperature is just slightly below freezing, the water has
more to flow before it freezes.
*/ Several means to prevent or control ice formation are used in aircraft
(1) Heating surfaces using hot air,
(2) Heating by electrical elements,
(3)Breaking up ice formations, usually by inflatable
(4) Alcohol spray.
*/ A surface may be anti-iced by keeping it dry by heatingto a
temperature that evaporates water upon impingement; or by heating
the surface just enough to prevent freezing.
*/ The following parts of an aircraft can be affected by the formation of
(1) Leading edges of the wing .
(2) Leading edges of the vertical and horizontal stabilizers.
(3) Windshields, windows, and radomes.
(4) Heater and engine air inlets.

102 focal point of airframe and structure

(5) Stall warning transmitters.
(6) Pitot tubes.
(7) Flight controls.
(8) Propeller blade leading edges.
(9) Carburetors.
(10) Lavatory drains.

*/ An exception is carburetor icing which can occur during warm

weather with no visible moisture present.

*/ If ice is allowed to accumulate on the wing and empennage leading

edges, it destroys the lift characteristics of the airfoil.

*/ Ice on an aircraft affects its performance and efficiency in many


*/ Ice buildup increases drag and reduces lift.

*/ The methods used to prevent icing (anti-icing) or to eliminate ice

that has formed (deicing) vary with the aircraft make and model.

*/ Pneumatic deicing systems use rubber deicers, called boots or

shoes, attached to the leading edge of wing and stabilizers.

*/ The deicers are composed of a series of inflatable tubes.

*/ Deicer tubes are inflated by an engine-driven air pump (vacuum

pump) , or by air bled gas turbine engine compressors.

*/ The inflation sequence is controlled by either a centrally located

distributor valve or by solenoid operated valves located adjacent
to the deicer air inlets.

*/ Deicers are installed in sections along the wing with the different
sections operating alternately and symmetrically about the fuselage.

focal point of airframe and structure 103

*/ Deicer boots are made of soft, pliable rubber or rubberized fabric

and contain tubular air cells.

*/ Deicer boots are attached to the leading edge of wing and tail
surfaces with cement or fairing strips and screws, or combination
of both.

*/ Deicer boots which are secured to the surface with fairing strips and
screws or combination of fairing strips, screws, and cement have
a bead and bead wire on each on each lengthwise edge.

*/ The newer type deicer boots are completely bonded to the surface
with cement.

*/ The deicer boot air cells are connected to system pressure and
vacuum lines by nonkinking flexible hose.

*/ In addition to the deicer boots, the major components of a

representative pneumatic deicing system are a source of
pressurized air, an oil separator, air pressure and suction relief
valves, a pressure regulator and shutoff valve, an inflation
timer, and a distributor valve or a control valve.

*/ The air pressure and suction relief valve and regulators maintain
the pneumatic system pressure and suction at the desired settings.

*/ When the deicing system is operated, the deicer port in the

distributor valve is closed to vacuum and system operating
pressure is applied to the deicers connected to the port.

*/ When the air flowing from the deicers reaches a low pressure
(approximately 1 p.s.i.), the exhaust port is closed.

*/ If the system is turned off, the system timer automatically returns

to its starting position.

*/ A pneumatic deicing that uses an engine driven pump.

104 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ The deice boots are arranged in sections. The right-hand wing boots
include tow section:

(1) An inboard section, (2) An outboard section.

*/ When the pneumatic deicing system is on, pressure or suction is

applied by either or both engine-driven air (vacuum) pumps.

*/ The suction side of each pump is connected to the suction


*/ The pressure side of each pump is connected through a pressure

relief valve to the pressure manifold.

*/ The pressurized air then passes to the primary oil separator.

*/ The oil separator removes any oil from the air.

*/When using the dry type of pump, oil, grease, or

degreasing fluids must be prevented from entering the

*/ An air pressure safety valve is installed on the pressure side of

some types of engine-driven air pumps.

*/ An oil separator is provided for each wet-type air pump.

*/ Each separator has an air inlet port, an air outlet port, and an oil
drain line which is routed back to the engine oil sump.

*/ The oil separator removes approximately 75% of the oil from the

*/ The combination regulator, unloading valve, and oil separator

consists of a diaphragm-controlled, spring-loaded unloading
valve, on oil filter and drain.

focal point of airframe and structure 105

*/ The combination unit has three function:

(1)To remove all residual oil left in the air by the primary oil
separator before it enters the pressure manifold;

(2) To control, direct, and regulate air pressure in the system;

(3) To discharge air to the atmosphere when the deicer system

is not in use, thereby allowing the air pump to operate at no
pressure load.

*/ An adjustable suction regulating valve is installed in each engine


*/ the deicer system suction is increased by turning the adjusting

screw counter clockwise and decreased by turning it clockwise.

*/ The solenoid distributor valve is normally located near the group

of deicer boots which it serves.

*/ The distributor valve normally allows suction to be supplied to the

boots for hold-down in flight.

*/ When the solenoid in the distributor valve is energized by the

electronic timer cycle control, it moves a servo valve, changing
the inlet to that section of the boot from suction to pressure.

*/ When the solenoid is de-energized, the air flow through the valve is
cut off.

*/ An electronic timer is used to control the operating sequence and

the time intervals of the deicing system.

*/ When the deicing system is turned on, the electronic timer

energizes a solenoid in the unloading valve.

*/ Maintenance on pneumatic deicing systems varies with each

aircraft model.

106 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ Depending on the aircraft or , maintenance usually consists of
operational checks, adjustments, troubleshooting, and

*/ An operational check of the system can be made by operating the

aircraft engines, or by using an external source of air.

*/ A pressure relief valve acts as a safety device to relive excess

pressure in the event of regulator valve failure.

*/ Vacuum relief valves are installed in a system that uses a vacuum

pump to maintain constant suction during varying vacuum pump

*/ During each preflight and scheduled inspection, check the deicer

boots for cuts, tears, deterioration, punctures, and security.

*/ The life of the deicers can be greatly by storing them when they are
not needed and by observing these rules when they are in service:

(1) Do not drag gasoline hoses over the deicers.

(2) Keep deicers free of gasoline, oil, grease, dirt and other
deteriorating substances.

(3) Do not lay tools on or lean maintenance equipment against

the deicers.

(4) Promptly repair or re-surface the deicers when abrasion or

deterioration is noted.

(5)Wrap the deicer in paper or canvas when storing it.

*/ Thermal system used for the purpose of preventing the formation of

ice or for deicing airfoil leading edges, usually use heated air
ducted span wise along the inside of the leading edge of the airfoil
and distributed around its inner surface.

focal point of airframe and structure 107

*/ Electrically heated elements are also used for anti-icing and deicing
airfoil leading edges.

*/ There are several methods used to provide heated air. These include
bleeding hot air from the turbine compressor, engine exhaust
heat exchangers, and ram air heated by a combustion heater.

*/ The system incorporated in some aircraft include an automatic

temperature control.

*/ A system of valves is provided in some installation to enable certain

parts of the anti-icing system to be shut off.

*/ the portions of the airfoils which must be protected from ice

formation are usually provided with a closely spaced double skin.

*/ Another heater is located in the tail area to provide hot air for
leading edges of the vertical and horizontal stabilizers.

*/ Anti-icing systems using combustion heaters usually have a

separate system for each wing and the empennage.

*/ The anti-icing system is automatically controlled by overheat

switches, thermal cycling switches, a balance control, and a dual
pressure safety switch.

*/ Anti-icing of the wing and tail leading edges is accomplished by a

controlled flow of heated air from heat muffs around a
reciprocating engines tail pipe .

*/ During single engine operation, a crossover duct system

interconnects the left and right wing leading edge ducts.

*/ Heated air for anti-icing is obtained by bleeding air from the engine

108 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ The hot bleed air is mixed with ambient air. The resultant mixed
air at approximately 350 Deg. Of F. flows through passages next
to the leading edge skin.

*/ The temperature indicator for each anti-icing section is located on

the anti-icing control panel.

*/ The jointed sections of ducting are hermetically sealed by sealing

rings .

*/ Air leaks can often be detected audibly, and are sometimes revealed
by holes in the lagging or thermal insulation material.

*/ If difficulty arises in locating leaks, a soap and water solution may

be used.

*/ Any deposits of ice, snow, or frost on the external surfaces of an

aircraft may drastically affect its performance. This may be due to
reduced aerodynamic lift and increased aerodynamic drag.

*/ The operation of an aircraft may also seriously affected by the

freezing of moisture in controls, hinges, valves, micro switches,
or by the ingestion of ice into the engine.

*/ Frost deposits can be removed by placing the aircraft in a warm

hanger or by using a frost remover or deicing fluid.

*/ The fluids normally contain ethylene glycol and isopropyl alcohol.

*/ Moderate or heavy ice and residual snow deposits should be

removed with a deicing fluid.

*/ in order to keep window areas free of ice, frost, etc., window anti-
icing , deicing, defogging, and demisting systems are used.

*/ One of the more common methods for controlling ice formation

and fog on modern aircraft windows is the use of a an electrical
heating element built into the window.

focal point of airframe and structure 109

*/ On some aircraft, thermal electric switches automatically turn the

system on when the air temperature is low enough for icing or
frosting to occur.

*/ thermal over heat switch automatically turn the systems off in case
of an overheating condition which could damage the transparent

*/ An electrically heated windshield system clouds:

(1) Windshield autotransformers and heat control relays.

(2) Heat control toggle switches. (3) Indicating light.

(4) Windshield control unites. (5) Temperature- sensing

elements (thermostats) laminated in the panel.

*/ The window defrost system directs heated air from the cabin
heating system to the pilots and copilots windshield and side
windows by means of a series of ducts and outlets.

*/ An alcohol deicing system is provided on some aircraft to remove

ice from the windshield and the carburetor.

*/ Fluid from the alcohol supply tank is controlled by a solenoid valve

which is energized when any of the alcohol pumps are on.

*/ To prevent the formation of ice over opening in the pilot tube, a

built-in electric heating element is provided.

*/ Heaters are provided for toilet drain lines, water lines, drain
masts, and waste water drains when they are located in an area
that is subjected to freezing temperatures in flight.

*/ The type of heaters used are integrally heated hoses, ribbon,

blanket, or patch heaters that wrap around the lines, and gasket

110 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ When rain forms on a windshield during flight, it becomes a
hazard and must be eliminated .To provide a clear windshield,
rain is eliminated by wiping it off or blowing.

*/ A third method of rain removal involves chemical rain repellants:

(1) Rain is blown from the windshield of some aircraft by air

from jet nozzles located beneath the windshield.

(2) On other aircraft, windshield wipers are used to eliminate

the rain.

(3) The windshield wipers of an aircraft accomplish the same

function as those of an automobile.

*/ In an electrical windshield wiper system, the wiper blades are

driven by an electric motor(s) which receive(s) power from the
aircrafts electrical system.

*/ Hydraulic windshield wipers are by pressure from the aircrafts

main hydraulic system.

*/ Windshield wipers characteristically have two basic problem areas.

(1) one is the tendency of the slipstream aerodynamic forces to

reduce the wiper blade loading pressure on the window.

(2) The other is in achieving fast enough wiper oscillation to

keep up with high rain impingement rates during heavy rain

*/ A rain repellant system permits application of the chemical

repellant by a switch or push button in the cockpit.

*/ The rain repellant system should not be operated on dry

windows because heavy undiluted repellant will restrict window

focal point of airframe and structure 111

*/ Hydraulic system liquids are used primarily transmit and distribute
forces to various units to be actuated.

*/ One of the most important properties of any hydraulic fluid is its


*/ Viscosity is internal resistance to flow.

*/ The viscosity of a liquid is measured with a viscosimeter or

viscometer. There are several types.

*/ Chemical stability is another property which is exceedingly

important in selecting a hydraulic liquid.

*/ There are three types of hydraulic fluids currently being used in

civil aircraft.

(1)Vegetable oil base fluid- Vegetable base hydraulic fluid(MIL

H 7644) is composed essentially of castor oil and alcohol. This
fluid has an easily recognized pungent odor suggestive of its
alcohol content.

112 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ Aircraft type vegetable base hydraulic fluid generally dyed blue
for identification.

(2)Mineral base fluid-Mineral base hydraulic fluid (MIL -0-

5606) is processed from petroleum and dyed red for

*/ The seals used with petroleum base fluid may be synthetic

rubber, leather, or metal composition.

(3) Phosphate ester base fluid- Phosphate ester base hydraulic

fluid (MIL-H-8446) is a synthetic fluid developed for its fire-
resistant properties.

*/ In appearance, phosphate ester base fluids can be distinguished by

their color, which varies with the type.

For example: Skydrol 7000 is light green, Skydrol 500 is blue, and
Skydrol 500A and 500B are light purple.

*/ Butyl rubber seals are used with phosphate ester base fluids.

*/ Experience has shown that trouble in a hydraulic system is inevitable

whenever the liquid is allowed to become contaminated.

*/ Tow general contaminations are:

(1) Abrasives, including such particles as core sand, weld

spatter, machining chips, and rust.

(2) Nonabrasive, including those resulting from oil oxidation,

and soft particles worn or shredded from seals and other
organic components.

*/ Filters provide adequate control of the contamination problem

during all normal hydraulic system operations.

focal point of airframe and structure 113

*/ As an aid in controlling contamination, the following maintenance

and servicing procedures should be followed at all times:

(1) Maintain all tools and the work area (workbenches and test
equipment) in a clean, dirt-free condition.

(2) A suitable container should always be provided to receive the

hydraulic liquid that is spilled during component removal or
disassembly procedures.

(3) Before disconnecting hydraulic lines or fittings, clean the

affected area with dry cleaning solvent.

(4) All hydraulic lines and fitting should capped or plugged

immediately after disconnecting.

(5) Before assembly of any hydraulic components, wash all parts in

an approved dry cleaning solvent.

(6) After cleaning the parts in the dry cleaning solution, dry the
parts thoroughly and lubricate them with the recommended
preservative or hydraulic liquid before assembly. Use only clean,
line-free cloths to wipe or dry the component parts.

(7) All seals and gaskets should be replaced during the re-assembly
procedure. Use only those seals and gaskets recommended by the

(8) All parts should be connected with care to avoid stripping metal
slivers from threaded areas. All fitting and linens should be
installed and torque in accordance with applicable technical

(9) All hydraulic servicing equipment should be clean and in good

operating condition.

*/ The filters in most hydraulic systems are designed to remove most

foreign particles that are to the naked eye.

114 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ Visual inspection of the hydraulic liquid dose not determine the
total amount of contamination in the system.

*/ Basic hydraulic system with power pump and other hydraulic

components are:

1- Reservoir, 2- Power pump,

3- Filter, 4- Pressure regulator,

5- Accumulator, 6-Check valves,

7- Hand pump , 8- Pressure gage,

9- Relief valve, 10-Selector valve,

11- Actuating unit.

*/ The first of the basic components, the reservoir, stores the supply of
hydraulic fluid for operation of the system.

*/ There are two types of reservoirs and they are:

(1) In-line _ this type has its own housing, is complete within itself,
and is connected with other components in a system by tubing or

(2) Integral_ this type has no housing of its own but is merely a
space set aside within some major component to hold a supply of
operational fluid.

*/ Reservoirs are either vented to the atmosphere or closed to the

atmosphere and pressurized.

*/ There are several methods of pressurizing a reservoir. Some

system use air pressure directly from the aircraft cabin
pressurization system ; or from the engine compressor in the case
of turbine-powered aircraft.

focal point of airframe and structure 115

*/ Another method used is an aspirator or venture-tee.

*/ Usually air coming directly from the engine is at pressure of

approximately 100 p.s.i. this pressure is reduced to between 5 and
15 p.s.i. , depending upon the type of hydraulic system. , by using
an air pressure regulator.

*/ Many reservoirs incorporate strainers in the filler neck to prevent

the entry of foreign matter during servicing.

*/ Strainers are made of fine mesh screening and are usually referred
to as finger strainers because of their shape.

*/ Some reservoirs incorporate filter element.

*/ A vent filter element, when used, is located in the upper part of the
reservoir, above the fluid level.

*/ A fluid filter element, when used , is located at or near the bottom

of the reservoir.

*/ Reservoirs with filter elements incorporate a bypass valve normally

held closed by a spring.

*/ A clogged filter causes a partial vacuum to develop and the spring-

loaded bypass valve opens.

*/ The filter element most commonly used in reservoirs is the

Micronics type.

*/ Some aircraft have emergency hydraulic systems that take over if

main systems fail.

*/ A pump is necessary to create a flow of fluid.

*/ The filter removes foreign particles from the hydraulic fluid,

preventing dust, grit, or other undesirable matter from entering
the system.

116 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ The pressure regulator unloads or relives the power-driven pump
when the desired pressure in the system is reached.

*/ Many hydraulic systems do not use a pressure regulator, but

have other means of unloading the pump and maintaining the
desired pressure in the system.

*/ The accumulator serves a twofold purpose:

(1) It acts as a cushion or shock absorber by maintaining an even

pressure in the system.

(2) It stores enough fluid under pressure to provide for emergency

operation of certain actuating units.

*/ The check valves allow the flow of the fluid in one direction only,
check valves are installed at various point in the lines of all aircraft
hydraulic system.

*/ Check valves For hydraulic components and systems to operate as

intended, the flow of fluid must be rigidly controlled.

*/ The other prevents hand- pump pressure from being directed to the

*/ The pressure gage indicates the amount of hydraulic pressure in the


*/ The relief valve is a safety valve installed in the system to bypass

fluid through the valve back to the reservoir in case excessive
pressure is built up in the system.

*/ There are two types of in-line check valves, the simple type in-
line check valve and the orifice-type in-line check valve.

*/ The simple-type in-line check valve (often called check valve) is

used when a full flow of fluid is desired in only one direction.

focal point of airframe and structure 117

*/ The orifice- type in-line check valve is used to allow normal

operating speed of a mechanism by providing free flow of fluid in
one direction, while allowing limited operating speed through
restricted flow of fluid in the opposite direction.

*/ The operation of the orifice in-line check valve is the same as the
simple-type in-line check valve, except for the restricted flow
allowed when closed.

*/ Orifice type of valve is sometimes called a damping valve.

*/ On the simple-type in-line check valve, a single arrow point in the

direction which fluid can flow.

*/ In addition to the ball-type in-line check valves ,other types of

valves, such as disks , needles, and poppets are used.

*/ The operation principles of integral check valves are the same as

the operating principles of in-line check valves.

*/ The double-action hydraulic hand pump is used in some aircraft

and in a few newer system as a backup unit.

*/ Double-action hand pumps produce fluid flow and pressure on

each stroke of the handle.

*/ Many of the Power driven hydraulic pumps of current aircraft are

of variable-delivery.

*/ A constant-deliver pump, regardless of pump r.p.m. forces a fixed

or unvarying quaintly of fluid through the outlet port during each
revolution the pump.

*/ Constant- delivery pump are sometimes called constant-volume or

fixed- delivery pumps .

*/ A variable- delivery pump has a fluid output that is varied to meet

the pressure demands of the system by varying its fluid output.

118 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ The variable-delivery pump output is changed automatically by a
pump compensator within the pump.

*/ A gear-type power pump , consists of two meshed gears that

revolve in a housing. The driving gear is driven by the aircraft
engine or some other power unit.

*/ A gerotor-type power pump consists essentially of a housing

containing an eccentric-shaped stationary liner, an internal gear
rotor having five wide teeth of short height, a spur driving gear
having four narrow teeth, and a pump cover which contains two
crescent-shaped opening.

*/ The vane-type power pump consists of a housing containing four

vanes (blades), a hollow steel rotor with slots for the vanes, and a
coupling to turn the rotor.

*/ The rotor is positioned off center within the sleeve.

*/ The shear section of the drive coupling, located midway between

the two sets of splines , is smaller in diameter than the splines.

*/ The term axial-piston pump is often used in referring to pumps

of this arrangement.

*/ All aircraft axial-piston pumps have an odd number of pistons

(5,7,9,11,etc.) .

*/ Cam-types pumps utilize a cam to cause stroking of the pistons.

*/ There are two variations of cam-type pumps;

(1) one in which the cam turns and the cylinder block is stationary,

(2) The other in which the cam is stationary and the cylinder block

focal point of airframe and structure 119

*/ A pressure relief valve is used to limit the amount of pressure being

exerted on a confined liquid.

*/ The design of pressure relief valves incorporates adjustable

spring-loaded valves.

*/ Pressure relief valves are adjusted by increasing or decreasing the

tension on the spring to determine the pressure required to open the

*/ Tow general forms of pressure relief valves, the two-ports and the
four-port .

*/ The general purpose and operation of all pressure relief valves

are the same.

*/ The most common types of valve are:

(1) Ball-type. In pressure relief valves with a ball-type valving

device, the ball rests on a contoured seat.

(2) Sleeve-type. In pressure relief valves with a sleeve-type valving

device, the ball remains stationary and a sleeve-type seat is moved
up by the fluid pressure.

(3) Poppet type. In pressure relief valves with a poppet type

valving device, a cone shaped poppet may have any of several
design configurations.

*/ Pressure relief valves cannot be used as pressure regulators in large

hydraulic systems that depend upon engine-driven pumps for the
primary source of pressure because the pump is constantly under

120 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ Pressure relief valves maybe used as:

(1)- System relief valve. The most common use of the pressure
relief valve is as a safety device against the possible failure of a
pump compensator or other pressure regulating device.

(2)- Thermal relief valve. The pressure relief valve is used to

relieve excessive pressures that may exit due to thermal expansion
of the fluid.

*/ All hydraulic systems which have hydraulic pumps incorporate

pressure relief valves as safety devices.

*/ The term pressure regulator is applied to device used in

hydraulic system that are pressurized by constant-delivery type

*/ One purpose of the pressure regulator is to manage the output of

the pump to maintain system operating pressure within a
predetermined range.

*/ The other purpose is to permit the pump to turn without resistance

(termed unloading the pump) at time when pressure in the
system is within normal operating range.

*/ The combination of a constant-delivery type pump and the pressure

regulator is virtually the equivalent of a compensator-controlled,
variable-delivery type pump.

*/ Actuating cylinder transforms energy in the form of fluid pressure

into mechanical force, or action, to perform work.

*/ A typical actuating consists fundamentally of a cylinder housing,

one or more pistons and piston rods, and some seals.

*/ Seals are used to prevent leakage between the piston and the
cylinder bore, and between the piston rod and the end of the

focal point of airframe and structure 121

*/ Actuating cylinders are of two major types:

(1) Single- action.

(2) Double-action.

*/ The single-action (single port) actuating cylinder is capable of

producing powered movement in one direction only .

*/ The double- action (two port) actuating cylinder is capable of

producing powered movement in two directions.

*/ A three-way control valve is normally used for controlling the

operation of a single-action actuating.

*/ The operation of a double-action actuating cylinder is usually

controlled by a four-way selector valve.

*/ Selector valves are used to control the direction of movement of an

actuating unit.

*/ A selector valve provides a pathway for the simultaneous flow of

hydraulic fluid into and out of a connected actuating unit.

*/ One port of the typical selector valve is connected with a system

pressure line for the input of fluid pressure.

*/ A second port of the valve is connected to a system return line for

the return of fluid to the reservoir.

*/ Selector valves have various numbers of ports.

*/ The number of ports is determined by the particular requirements

of the system in which the valve is used.

*/ The term four-way is often used instead of four-port in referring

to selector valves.

122 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ The most commonly used markings are:

PRESSURE (or PRESS, or P), RETURN (or RET, or R),

CYLINDER 1(or CYL 1) , CYLINDER 2 (or CYL 2).

*/ The PESS port and CYL 1 port become interconnected within

the valve.

*/ Fluid flows from the pump into the selector valve PRESS port, out
of the selector valve CYL 1 port, and into port A of the motor.

*/ Return fluid is forced out of port B of the motor and enters the
selector valve CYL 2 port.

*/ Fluid then proceeds through the passage in the valve rotor and
leaves the valve through the RET port.

*/ Some aircraft manufactures equip their aircraft with a pneumatic


*/ Pneumatic systems are sometimes used for:

(1) Brakes.

(2) Operating and closing doors.

(3) Driving hydraulic pumps, alternators, starters, water

injection pump, etc.

(4) Operating emergency devices.

*/ Both pneumatic and hydraulic systems are similar units and use
confined fluids.

*/ On some aircraft, permanently installed air compressors have been

added to re-charge air bottles whenever pressure is used for
operating a unit.

focal point of airframe and structure 123

*/ Several types of compressors are used for this purpose.

*/ A medium-pressure pneumatic system (100-150 p.s.i.) usually

dose not include an air bottle.

*/ It generally draws air from a jet engine compressor section.

*/ Many aircraft equipped with reciprocating engine obtain a supply of

low-pressure air from vans-type pumps.

*/ Pneumatic systems do not utilize reservoirs, hand pumps,

accumulators, regulators, or engine-driven or electrically-
driven power pumps for building normal pressure. But
similarities do exist in some components.

*/ Control valves are also a necessary part of a typical pneumatic


*/ The control valve consists of a three-port housing, two poppet

valves, and a control lever with two lobes.

*/ Check valves are used in booth hydraulic and pneumatic system.

*/ Restrictors are a type of control valve used pneumatic system.

*/ Another type of speed-regulating unit is variable restrictor.

*/ Depending on the direction turned, the needle valve moves the

sharp point either into or out of a small opening to decrease or
increase the size of the opening.

*/ Pneumatic systems are protected against dirt by means of various

types of filters.

*/ A Micronics filter consists of a housing with two ports a

replaceable cartridge and a relief valve.

124 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ If the cartridge becomes clogged with dirt, pressure forces the
relief valve open and allows unfiltered air to flow out the outlet

*/ If the main hydraulic braking system fails, power brakes are

usually equipped with some type of emergency pressurizing
system for stopping the aircraft.

*/ If the normal brake system fails, the control handle for the air
valve in the on position.

*/ The valve consists of a shuttle enclosed by a four-port housing.

*/ Normally, the shuttle is down, and in this position it seals off the
lower air port and directs hydraulic fluid from the upper port into
the two side ports.

*/ Lines for pneumatic systems consist of rigid metal tubing and

flexible rubber hose.

*/ A typical turbine-engine pneumatic power system supplies

compressed air for various normal and emergency actuating

*/ The moisture separator assembly is the pneumatic systems

pressure-sensing regulator and relief valve.

*/ A chemical drier further reduces the moisture content of the air

emerging from the moisture separator.

*/ A pressure transmitter senses and electrically transmits located in

the pneumatic pressure indicator located in the cockpit.

*/ The indicating system is an autosyn type that functions exactly

like the hydraulic indicating systems.

*/ An air-charge valve provides the entire pneumatic system with a

single external ground servicing point.

focal point of airframe and structure 125

*/ An air pressure gage, located near the air-charge valve is used in

servicing the pneumatic system.

*/ The pneumatic system air compressor inlet air is filtered through a

high-temperature filter.

*/ The moisture separator is the pneumatic power systems pressure-

sensing regulator and relief valve.

*/ The automatically operators oil/ moisture chamber by means of

a blast of air (3000 p.s.i. ) each time the compressor shuts down.

*/ The pressure switch control system pressurization by sensing the

system pressure between the check valve and relief-valve.

*/ The condensation dump valve solenoid is energized and de-

energized by the pressure switch.

*/ The filter protects the dump valve port from becoming clogged
and thus ensures proper sealing of the passage between the
reservoir and the dump port.

*/ The check valve protects the system against pressure loss during
the dumping cycle and prevents backflow through the separator
to the air compressor during the relief condition.

*/ The relief valve protects the system against over-pressurization

(thermal expansion).

*/ The pneumatic system should be purged periodically to remove

the contamination ,moisture, or oil from the components and

*/ If an excessive amount of foreign matter, particularly oil, is

exhausted from any one system, the lines and components should
be removed and cleaned or replaced.

126 focal point of airframe and structure

focal point of airframe and structure 127

*/ Fire is one of the most dangerous to an aircraft, the potential fire
zones of modern multi-engine aircraft are protected by a fixed
fire protection system.

*/ A fire zone is an area or region of an aircraft designated by the

manufacturer to require fire detection and /or fire extinguishing
equipment and a high degree of inherent fire resistance.

*/ A complete fire protection system on modern aircraft and on

many older model aircraft includes both a fire detection and a fire
extinguishing system.

*/ To detect fires or overheat conditions, detectors are placed in the

various zones to be monitored .

*/ Fires are detected in reciprocating engine aircraft using one or more

of the following:

(1) Overheat detectors.

(2) Rate-of-temperature-rise detectors.

(3) Flame detectors.

(4) Observation by crewmembers.

*/ Fire protection systems on modern aircraft do not rely on

observation by crewmembers a primary method of fire detection.

*/ Many older model aircraft still operating are equipped with some
type of thermal switch system or thermocouple system.

128 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ Three detector system in common use are thermal switch system,
thermocouple system, and continuous-loop detector system.

*/ A thermal switch system consists of one or more lights energized

by the aircraft power system and thermal switches that control
operation of the light(s) .

*/ The thermal switch system uses a bimetallic thermostat switch or

spot detector similar to that.

*/ Each detector unit consists of a bimetallic thermo- switch. Most

spot detectors are dual-terminal thermo-switches.

*/ The thermocouple fire warning system operates on a entirely

different principle than the thermal switch system.

*/ A thermocouple depends upon the rate of temperature rise and

will not give a warning when an engine slowly overheats or a
short circuit develops.

*/ The system consists of a relay box, warning lights, and


*/ The wiring system of these units may be divided into the:

(1) The detector circuit;

(2) The alarm circuit;

(3) The test circuit.

*/ The relay box contains two relays, the sensitive relay and the
slave relay, and the thermal test unit.

*/ The thermocouple is constructed of two dissimilar metals such as

chrome and constantan .

focal point of airframe and structure 129

*/ A continuous-loop detector or sensing system permits more

complete coverage of a fire hazard area than any type of spot-type
temperature detectors.

*/ Continuous-loop systems are versions of the thermal switch


*/ There is no rate-of-heat-rise sensitivity in a continuous-loop.

*/ Two widely used types of continuous-loop systems are the Kidde

and the Fenwal systems.

*/ In the Kidde continuous-loop system, two wires are imbedded in a

special ceramic core within an Inconel tube.

*/ One of the two wires in the Kidde sensing system is welded to the
case at each end and acts as an internal ground.

*/ The second wire is a hot lead (above ground potential) that provides
a current signal when the ceramic core material changes its
resistance a change in temperature.

*/ The beads in the Fenwal detector are wetted with a eutectic salt
which possesses the characteristic of suddenly lowering its
electrical resistance as the sensing element reaches its alarm

*/ The Kidde sensing elements are connected to a relay control unit.

*/ The Fenwal system uses a magnetic amplifier control unit.

*/ The Fenwal system is non-averaging but will sound an alarm when

any portion of its sensing element reaches the alarm temperature.

*/ The Lindberg fire detection system is a continuous-element type

detector consisting of a stainless steel tube containing a discrete

130 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ Overheat warning systems are used on some aircraft to indicate
high area temperatures that may lead to a fire.

*/ Afire test switch is used to heat the sensors, expanding the trapped.

*/ The pressure generated closes the diaphragm switch, activating

the warning system.

*/ In most system the detector is a type of thermal switch.

*/ The switch contacts of the detector are on spring struts, which

close wherever the meter case is expanded by heat.

*/ The fixed fire extinguishing systems used in most fire protection

systems are designed to dilute the atmosphere with an inter
agent that will not support combustion.

*/ A warning agent such as colored smoke is mixed with methyl


*/ Carbon dioxide (CO2). From a standpoint of toxicity and

corrosion hazards, carbon dioxide is the safest agent to use and
was for many years the most widely used agent.

*/ Chlorobromomethane (CH2 Cl Br). Chlorobromomethane

commonly referred to as CB is less toxic than CO2 and is
noncorrosive to aluminum, magnesium, steel, and brass.

*/ Dibromodifluoromethane (C Br2 F2). Dibromodifluoromethane is

noncorrosive to aluminum, brass, and steel and is less toxic
than CO2.

*/ Trifluorobromomethane s(CF3 Br). Trifluorobromomethane is

basically nontoxic.

*/ CO2 fire extinguisher system is one of the earliest types of fire

extinguisher systems for transport aircraft and is still used on
many older aircraft.

focal point of airframe and structure 131

*/ A more sophisticated type of CO2 fire protection system is used

on many four-engine aircraft.

*/ The various warning systems operate fire warning lights on the

cockpit fire control panels and also energize a cockpit warning

*/ The complete aircraft fire protection system of most large turbine

engine aircraft will incorporate several of these different detection

(1) Rate-of- temperature-rise detectors.

(2) Radiation sensing detectors.

(3) Smoke detectors.

(4) Overheat detectors.

(5) Carbon monoxide detectors.

(6) Combustible mixture detectors.

(7) Fiber-optic detectors.

(8) Observation of crew or passengers.

*/ The three types of detectors most commonly used for fast detection
of fires are the rate-of-rise, radiation sensing, and overheat

*/ The fire protection system of most large turbine engine aircraft

consists of two subsystems:

(1) A fire detection system;

(2) Afire extinguishing system.

132 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ The warning devices normally include a warning light in the
cockpit for each circuit and a common alarm bell used with all
such circuits.

*/ The warning devices for engine and nacelle fires and overheat
conditions are located in the cockpit .

*/ A fire warning light for each engine is usually located in a special

fire switch handle on the instrument panel. Light shield, or fire
control panel.

*/ Each transfer switch has two position : TRANS and


focal point of airframe and structure 133

*/ Oxygen is essential for living processes without oxygen, and other
animals die very rapidly.

*/ The sluggish condition of mind and body caused by a deficiency or

lack of oxygen is called hypoxia.

*/ There are several causes of hypoxia , but the one which concerns
aircraft operations is the decrease in partial pressure of the oxygen
in the lungs.

*/ The pressure that oxygen exerts is about one-fifth of the total air
pressure at any one given level.

*/ At sea level, this pressure value (3p.s.i.) is sufficient to saturate

the blood.

*/ From sea level to 7000 ft. above sea level, the oxygen content and
pressure in the atmosphere remain sufficiently high to maintain
almost full saturation of the blood with oxygen and thus ensure
normal body and mental functions.

*/ At high altitude there is decreased barometric pressure, resulting

in decreased oxygen content of the inhaled air.

*/ At 10000 ft. above sea level oxygen saturation of the blood is

about 90% .

*/ Oxygen saturation drops to 81% at 15000 ft. above sea level.

134 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ At 22000 ft. above sea level the blood saturation is68 % and
convulsions are likely to occur.

*/ Remaining without an oxygen supply at 25000 ft. for 5 minutes

where the blood saturation is down to 55 to 50 % will cause

*/ The mixture of gasses commonly called air but more technically

termed atmosphere is composed principally of nitrogen and
oxygen, but there are smaller quantities of other important gases,
notable carbon dioxide, water vapor, and ozone.

*/ As the altitude increases, the total quantity of all the atmospheric

gases reduces rapidly, and except for water vapor and ozone, the
relative proportions of the gaseous mixture remain unchanged.

*/ Above 50 miles altitude, change do take place, and different gases

and new forms of the gases present at lower altitudes appear.

*/ Nitrogen is the most common gas and comprises 78% of the total
mixture of atmospheric gases.

*/ Oxygen and its importance cannot be overestimated.

*/ Without oxygen life as we know it cannot exist.

*/ Oxygen occupies 21% of the total mixture of atmospheric gases.

*/ Carbon dioxide is of biological interest.

*/ Carbon dioxide also helps in the control of breathing in man and

other animals.

*/ Water vapor in the atmosphere is variable, but even under the moist
conditions at sea level, it rarely exceeds 5%.

focal point of airframe and structure 135

*/ Vapor is not the only from in which water occurs in the atmosphere;
water and ice particles are nearly always present. These ice
particles also absorb energy and, with water vapor.

*/ Ozone is a variety of oxygen which contains three atoms of oxygen

per molecule rather than the usual two.

*/ The major portion of the ozone in the atmosphere is formed by the

interaction of oxygen and the suns rays near the top of the ozone

*/ Ozone is important to living organisms because it filters out most of

the suns ultraviolet radiation.

*/ Ozone is of great consequence to both living creatures on earth and

to the circulation of the upper atmosphere.

*/ The weight of a column of air stretching from the surface of the

earth out into space is called the atmospheric pressure.

*/The atmospheric pressure at sea level is normally 1013.2millibars,

or 29.92 inch Hg.

*/ The atmospheric pressure decreases with increasing altitude.

*/ The decrease in pressure is a rapid one, and at 50000 feet the

atmospheric pressure has dropped to almost one-tenth of the sea
level value.

*/ At high altitudes the atmospheric temperature is not so variable

but tends to have a more set pattern.

*/ The atmosphere as being made up of several layers.

*/ The lowest of these is called the troposphere.

*/ The top of the troposphere is called the tropopause.

136 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ The tropopause reaches its greatest height over the equator (about
60000 ft.) and its lowest height over the poles (about 30000ft.).

*/ The tropopause marks the point at which air temperature stops

decreasing with increasing altitude, and remains essentially

*/ When an aircraft is flown at a altitude, it burns less for a given

airspeed than it dose for the same speed at a lower altitude.

*/ The airplane is more efficient at a high altitude.

*/ A cabin pressurization system must accomplish several functions

if it is to assure adequate passenger comfort and safety.

*/ Cabin pressurization system must be capable of maintaining a

cabin pressure altitude of approximately 8000 ft.

*/ The system must be designed to prevent rapid changes of cabin

pressure altitude which may be uncomfortable or injurious to
passengers and crew.

*/ The cabin air conditioning and pressurization system supplies

conditioned air for heating and cooling the cockpit and cabin

*/ Some of the air conditioning systems installed in modern aircraft

utilize air turbine refrigerating units to supply cooled air, these
are called air cycle systems.

*/ The refrigerating unit is a Freon type, quite similar in operation to

common household refrigerator. This system called vapor cycle

focal point of airframe and structure 137

*/ Terms and Definitions system which maintains cabin air

temperatures is the air conditioning system. The sources of heat
which make cabin air conditioning necessary are:

(1) Ram-air temperature, (2) Engine heat,

(3) Solar heat, (4) Electrical heat, (5) Body heat.

*/ Five basic requirements for the successful functioning of a cabin

pressurization and air conditioning system are:

(1) A source of compressed air for pressurization and ventilation.

(2) A means of controlling cabin pressure by regulating the outflow

of air from the cabin.

(3) A method of limiting the maximum pressure differential to

which the cabin pressurized area will be subjected.

(4) A means of regulating (in most cases cooling) the temperature

of the air being distributed to the pressurized section of the

(5) The sections of the aircraft which are to be pressurized must be

sealed to reduce inadvertent leakage of air to a minimum.

*/ Positive-Displacement cabin compressors (Superchargers)

group are reciprocating compressors, vane type compressors, and

Roots blowers.

*/ The action of a Roots-type blower is based on the intake of a

predetermined volume of air, which is subsequently compressed
and delivered to the cabin duct.

*/ The function of the supercharger control system is to maintain a

fairly constant volume of air output from the supercharger.

138 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ The pressurization controller is the same source of control
signals for the pressurization system .

*/ The cabin pressure control system is designed to provide cabin

pressure regulation, pressure relief, vacuum relief, and the
means for selecting the desired cabin altitude in the isobaric and
differential range.

*/ The cabin pressure safety valve is a combination pressure relief,

vacuum relief, and dump valve.

*/ The cabin air distribution system includes:

(1) Air ducts; (2) Filters;

(3) Heat exchangers; (4) Silencers;

(5) No returnable valve; (6) Humidifiers;

(7) Mass flow control sensors; (8) Mass flow meters.

*/ Air ducts having circular or rectangular cross sections are most

frequently used in air distribution system .

*/ Distribution ducts for various cabin zones, individual air outlets

for passengers, and window demisters can have various shapes.

*/ Cabin air supply ducts are usually made from aluminum alloys,
stainless steel, or plastic.

*/ Filters; The air delivered to a pressurized cabin from a

supercharger or engine compressor may contain dust particles,
oil mist, or other impurities.

*/ The function of an air conditioning system is to maintain a

comfortable air temperature within the aircraft fuselage.

*/ Most system are capable of producing an air temperature of 70

Deg. To 80 Deg of F. with normally anticipated.

focal point of airframe and structure 139

*/ In summary, an air conditioning system is designed to perform any

or all of the following functions:

(1) Supply ventilation air,

(2) Supply heated air,

(3) Supply cooling air.

*/ Ventilation air is obtained through ram air ducts installed in the

leading, lower, or upper surfaces of the aircraft or through other
vents in the aircraft skin.

*/ A large part of the heating requirements for the conditioned air is

accomplished automatically when the air is compressed by the
cabin superchargers.

*/ One of the following types of systems is put into operation:

(1) Gasoline combustion heaters;

(2) Electric heater;

(3) Re-cycling of compressed air;

(4) Exhaust gas air-to-air heat exchanger.

*/ Gasoline is injected into the burner area under a pressure which

breaks up the fuel into a fire mist.

*/ Combustion heaters operate similarly to the burner section of a

turbojet engine.

*/ Various automatic combustion heater controls prevent operation of

the heater when dangerous conditions exist.

*/ Electric heaters may be in the form of air duct heaters or electric

radiant panels.

140 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ Most duct heater require the use of a fan to ensure sufficient
airflow over the coils.

*/ Usually an electrical circuit is used which prevents heater

operation unless the fan is in operation .

*/ Electric heater systems require the expenditure of large amounts

of electrical power.

*/ Some turbojet aircraft use a heating system in which the hot

compressed air output of the cabin compressor is re-round back
into the compressor inlet.

*/ Heated air is then routed to an air-to-air heat exchanger, where its

heat is given up to the air going to the cabin.

*/ The number and size of combustion heaters used in a particular

aircraft depended upon its size and its heating demands.

*/ A large single heater or several smaller heaters may be used.

*/ Every combustion heater needs four things for operation:

(1) Fuel to burn;

(2) Ignition to ignite the fuel;

(3) Combustion air to provide the oxygen required to support

the flame;

(4) Ventilating air to carry the heat to the places where it is


*/ The fuel used in the heaters is supplied in most cases from the
same fuel tanks which supply the engine.

*/ Fuel flows from the tanks to the heater by gravity or pumped there
by a fuel pump.

focal point of airframe and structure 141

*/ To increase or decrease the cabin temperature, the heaters are

permitted to operate longer when more heat is needed and for
shorter periods of time when less heat is desired.
*/ Most heater systems also include overheat switches in each heater
outlet to automatically turn off the heater fuel supply when the
temperature reaches about 350 Deg of F.
*/ Another essential unit of the heater fuel system is the one that feeds
fuel into combustion chamber.
*/ A per-heater warms the fuel to speed vaporization and aids
ignition when the outside temperature is below zero.
*/ Ventilating air may come from one of three sources:
(1) A blower for air circulation and heater operation on the
(2) A ram-air inlet;
(3) The cabin compressors on pressurized aircraft.
*/ Ventilating air, ram or blower, enters at the burner heat end of the
heater and, passing over the heater radiator surfaces, becomes
heater and passes through the outer and into the plenum assembly
and into the distribution system ductwork.

142 focal point of airframe and structure

focal point of airframe and structure 143

*/ Air cooling systems are installed to provide a comfortable
atmosphere within the aircraft both on the ground and at all

*/ An air cycle cooling system consists of an expansion turbine

(cooling turbine) , an air-to-air heat exchanger, and various
valves which control airflow through the system.

*/ The cooling system is composed of a primary heat exchanger,

primary heat exchanger bypass valve, flow limiters,
refrigeration unit, main shutoff valve, secondary heat
exchanger, refrigeration unit bypass valve , ram-air shutoff
valve, and an air temperature control system.

*/ Primary heat exchanger: This unit reduces the temperature of

engine bleed air or supercharger discharge air by routing it through
the veins in the core of the heat exchanger.

*/ Primary heat exchanger Bypass valve: This unite is located in the

high-pressure duct at the primary heat exchanger outlet.

*/ The unite consists essentially of a regulator body assembly which

contains a pressure regulator, a temperature control actuator, a
solenoid valve, and a pneumatic thermostat.

*/ The body assembly of the unite consists two inlet ports marked
hot and cold and one outlet port.

*/ The temperature control actuator is mounted on the bypass valve

body and consists of a housing and cover containing a spring-
loaded diaphragm assembly.

144 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ The shutoff valve located in the air supply duct to the
refrigeration unit, control the air pressure to that unit . It is also
the main shutoff valve for the cabin air conditioning and
pressurization system.

*/ The refrigeration bypass valve operates in conjunction with the

temperature control system to modulate and control the flow of
bypass air to the refrigeration.

*/ Secondary Heat Exchanger: The function of the secondary heat

exchanger is to partially cool the air for cabin pressurization and
air conditioning to a temperature which makes possible the
efficient operation of the refrigeration unit.

*/ Refrigeration Unit: The refrigeration unit or turbine is used in the

air conditioning system to cool the pressurized air for the cabin.

*/ The refrigeration turbine consists of three major section:

1- Main housing assembly;

2- Turbine scroll assembly;

3- Compressor scroll assembly.

*/ Water Separators: Water separators are used in the cabin air

conditioning system to remove excessive moisture from the air.

*/ The water separator removes excess moisture from the

conditioned air by passing the air through a coalescent bag or

*/ Ram air valve: The ram air valve is always closed during normal

focal point of airframe and structure 145

*/ In a typical application of the electronic temperature control

system, three units are utilized:

(1) Cabin temperature pickup (thermostat);

(2) Manual temperature selector;

(3) Electronic regulator.

*/ The cabin temperature pickup unit (temperature sensing unit)

consists of a resistor that is highly sensitive to temperature changes.

*/ Cabin air temperature selector is a rheostat located in the cabin. it

permits selective temperature control by varying the effective
temperature control point of the cabin air temperature pickup unit.

*/ The cabin air temperature control regulator, in conjunction with

the air temperature selector rheostat and the air duct temperature
pickup unit, automatically maintains the temperature of the air
entering the cabin at a preselected.

*/ In most air temperature control systems, there is one switch to

select the mode of temperature control. Usually this switch will
have four positions:

Off , Auto Man. hot, and Man cold .

*/ The cabin selector rheostat and the cabin air pickup unit
(thermostat) determine the direction and amount of rotation of
the mixing valve motor. This function is controlled in the cabin air
temperature regulator.

*/ Vapor cycle cooling systems are used on several large transport


146 focal point of airframe and structure

*/ Vapor cycle system (FREON) system usually has a greater cooling
capacity than an air cycle system, and in addition, can usually be
used for cooling on the ground when the engines are not

*/ Some vapor cycle systems use a sub cooler to reduce the

temperature of the liquid refrigerant after it leaves the receiver.

*/ Refrigeration cycle: The basic laws of thermodynamics state that

heat will flow from a point of higher temperature to a point of
lower temperature.

*/ Refrigeration cycle is based on the principle that the boiling point

of a liquid is raised when the pressure of the vapor around the
liquid is raised.

*/ The major components of a typical Freon system are the

Evaporating, compressor, condenser, and expansion valve.

*/ Other miner items may include the condenser fan, receiver (Freon
storage) , dryer, surge valve, and temperature controls.

*/ The principle of operation of the system can be explained by

starting with the function of the compressor.

*/ The compressor is driven either by and electric motor or by an air

turbine drive mechanism.

*/ The Freon gas is pumped to the condenser for the next step in the

*/ Electric Heaters: The main cabin ventilating air and the flight
compartment ventilating air are heat separately and
independently by two electric heaters,one heater for each.

focal point of airframe and structure 147


148 focal point of airframe and structure

focal point of airframe and structure 149

ABSOLUTE PRESSURE: Pressure measured along a scale which has
zero value at a complete vacuum.

ABSOLUTE TEMPERATURE: Temperature measured along a scale

which has zero value at that point where there is no molecular
motion ( -237.1 Deg. of C. or -459.6 Deg. Of F.) .

ABSOLUTE HUMIDITY of the atmosphere: The actual amount of

water vapor that is in the air. Absolute humidity is measured in
units of grams per cubic meter.

ADIABATIC: A word meaning no transfer of heat. The adiabatic

process is one in which no heat is transferred between the working
substance and any outside source.

AIRCRAFT ALTITUDE: The actual height above sea level at which

an aircraft is flying.

ACETONE: Acetone is a fast-evaporating dope solvent that is suitable

for removing grease from fabric prior to doping, for cleaning spray
paint guns, and as an ingredient in paint and varnish removers.

ACCELERATION: Momentum is the product of the mass and the

velocity of a moving object.

AERODYNAMICS: Theory of flight deals with aerodynamics. The

term aerodynamics is derived from the combination of two Greek
words aer meaning air, and dyne meaning force of power .
Thus, when aero is joint with dynamics, we have aerodynamics,
meaning the study of objects in motion through the air and forces
that produce or change such motion.

ACRASION: Wearing away of small amount of metal as a result of

friction between parts.

150 focal point of airframe and structure

ALCOHOL: Butyl alcohol is a slow drying solvent that can be mixed
with dope to retard drying of the dope film on humid days, thus
preventing blushing.

AILERONS: The movable flaps usually attached to the trailing edge

of the wings; used to control the roll of an aircraft.

AIRFOIL: Any surface, such as an aircraft wing, aileron, or rudder,

designed to obtain reaction against the air through which it moves.

AIRFOIL PROFILE: The outline of an airfoil section.

ALTERNATOR: Machine which converts mechanical energy into AC


AMMETER: An electrical instrument used for measuring electrical

current flowing in a circuit. Connect an ammeter in series.

AMBIENT TEMPERATURE: The temperature in the area

immediately surrounding the object under discussion.

AMBIENT PRESSURE: The pressure in the area immediately

surrounding the object under discussion

ANODIZING: is a process whereby a thin film of aluminum oxide is

prevent corrosion .

ANTI-TEAR STRIPS: In very high speed airplanes difficulty is

often experienced with rib lacing breaking or with fabric tearing in
the slipstream .

AUGMENTOR: A system incorporated in jet engines to develop

additional thrust (power) for short periods of time. It may be by
water-alcohol injection (called ADI in reciprocating engines), It
may be with an afterburner, or it may be by addition of rocket
thrust. Thrust increases may be: water-alcohol injection, 25% ;
afterburner, 30% at takeoff and 70 % to 120% at 600 mph; rocket
ATO, several times the normal rated engine thrust.

focal point of airframe and structure 151

BALANCE TAB: A tab that moves when its primary control surface
is moved, but in an opposite direction, thus creating a force that
aids the pilot in moving the primary control surfaces,

BENZENE: Benzene in used for cleaning for equipment in which

enamel, paint, or varnish has been used. It is also used as a
constituent of paint and varnish remover.

BOURDON TUBE: A spring-like tube used as a sensing mechanism

in instruments for measuring pressures, particularly those of oil,
hydraulic, and fuel systems.

BRACED WING: A wing that requires external bracing ; definitely

not self-supporting; used on some liaison aircraft.

BULKHEADS: Formers, and rings. Structural members which give

shape, rigidity, and strength to the fuselage. The rings are lightest
and serve as fill-ins for skin attachment . In smaller structural units,
bulkheads may serve as compartment partitions.

BIAS: A cut, fold, or seam made diagonally to the warp or fill threads.

BENDING (or beam stress): Is actually a combination of tow forces

acting upon a structural member at one or more points.

BLISTER: The raised portion of surface caused by separation of

layers of material.

BLUSHING: Blushing in dopes or lacquers is common in humid

weather .

BUCKING: Large scale deformation by pressure or impact of a

foreign object, unusual structural stresses, excessive localized
heating, or any combination of these .

152 focal point of airframe and structure

BUOYANCY: The upward force that is exerted by a fluid on an object
that is submerged in it.

BURNING: Loss of metal from excessive heat .

BURR: The sharp projection of rough edge.

CABIN ALTITUDE: Used to express cabin pressure in terms of
equivalent altitude above sea level.

CALENDERING: The process of ironing fabric by threading it wet

between a series of hot and cold rollers to produce a smooth finish.

CANTILEVER WING: Awing that requires no external bracing;

rigidity is provided internally by truss construction and by formed
or extruded components.

CHEMICAL STABILITY: Is a liquids ability to resist oxidation and

deterioration for long periods. All liquids tend to undergo
unfavorable chemical changes under server operating conditions.

CHAFE POINTS: All points of the structure, such as sharp edges or

bolt heads, that are likely to chafe or wear the covering should be
covered with doped-on fabric strips or taped with cellophane or
other no hygroscopic adhesive tape.

CHLOROBROMOMETHANE (CH2 ClBr): Chlorobromomethane

commonly referred to as CB is less toxic than CO2 and is
noncorrosive to aluminum, magnesium, steel, and brass.

COEFFICIENT of thermal expansion: The amount a unit length of

any substance expands for a one-degree rise in temperature.

focal point of airframe and structure 153

COMPRESSION (or compressive stress): Is the force per unite area

which tends to shorten (or compress) a structural member at any
cross section.

CONTROL STICK: A mechanism used by the pilot to control the

ailerons and elevators of an aircraft .

CONING: Coning is the upward bending of the blades caused by the

combined forces of lift and centrifugal force.

COUNT: The number of threads per inch in warp or filling.

CORROSION: A surface chemical action resulting in surface

discoloration, a layer of oxide, or in advanced stages, the removal
of surface metal.

COVERING FUSELAGES: Fuselages are covered by either the

sleeve or blanket method, similar to the methods described for
covering wings.

CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) : From a standpoint of toxicity and

corrosion hazards, carbon dioxide is the safest agent to use and was
for many years the most widely used agent.

CRACK: Fissure or break in material.

DELTA WING: An airplane or wing design in which the sweptback
wings, looked at from below or above, give airplane the appearance
of an isosceles triangle, the trailing edges of the wings forming one
straight line to become the base of the triangle.

DEW POINT: The temperature to which the air would have to be

cooled at a constant pressure in order for the relative humidity to
become 100 percent (for the air to become saturated).

154 focal point of airframe and structure


Dibromodifluoromethane is noncorrosive to aluminum, brass, and

steel and is less toxic than CO2.

DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE: The difference in pressure between

the pressure acting on one side of a wall and the pressure acting on
the other side of the wall. In aircraft air conditioning and
pressurizing systems, it is the difference between cabin pressure
and atmospheric pressure.

DYNAMIC STABILITY: While static stability deals with the

tendency of a displaced body to return to equilibrium, dynamic
stability deals with the resulting motion with time.

DYNAMIC BALANCE: Is that condition in a rotating body wherein

all rotating forces are balanced within themselves so that no
vibration is produced while the body is in motion.

DYNAMOTORS: A machine driven by battery or generator electricity

which converts electricity from the battery or generator to a higher
DC voltage. Dynamotors are used in radar, radio, and electronic

DIRECTIONAL STABILITY: Stability about the vertical axis is

referred to as directional stability. The aircraft should be designed
so that when it is in straight and level flight it remains on its course
heading even though the pilot takes is hands and feet off the


FLOW: In a subsonic flow every molecule is effected more or less
by the motion of every other molecule in the whole field of flow.
At supersonic speeds, an air molecule can influence only that part
of the flow contained in the Mach cone formed behind that

focal point of airframe and structure 155

DENT: A smooth, round bottomed depression.

DISTORTION: Change from the original shape.

DOPE PROOFING: Treat all parts of the structure that come in

contact with doped fabric with a protective coating, such as
aluminum foil, dope-proof paint, or cellulose tape. Clad aluminum
and stainless steel parts need not be dope proofed.

DOUBLE-LOOP WING LACING: The double-loop lacing a method

for obtaining higher strengths than are possible with the standard
single lacing.

ELEVATORS: The movable horizontal airfoils located on the tail;
used to control the pitch of the aircraft.

ELEVON: An aircraft control surface combining the functions of an

elevator and aileron.

EMPENNAGE: The complete tail assembly of an aircraft; consists of

vertical and horizontal stabilizers, the elevators, and rudder.

ENAMEL: Enamels are special types of varnish having either an oil

base or nitrocellulose base as the solvent. Enamel finishes are
generally glossy, although flat enamel finishes are available.

ENGINE: Any of many machines that convert energy in one form, as

that of heat, into a form suited to use, as that of torque applied to a
crankshaft, or kinetic flow directed into a jet stream.

ENGINE MOUNTS: Tubular welded units by which reciprocating

engines are attached to the forward end of the fuselage or nacelle.

156 focal point of airframe and structure

FAIRING: Shaped or formed sheet stock attached over angular
portions of the airframe to prevent airflow turbulence and reduce
drag; engine cowling and wing fillets may be considered fairing.

FIRING ORDER: Sequence in which the firing order and power

events occur in the different cylinders of a reciprocating engine .

FILLING, WOOF, or WEFT: The direction across the wide of the


FIXED TAIL SURFACES: Often called stabilizers; mounted rigidly

to the fuselage; provide stabilizing effect to aircraft during takeoff,
flight, and landing . Provide anchorage for the rudder and elevators.

FLAP: Any control surface, such as speed brake, dive brake, dive
recovery brake or the like, used primarily to increase lift or drag of
an aircraft, or to aid recovery from a dive.

FLASH POINT: Is the temperature at which a liquid gives off vapor

in sufficient quantity to ignite momentarily or flash when a flame is

FLAKING: Loose particles of metal on a surface or evidence of

removal of surface covering .

FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES: Hinged or moveable surfaces

which control movements of the aircraft around its axes during
flight. The main group includes ailerons, elevators, and rudders; the
auxiliary group, the tabs and landing flaps.

FORMERS: See bulkheads.

FORCE: Force may be defined as a push or a pull. A better definition

is energy that is brought to bear on an object that causes or tries to
cause it to change its direction of speed or motion.

focal point of airframe and structure 157

FROSTING: An initial stage of scoring caused by irregularities or

high point of metal welding together with minute particles a frosted

FIRE POINT: Is the temperature at which a substance gives of vapor

in sufficient quantity to ignite and continue to burn when exposed
to a spark or flame.

FUSELAGE: The main structural unit of the aircraft. Other structural

units are directly or indirectly attached to it.

GALLING: Chafing caused by friction .

GAGE PRESSURE: A measure of the pressure in a vessel , container,

or line, as compared to ambient pressure.

GOEGING: A removal of surface metal, typified by and deep


GROOVING: Smooth, rounded indention caused by concentrated

wear .

INCLUSION: Foreign matter enclosed in metal.

IMPACT ICE: Ice which forms on the wings and control surfaces, or
on the carburetor heat valve, the walls of the air scoop, or the
carburetor units during flight. Impact ice collecting on the metering
elements of the carburetor may upset fuel metering or stop
carburetor fuel flow.

158 focal point of airframe and structure

LANDING FLAP: A secondary control surface built into the wing by
which the overall wing area or lift/drag ratio can be increased .

LANDING GEAR: Consists of wheel, shock struts, and actuating

mechanisms, if retractable. Provides a rolling medium between
aircraft and ground during landing and takeoff; also designed to
absorb landing shocks; may be either retractable or fixed.

LATERAL STABILITY: We have seen that pitching is motion about

the aircrafts lateral axis and yawing is motion about its vertical
axis. Motion about its longitudinal(fore and aft) axis a lateral or
rolling motion.

LOADMETER: An electrical instrument used for measuring current .

It is an ammeter, but instead of indicating amperage of the
electrical system, it indicates percent of rated generator output
being utilized.

LONGITUDINAL STABILITY: When an aircraft has a tendency to

keep a constant angle of attack with reference to the relative wind -
that is, when it does not tend to put its nose down and dive or lift
its nose and stall-it is said to have longitudinal stability.

LONGERONS and STRINGERS: Main lengthwise members of the

fuselage structure. Longerons are heavier, the stringers are lighter
and serve as fill-ins.

MERCERIZATION: The process of dipping cotton yarn or fabric in a
hot solution of diluted caustic soda. This treatment causes the
material to shrink and acquire greater strength and luster.

focal point of airframe and structure 159

METALIZATION: Coating by molten metal particles sprayed

through the engine.

MONOCOQUE: Construction in which all the stresses of the fuselage

are carried by the shell or skin proper, and very little by the internal
members. This type construction makes a thick fuselage skin

NACELLES: Compartments in which the powerplants are housed,
built into , or suspended from the wing on multi-engine aircraft.

NEWTON,S LAWS of MOTION: The fundamental laws governing

the action of air about a wing are Newtons laves of motion.

1- Newton,s first law is normally referred to as the low of inertia . It

simply means that a body at rest will not move unless force is
applied to it. If it is moving at uniform speed in a straight line, force
must be applied to increase or decrease that speed.

2- Newtons second law, that of force, also applies to objects. This low
states that if a body moving with uniform speed is acted upon by an
external force, the change of motion will be proportional to the
amount of the force, and motion will take place in the direction in
which the force acts.

3- Newtons third law is the law of action and reaction . This law states
that for every action (force) there is an equal and opposite reaction

NICK: A sharp bottomed depression with rough outer edges.

160 focal point of airframe and structure

PEELING: Peeling is caused by failure to remove moisture, oil, or
grease from the fabric before the surface is coated.

PRESSUR ALTITUDE: The altitude that is read on an altimeter when

the barometric reference scale is set to 29.92 inches of mercury.

PROPELLER: A power driven, rotating device having a hub and two

or more helical shaped arms or blades, mounted in certain aircraft
and ships and used to propel or pull the aircraft forward through the
air by the action of the blades eating into the air.

PROPELLER EFFICIENCY : The ratio of the thrust power to the

input power of a propeller.

PEENING: Flattening or displacing of metal by repeated blows. A

surface may be penned by continuous impact of foreign objects or
loose parts.

PINHOLES: Pinholes in the dope film can be caused by the

temperature of the dope room being too high, by not brushing the
priming coat well into fabric to seal it completely

PITCH: Motion along the lateral (cross wing) axis is called pitch.

PITCH: A moment acting about the center of gravity of an aircraft

which causes the nose of the aircraft to rise or fall.

PITTING: A surface condition recognized by minute holes or cavities

which occur on areas. The pits may occur in profusion as to
resemble spelling

PLY: The number of yards making up a thread.

PINKED EDGE: An edge which has been cut by machine or shears in

a continuous series of V,s to prevent raveling.

focal point of airframe and structure 161

RAM-AIR TEMPERATURE RISE: The increase in temperature
created by the ram compression on the surface of an aircraft
traveling at a high rate of speed through the atmosphere. The rate of
increase is proportional to the square of the speed of the object.

RELATIVE HUMIDITY of the atmosphere: The ratio of the

amount of water vapor that is actually in the air, to the amount of
water vapor the air could hold at the prevailing temperature and

RELATIVE WIND: The flow of air around an object caused by the

movement of either the air or object , or both , is called the relative

RESISTANCE: The opposition to the flow of electrical current

offered by electrical devices within a circuit.

Resistance depends on the material, length, cross sectional area, and

the temperature of a conductor. It is measured by an ohm meter by
units in ohms.

RUDDER: The movable upright control surface of the tail that controls
the yaw of an aircraft.

ROLL: The motion about the longitudinal axis called roll.

in the atmosphere sufficient to hold up a column of mercury 760
millimeters high (approximately 30 in.) at sea level (14.7 p.s.i. )
This pressure decreases with altitude.

162 focal point of airframe and structure

STATIC STABILITY: An aircraft is in a state of equilibrium when
the sum of all the forces acting on the aircraft and all the moments
is equal to zero.

SCORING: A form of wear characterized by a scratched, scuffed, or

dragged appearance with marking in the direction of sliding .

SCRATCHES: Narrow, shallow marks or lines resulting from the

movement of the metallic particle or sharp-pointed object across a

SCUFFING: A dulling or moderate wear of a surface resulting from a

slight amount of rubbing .

SEIZURE: A welding or binding of tow adjacent surfaces, preventing

further movement.

SEMIMONOCOQUE: A combination of truss and monocoque

construction used in most military aircraft construction. In
semimonoque construction most of the stresses are carried by
internal structures, thus making thick skin unnecessary.

SERVO TAB: A servomechanism on an aircraft an auxiliary control

surface that, by mechanical or aerodynamic relay, takes over part of
the load in operating a larger control surface.

SINGLE_LOOP WING LACING: Both surfaces of fabric covering

on wings and control surfaces should be securely fastened to the
ribs by lacing cord or any other method originally approved for the

SKIN: The outer metal covering of an aircraft fuselage, wing, or

control surface. Varies in thickness according to location and
purpose as strengthener .

SPAR: Any principal structural member of an airfoil, especially in a

wing, running from tip to tip or from root to tip.

focal point of airframe and structure 163

SPALLING: A surface or subsurface defect characterized by chips of

metal that spall or flake out of material, leaving cavities of varying
size and depths.

SPECIFIC GRAVITY: The ratio of the density of material to the

density of pure water.

SPECIFIC HEAT of a material: The ratio of the amount of heat

energy that is needed to raise the temperature of a certain mass of
the material one degree Celsius to the amount of heat energy that
needed to raise the temperature of the same mass of pure water one
degree Celsius.

SPOILER: A projecting member on an aerodynamically designed

body, used to break down the airflow around the body so as to slow
down its movement or decrease its lift.

STABILITY: A characteristic of an aircraft in flight that causes it, if

disturbed from its condition of equilibrium or steady flight, to
return to that condition.

STATION NUMBERING: Arrangement by which the major airframe

components are marked of in stations of fractional inches with
reference to a zero reference point .

STRESS: Metal failure due to compression, tension, shear, torsion, or


SIZING: Material, such as starch , used to stiffen the yarns for ease in
weaving the cloth.

STATIC BALANCE: Is the tendency of an object to remain stationary

when supported from its own center of gravity.

SELVAGE EDGE: An edge of cloth, tape, or webbing woven to

prevent raveling.

164 focal point of airframe and structure

SHEAR: Shear is the force per unite area which causes adjustment
particles of material to slide past each other.

TAPING: Sewed seams, lapped edges, and rib stitching or screws
must be covered with pinked-edge surface tape.

TEAR: Parent metal torn by excessive vibration or other stresses.


(A) CENTRIGRADE: A scale on which 0 Deg. Of C. represents the

freezing point of water, and 100 Deg. Of C. is equivalent to the
boiling point of water at sea level.
(B) FAHRENHEIT: A scale on which 32 Deg. Of F. represents the
freezing point of water, and 212 Deg. of F. is equivalent to the
boiling point of water at sea level.

TENTION (or tensile stress): Is the force per area tending to stretch a
structural member.

TENSIONE REGULATORS: Cable tension regulators are used in

some flight control systems because there is considerable difference
in temperature expansion of the aluminum aircraft structure and the
steel control cables.

THINNER: Dopes, enamels, paints, etc., are thinned for use in spray
guns, for more efficient brushing consistency, and for reducing the
thickness of coats.

TORQUE: Newtons third low of motion states, To every action

there is an equal and opposite reaction.

TORQUE TUBES: Where an angular or twisting motion is needed in

a control system, a torque tube is installed.

focal point of airframe and structure 165

TORSION (or twisting stress): Is the force which tends to twist a

structural member.

TRIM TAB: A tab attached to an elevator, rudder, or other control

surface, used to trim the aircraft.

TRIFLUOROBROMOMETHANE(C Br 2 F2): is noncorrosive to

aluminum, brass, and steel and is less toxic than CO2.

TRUSS-TYPE CONSTRUCTION: Metal members joined In a way

to produce triangular shapes known as trusses. Commonly used in
bridge construction and in aircraft for fuselage and wing spar

UNBALANCED: A condition created in a rotating body by an unequal
distribution of weight about its axis. Usually results in vibration.

VAPOR LOCK: A vapor bubble or pocket in a fuel line which
restricts or interrupts fuel flow. It is formed by fuel changing to
vapor at some bend or hot point in the line.

VARNISH: Spar varnish is used for finishing interior or exterior wood


VISCOSITY: One of the most important properties of any hydraulic

fluid is its viscosity. Viscosity is internal resistance to flow.

VOLATILITY: The property of a liquid which enables it to change

readily into vapor. Fuel must be in the vapor form before it will
burn with oxygen.

166 focal point of airframe and structure

VOLTAGE METER : An electrical instrument used for measuring
the potential difference of electricity or voltage between two points
in a circuit.

WARP: The direction along the length of fabric.

WATT: Power consumed in a circuit through which one ampere flows

under a pressure of one volt.

WARP ENDS: The woven threads that run the length of the fabric.

WEAR: A condition resulting from a relatively slow removal of parent

material. Frequently not visible to the unaided eye .

WEIGHT: The force with which a body is attracted to the earth, being
equal to the mass of the body multiplied by the acceleration of the
body due to gravity.

YAW: This is horizontal movement of the nose of the aircraft. ( an
angular displacement about an axis parallel to the normal axis of an

focal point of airframe and structure 167


168 focal point of airframe and structure

focal point of airframe and structure 169

1- If you shorten the landing wires or struts to increase dihedral the

airplane is:
*/ low wing monoplane.
2- What are three classifications of working drawings?
*/ A :Detail drawing,
B : Assembly drawings,CC
C : Installation drawings .
3- What is the purpose of an installation drawing?
*/ An installation drawing is a description of the way in which parts or
assemblies of parts are located in an aircraft.
4- You may measure the angle of incidence:
*/ using a straight edge and a bubble protector.
5- when rigging an airplane the tension of the brace wires and control
cables should be :
*/As the mechanic deems necessary for the airplane involved.
6- What are the dimensions, in inches, of a size-two standard
*/ 11 inches by 17 inches.
7- Which section of an aircraft drawing shows which is the latest
version of the drawing?
*/ The revision block.

170 focal point of airframe and structure

8- Turnbuckles should be safe tied by;
*/ Leveling only 3 threads exposed and passing safety wire through
the barrel and using at least 4 wraps at each end.
9- The center of lift is placed behind the center of gravity:
*/ To cause the aircraft to fly nose heavy.
10- If the airplane shows left wing heavy it can be corrected by:
*/ Lengthening left rear, and shortening right rear N struts

focal point of airframe and structure 171

1- You may check the stabilizer for alignment by measuring from:

*/ The front spar to the rear spar.

2- What is a detail drawing?

*/A detail drawing is a graphic description of a single part.

3- What is meant by a fuselage station number?

*/ A measurement along the length of the fuselage that is measured in

inches from the datum.

4- The aircraft will yaw to the right due to:

*/ Too much sweepback, left wing.

5- Flexible cable is designated as:

*/ 7x7 cable.

6-Nose heaviness may be caused by:

*/ Removal of landing gear streamlining.

7- in order to correct for wing heaving in an airplane stressed skin

wings you would;

*/ Install tab on the aileron of wing affected, and bend in UP


8- The reason for dihedral is ;

*/ More stability along the lateral axis.

9- What the purpose of an assembly drawing?

*/ An assembly drawing is used to show the way two or more parts fit

172 focal point of airframe and structure

10- What are six things that are normally included in the block of an
aircraft drawing?
*/ A: The drawing number,
B: The name of the part or assembly,
C: The scale to which it is drawn,
D: The date the drawing is released,
E: The name of the firm manufacturing the part,
F: The names or initials of the draftsman, the checker, and the
person releasing the drawing.

focal point of airframe and structure 173

1- The location of center of gravity with relation to center of lift is

important because it effects the;

*/ Flying characteristics of the aircraft.

2- Adjustment of the horizontal stabilizer will produce;

*/ Longitudinal stability.

3- To change the trim of a cantilever wing you would;

*/ install tabs on the wing.

4- The reference line of the horizontal stabilizer is;

*/ Leading edge.

5- What is the name of the section of an aircraft drawing that contains

a list of the materials and parts that are necessary for the
fabrication or assembly of an aircraft part?

*/ Bill of material.

6- What is the function of zone numbers on an aircraft drawing?

*/ Zone numbers assist in the location of a detail on a large drawing.

7- how is a fixed rudder tab adjusted to make an airplane fly straight?

*/ Trial and error method to achieve the extent of the bend.

8- A useful load is;

*/ The difference between empty weight and standard gross weight.

9- If the rigging wires vibrate considerably it is caused by;

*/ Wires too loose.

174 focal point of airframe and structure

10- The maximum weight limits are assigned to baggage
compartments of all certificated planes for the reason that:

*/ Weight distribution affects aircraft balance.

focal point of airframe and structure 175

1- after trimmings a wing, if you fined that the spars are not straight
you would;

*/ loosen all wires and reteam the wing.

2- Flattener tabs move in the opposite direction of the control surface


*/ Aid the pilot in moving the controls .

3- If you are rigging an airplane, what is the first thing you would do
regarding the center section?

*/ Adjust square with the top longerons and cross tube.

4- If ,in moving a control surface that has been recovered, you happen
to observe a twisting movement, the cause could be ;

*/ Fabric to tight .

5- Where is the title block normally located on an aircraft drawing?

*/ In the lower right-hand corner of the drawing.

7- When a dash number is used to designate a right-or left-hand part,

which side part is indicated by an odd dash number?

*/ Left- hand part.

8- If there are no leveling point on the plane, it could be leveled by

placing a level on;

*/ The longitudinal and lateral braces at the front of the cabin section.

9- The smallest cable that is satisfactory to splice according to the

administrator is;

*/ Administrator cable is 3/32 .

176 focal point of airframe and structure

10- In large airplanes static balance is obtained by means of:

*/ Installing counterweights in leading edges of control surfaces.

focal point of airframe and structure 177

1- What is the maximum dimension of a part that is shown on an

aircraft drawing as 4.378 +0.005- 0.002?

*/ 4.383 inches .

2- What is a half sectional drawing?

*/ A drawing in which one half of the object is shown as a sectional

view and the other half is shown as an exterior view.

3- Loading an airplane so that it will have excessive rearward center

of gravity is not good practice because:

*/ It will have abnormal spin characteristic.

4- If you are using fiber nuts on an airplane they must;

*/ Have at least one full thread of the bolt showing.

5- To measure the angle of incidence the mechanic uses;

*/ Straight edge, ruler, level.

6- To measure the angle of incidence of a two spare wing the

mechanic would proceed;

*/ By placing a straight edge against the spars of the wing and with
ship in level position.

7- In rigging the center section of a biplane the mechanic would in the

proper order;

*/ Check for symmetry , stagger and incidence.

8- What is the allowable manufacturing tolerance for a bushing where

the outside dimensions show on the drawing are:

*/ 1.0622 to 1.0650.

178 focal point of airframe and structure

9- How many possible views are normally included in an orthographic
projection drawing?

*/ Six.

10- The primary flight control cables are usually;

*/ 7x19 cables.

focal point of airframe and structure 179

1- The reference point for which to measure dihedral of a biplane is;

*/ The center section.

2- A pilot of a biplane complains of nose heaviness;

*/ Shorten the rear interplane strut.

3- Drag and anti-drag wires do what?

*/ Transmit the drag and antidrug loads in the plane of the chord to the
wing spares.

4-The last thing checked before recovering a re-rigged wing is;

*/ Parallelism of the spars.

5- if a plane flies right wing heavy the mechanic would;

*/ Bend the left wing tab down.

6- Generally the left wing of an airplane is rigged to have more lift

than the wing.

*/ Torque of the engine.

7- Kinked and twisted streamlined wire can be repaired by;

*/ Not repairable.

8- The first thing checked on installing a center section is;

*/ The first thing is symmetry.

9- What is meant by tolerance that is included in the dimensions on an

aircraft drawing?

*/ The maximum deviation that is allowed from the dimensions that

are shown on the drawing.

180 focal point of airframe and structure

10- What kind of line is used to show an edge of a part which is not
visible in the drawing?

*/ A hidden line.

focal point of airframe and structure 181

1- The general result of too tight controls is;

*/ Heaviness on the controls.

2-The reference point for a check on the symmetry of the top wing of
a biplane is;

*/ Center of center section.

3- After replacing a longerons section the proper procedure to check it

for square is;

*/ Check for square by using the center section cross braces as a

reference and working aft as far as necessary by diagonal

4- Where is spring back utilized in rigging a ship?

*/ Engine control system.

5- The equipment for checking dihedral is ;

*/ String , ruler, tables.

6- In high speed wing of two spar construction which spar is likely to

give trouble ?

*/ Front.

7- What is the function of a pictorial drawing?

*/ A pictorial drawing shows the general way a part appears to the


8- What is the purpose of extension lines on an aircraft drawing?

*/ Extension lines show the points from which a dimension is taken.

182 focal point of airframe and structure

9- The balance cable on an airplane is used to;

*/ Equalize dual controls.

10- Loose elevator cables on a large ship will cause:

*/ Nose heaviness.

focal point of airframe and structure 183

1- The most important thing to check after installing an elevator tab is;

*/ That there is an absolute minimum of play in the system.

2- If you were working a weight and balance problem and were going
to compute the most forward and aft center of gravity, you would
figure your passengers as weighting;

*/ 170 pounds.

3- The first step in installing seaplane floats is ;

*/ athwart ship braces.

4- On a biplane how is stagger adjusted near the roots?

*/ Unadjustable .

5- At what speed should a ship be rigged to fly hands off?

*/ Cruise.

6- If you are weighting an airplane you should;

*/ Weight it with standard equipment installed.

7- Precautions to make sure that adequate safety factor or strength is

being maintained on all turnbuckles is that;

*/ Not more than three threads exposed and turnbuckle safe tied with

8- How many views are normally included in an orthographic

projection drawing of an aircraft part?

*/ Three.

184 focal point of airframe and structure

9- What is the purpose of dimension lines on an aircraft drawing?

*/ A dimension line shows the distance between the extension lines to

which the arrow-heads point.

10- Setting the rudder pedals even , the rudder should be rigged;

*/ In its neutral position.

focal point of airframe and structure 185

1- Carbon steel 19 wire cable is known as;

*/ Rigid.

2- The method of measuring stagger is;

*/ Measuring the horizontal distance between the leading edge of the

top wing and the leading edge of the bottom wing in the fuselage.

3- What is the purpose of cross-hatching in an aircraft drawing?

*/ Cross- hatching shows the shape or construction of a part that has

been cut away.

4- The proper procedure to rig a wing panel is;

*/ Tram from the root outboard.

5- After changing the angle of incidence of one wing of a plane the

ship probably will have a tendency to;

*/ YAW.

6- If you are soldering a cable splice, the flux to be used is;

*/ Satiric acid and resin.

7- To determine the fuel capacity of a fuel tank you should;

*/ Note the capacity near or on the filler cap.

8- Why are some airplanes rigged so the ailerons have a little droop?

*/ So the ailerons will streamline in flight.

9- What is a sectional view of an aircraft drawing?

*/ A view that shows the shape or the construction of the part at the
cutting plane.

186 focal point of airframe and structure

10- What is a revolved section of a drawing?

*/ A section view that is drawn directly on an exterior view that shows

a cross section of the part at the location where the revolved
section is placed.

focal point of airframe and structure 187

1- The reason for using macerate fairleads is because;

*/ They will wear and not damage the cable.

2- If you are figuring the most forward center of gravity limits and are
going to use minimum fuel you should use;

*/ 0.083 gallons per horsepower.

3- The ratio of ultimate strength to maximum probable load is called;

*/ Factor of safety.

4- A control cable 3/32 inch in diameter, 7x19 extra flexible type;

*/ Should be spliced using the standard Army and Navy tuck splice.

5- Form ACA-319 is used by the certificated mechanic for;

*/ Periodic inspection reports .

7- From ACA-337 is used by the certificated mechanic for;

*/ Major repair and alteration data .

8- Extra-flexible control cables are denoted by;

*/ 7x19 cable.

9- Wash-in and wash-out of a wing is accomplished by increasing or

decreasing the;

*/ Angle of incidence.

188 focal point of airframe and structure

10- Excessive positive stagger in a biplane will generally cause;

*/ Tail heaviness .

focal point of airframe and structure 189

1- After flight an testing an airplane equipped with ground adjustable

trim tabs, it is reported that the airplane is slightly right wing

*/ Adjusting the right wing aileron trim tab to a higher position.

2- Aluminum alloy nuts may be used on steel bolts in shear;

*/ Only in landplanes if the bolt is cadmium plated.

3- If the elevators of an airplane do not have an easy movement;

*/ The probable cause is that the fabric shrinkage has pulled the hinges
out of line.

4- When checking a wing for dihedral, the most commonly used

reference line is the;

*/ Front spar of the wing.

5- The respective weights (in pound, when computing weight and

balance problems) of gasoline, oil, water, crew and/or passengers

*/ Six, seven and one-half, eight and one hundred and seventy.

6- What determines the effect of a weight on the balance

0f an aircraft?

*/ The distance the weight is located from the fulcrum. This is called
the lever arm.

7- If the streamlined stabilizer brace wires vibrate excessively in

flight, the probable cause is;

*/ That the streamlined wires are not streamlined in line of flight.

190 focal point of airframe and structure

8- When a fiber nut is installed on a cotter key bolt there should be at
least how many threads showing through?

*/ One thread showing through.

9- On an airplane having an adjustable stabilizer equipped with cable

operation flatteners, the pilot reports that the ship changes its
longitudinal course of flight many times in the air.

*/ The flattener control cable is too loose.

10- In airplanes with tail surfaces not using an adjustable vertical fin,
provision is made for correction of directional stability by;

*/ Installing trim or balance tabs on the trailing edge of the rudder.

focal point of airframe and structure 191

1- A wing having drag and anti-drag wire bracing should be checked

to determine whether ;

*/ All bays are properly trammeled.

2- Bonding of aircraft is for the purpose of;

*/ Eliminating sparks or arcing due to the buildup of static electrically

in the aircraft structure.

3- Aluminum alloy bolts less than in diameter;

*/ Cannot be used in the primary structure of an airplane.

4- A control surface is considered statically balanced when;

*/ The center 0f mass is on the hinge axis.

5- A pilot reports that the aircrafts left wing is heavy at all speeds,
after ascertaining that the center section is rigged properly, the
mechanic could correct this wing heavy condition by;

*/ Washing-out the right wing and wash-in the left wing.

6- The difference between a movable trim tab and a fixed balance tab

*/ A balance tab is attached rigid to any control surface and the trim
tab is hinged at the trailing edge of any control surface.

7- You would check the tension on a control cable by;

*/ Using a tensiometer and manufacturers specifications.

8- You may check a control cable for general frayed condition by;

*/ Running your hand (bare or covered with a cloth or glove) over the
cable and take note of any frays .

192 focal point of airframe and structure

9- The principle load bearing members of the wing are;

*/ Spars.

10- The landing and flying wires of an aircraft should be rigged ;

*/ Neither tight nor loose.

focal point of airframe and structure 193

1- When installing a pulley bracket that is to support a primary control

cable, what would you use as a holding device?

*/ Bolts due to their good tensile characteristics.

2- Flutter of the control surfaces may be caused by;

*/ loose hinge fitting.

3- Control cables or wires, if injured, distorted, worn, or corroded

even through the strands are not broken, should be;

*/ Replaced.

4- Propeller torque may be overcome, in the rigging of an airplane, by;

*/ off-seating the vertical stabilizer.

5- An airplane is said to have positive stagger when;

*/ The upper wing is set ahead of the lower wing.

6- An aircraft battery may be tested for a dead cell by use of a

hydrometer and/or a load pulling voltage tester, You are out in the
field, however, and have no battery testing equipment. You may
check for a dead cell by ;

*/ Removing the filler cap, placing the battery under a load and noting
whether the battery acid boils .

7- Cable is not used for external bracing because;

*/ It stretches.

8- To trim an airplane with a full cantilever win, the mechanic should;

*/ Install trim tabs on the trailing edge of the ailerons.

194 focal point of airframe and structure

9- cable sections may be spliced, providing the mechanic;

*/ Follows the provisions of Manual.

10- What important part of the landing gear should be regularly

inspected and especially after a hard landing;

*/ The bolts and nuts that fasten the landing gear to the fuselage.

focal point of airframe and structure 195

1- Corrosion-resistant steel cable dose not require a rust preventive

treatment, however, cable made from tinned steel requires a rust a
rust preventive treatment of;

*/ rust-preventive oil.

2- Adding weight behind the hinge line may produce;

*/ Flutter and/or vibration of the control surface .

3- There is a heavy spot on a landing wheel tire. This condition

causes the initial landing contact to be on this heavy spot each
time a landing is made. This condition will most likely cause;

*/ Excessive wear on the heavy spot which may result in violent

shimmying .

4- The use of solder to attach bonding jumps should be avoided.

Tubular members should be bonded by means of clamps to which
the jump is attached. Proper choice of clamp material, to match
the tube material, will minimize;

*/ Dissimilar metal corrosion.

5- The rudder should be aligned with;

*/ The vertical fin.

6- Cables may cut to length by;

*/ Mechanical means only .

196 focal point of airframe and structure

focal point of airframe and structure 197

Weight and balance:

1- What are two reasons weight and balance are important in aircraft

*/ Safety and efficiency of flight.

2- Is it required by Federal Aviation Regulations that privately owned

and operated aircraft be weighed periodical?

*/ No, a private aircraft is required to be weighed only after a major

alteration that could affect its weight or balance.

3- Is it necessary that the manufacturer of an aircraft weigh every

individual aircraft?

*/ No, a manufacturer is permitted to weigh only one aircraft in ten

that are built alike. The weights of the outweighed aircraft are
considered to be the same as the one that was weighed.

4- What is the name of the distance between the center of gravity of an

object and the fulcrum.

*/ The lever arm or more simply, just the arm.

5- What is the main advantage of having the datum of an aircraft

located on its nose or ahead of its nose?

*/ When the datum is in this location, all moments are positive, and
there is less chance for mathematical errors when computing
weight and balance.

6- If an item has a minus arm, is it ahead of or behind the datum?

*/ It is ahead of the datum.

198 focal point of airframe and structure

7- How is the useful load of an aircraft determined?

*/ Subtract the empty weight of the aircraft from its certificated

maximum gross weight.

8- Where can you find the operating center of gravity range of an


*/ In the type certificate Data sheets for the aircraft.

9- What are four sources of weight and balance data for an aircraft?

*/ A- The aircraft specifications (Type certificate Data Sheets)

B - The aircraft operating limitations.

C The aircraft flight manual.

D The aircraft weight and balance report.

10- What is included in the empty weight of an aircraft?

*/ The aircraft and power plant, all required equipment, all optional or
special equipment that is installed, fixed ballast, hydraulic fluid,
unusable fuel, and un drainable oil ( Some aircraft include full oil).

focal point of airframe and structure 199

1- Which is more critical with regard to weight and balance, an

airplane or a helicopter?

*/ A helicopter.

2- What is the name of the product found when the length of the lever
arm is multiplied by the weight of an object?

*/ The moment.

3- In what units is the moment used in aircraft weight and balance

computations expressed?

*/ In pound-inches.

4- What must be done if the weight and balance records have been lost
and cannot be duplicated from any source?

*/ The aircraft must be re-weighed and a new set of weight and

balance records compiled.

5- Where is the datum for weight and balance computations located on

an aircraft?

*/ It may be at any location the manufacturer chooses.

6- What is the name of the horizontal distance between the center of

gravity of an item and datum?

*/The arm of the item.

7- What is the name of the weight multiplied by the arm of an item

that is installed in an aircraft.

*/ The moment of the item

8-When an item is added to aircraft, is its weight considered to be plus

or minus?

*/ Its weight is plus.

200 focal point of airframe and structure

9- When an item is removed from an aircraft, is its weight considered
to be plus or minus?

*/ Its weight is minus.

10- What is the name of the location in an aircraft about which the
nose-heavy and tail-heavy moments are exactly equal in
magnitude but opposite in sing?

*/ The center of gravity.

focal point of airframe and structure 201

1- Where can the maximum certificated gross weight of an aircraft be


*/ In the specifications ( actually in the type Certificate Data Sheets).

2- What is the purpose of the empty weight center of gravity of an


*/ It serves as a basis for all of the weight and balance computations.

3- What is the meant by the useful load of an aircraft?

*/ The weight of the fuel, oil, occupants, and baggage. The useful load
difference between the gross weight of the aircraft and its empty

4- What is the function of the empty weight center of gravity range of

an aircraft?

*/ If the center of gravity of an empty aircraft is within its empty

weight center of gravity range, it cannot be legally loaded in such
as way that will cause its loaded center of gravity to fall outside of
the loaded center of gravity limits.

5- In what two terms can the operating center of gravity range of an

aircraft be expressed?

*/ I inches from the datum, or in percentage of the mean aerodynamic


6- What is the meant by the mean aerodynamic chord of an aircraft


*/ The MAC is the chord of an imaginary rectangular wing that has

the same aerodynamic characteristics as the actual wing.

202 focal point of airframe and structure

7- How can you determine what the aircraft leveling means are?

*/ The specified leveling means are show in the type Certificate Data

8- How much oil constitutes full oil in aircraft weight and balance

*/ The amount of oil that is shown in the type Certificate Data Sheets
for the aircraft

9- How is permanent ballast that is installed in an aircraft identified as


*/ It must be painted red and marked PERMANENT BALLAST-DO


10- When is an aircraft considered to be in balance?

*/ An aircraft is considered to be in balance when its loaded center of

gravity falls within the allowable center of gravity range for the
loaded weight.

focal point of airframe and structure 203

1- How much fuel should be in an aircraft when it is weighed to

determine its empty weight center of gravity?

*/ Only unusable (residual) fuel.

2- What are use as the weighing point for most light- weight and
medium-weight aircraft?

*/ The wheels.

3- Where may the location found for the leveling means that are used
for weighing an aircraft?

*/ In the type Certificate Data Sheets for the aircraft.

4- What is the name of the maximum allowable weight of a loaded

aircraft without fuel?

*/ Zero fuel weight.

5- How much fuel is the minimum fuel, as it applies to weight and

balance computations of an aircraft?

*/ The minimum fuel for weight and balance computations my be

either 1/12 gallon for each METO horsepower of the engine
pound for each METO horsepower.

6- What items of equipment should be installed in an aircraft when it

is weighed?

*/ All required equipment, full reservoir of hydraulic fluid and

constant-speed drive fluid, and all required permanent ballast.

7- Is the water in the wash-water reservoirs in an aircraft considered to

be part of the aircraft empty weight?

*/ No.

204 focal point of airframe and structure

8- Where can you find a list of the required equipment that must be
installed in an aircraft

*/In the manufactures instructions. Actually the equipment list for the
aircraft specifies everything that is installed in the aircraft and
which equipment is required for the particular aircraft.

9- When do you use the minimum fuel when making a weight and
balance computation of an aircraft ?

*/ Minimum fuel is used when making a critical loading center of

gravity check.

10- How much oil is included in the empty weight of an aircraft that is
certificated under FAR part23.

*/ Full oil.

focal point of airframe and structure 205

1- Where can the weight of unusable fuel for a particular aircraft be


*/ In the aircraft type Certificate Data Sheets for the aircraft.

2- Where can you find the distance between the datum and the center
of gravity of a piece of required equipment that is installed in an

*/ In the type Certificate Data Sheets.

3- How is the actual location of the center of gravity of an aircraft

determined when you know the total moment and the total weight
of the aircraft?

*/ Divide the total moment by the total weight.

4- When must an adverse center of gravity check be made on an


*/ An adverse center of gravity check must be made when center

loads of fuel, baggage, or occupants could cause the center of
gravity to shift outside of the allowable limits.

5- What items must be included when a forward weight and balance

check is made on an aircraft?

*/ A- Aircraft empty weight, arm and moment.

B- The maximum weights, arms, and moments of all items that are
located ahead of the forward center of gravity limits.

C- The minimum weights, arms, and moments of the items of

useful load that are located behind the forward center of gravity

focal point of airframe and structure

focal point of airframe and structure 207

Wood, Fabric, Covering

& Doping
1- Grommets are applied to the under surface a fabric covered
component when the :

*/ Second coat of dope is applied.

2- Dope proofing paint has a :

*/ Neutral base.

3- Three types of seams are acceptable and in the order of preference

they are:

*/ French fell, plain overlap , folded fell.

4- When hand sewing, you are using the baseball stitch, the stitching
should be:

*/ 4 stitches per inch minimum .

5- If semi-pigmented dope is to be used, it should be:

*/ Applied as the first coat.

6- The pigmented dope finish used on average commercial aircraft

ranges from:

*/ 9 to 11 coats.

7- A fabric patch should be made of sufficient size to extend at least:

*/ 1-1/2 inches beyond the sides of the tear.

208 focal point of airframe and structure

8- Seams should be covered with pinked tape, but before the patch
area is doped the tape shall be given:

*/ 3 coats of dope.

9- Under a major repair classification the seams and the warp of the
fabric should:

*/ Be parallel to the line of flight.

10- A finish remover with a base of acetone can be used to remove:

*/ All aircraft finishes.

focal point of airframe and structure 209

1- Orange peel effect on a lacquer or pigmented dope finish may

result from:

*/ Insufficiently thinned dope.

2- Blisters in a lacquer or dope finish are usually caused by:

*/ Oil or water in the air line .

3- You may eliminate blushing of lacquer or dope finishes by the

addition of anti-blush reducer in quantities not to exceed:

*/ 1 quart, Anti-blush to 1 gal. , Lacquer or Dope.

4- The nap of the fabric should be set:

*/ After the second coatis applied.

5- When the spray gun is held too far from the surface the result will

*/ Pebble.

6- The spray gun should be operated so that it throws a full bodied

spray, approximately:

*/ 12 inches wide, held 8 inches from the surface.

7- Fabric is prevented from sticking to surfaces beneath it by:

*/ Coating the part with dope-proof paint.

8- When is the mechanic required to paint or protect exposed bronze

or bearing alloy fitting?

*/ When in contact with aluminum alloy.

210 focal point of airframe and structure

9- On a solid wood spare splice the overlap of the reinforcing plates
should be :

*/ Two thicknesses of the spar.

10- The main purpose of grommets requires that the mechanic place
them so that:

*/ They completely drain the area for which they are installed.

focal point of airframe and structure 211

1- To prevent blushing under adverse conditions the mechanic should:

*/ Thin dope with blush-retarding thinner.

2-What is the pull in pounds that a plane covering which has been in
use must stand to still be serviceable?

*/ One-inch wide strip 56# .

3- The reinforcing plates should be of what material?

*/ Plywood or spruce.

4- Awing is refinished by applying dope:

*/ The improper removal of oil, grease, wax, or soap from the old

5- In patching a tear in a fabric covering the procedure is:

*/ Stitch the patch first then remove the old dope and dirt.

6- How is the proper cord determined for lacing?

*/ Tensile strength and number of strands .

7- In order not to overstress the rib stitching, it is necessary to space

the stitches a definite distance apart, depending on the:

*/ Speed of the airplane.

8- What is the procedure to prevent battery acid from corroding the

fuselage near the vent?

*/ Paint the area with acid-proof paint.

9- Wood parts are treated for preservation by:

*/ Applying spar varnish or lionoil.

212 focal point of airframe and structure

10- On continuous lacing, to prevent unlacing if the cord breaks the
mechanic should:

*/ Lace each half hitch so that it locks itself.

focal point of airframe and structure 213

1- In a wood spar, longitudinal crack not near a fitting:

*/ Can be repaired by gluing on reinforcement plates.

2- Pin holes in a doped finish are a result of:

*/ Insufficient time for drying between coats.

3- After the second coat of dope has been applied, allow to dry for 30
to 45 minutes. You should then lightly scuff or sandpaper with:

*/ No. 280 sandpaper or its equivalent.

4- Anti-tear strips are recommended under reinforcing tape on the

upper surface of the wings and the bottom surface of that part of
the wings in the slipstream. This ruling applies if the never-
exceed speed of the aircraft is in excess of:

*/ 250 mph.

5- The proper method of applying the fabric, when covering a wing is:

*/ Use the envelope or blanket method in the initial covering.

6- A tough course grained wood, used almost exclusively for wood

propeller blades, is:

*/ Birch.

7- When mixed with dope, aluminum powder is used primarily to:

*/ Protect the dope and fabric from deterioration due to the rays of the

8- In the event the fabric must be repaired under adverse weather

conditions and the mechanic wishes to prevent blushing of the
doped surface, he should:

*/ Add retarder to the dope.

214 focal point of airframe and structure

9- Sewed seams parallel to the line of flight (chord wise) should not
be placed over a rib or be so placed that lacing will be:

*/ Through or across such a seam.

10- You can determine dead or brash wood in spar by:

*/ Noting that the wood is brittle, will not splinter and possible
discoloration has take place.

focal point of airframe and structure 215

1- Why is quarter-sawed wood preferable to use in aircraft repair


*/ It generally shrinks and swells less than tangential surfaces.

2- Woods used in aircraft structures must:

*/ Be replaced by the same type and quality, or if substitutes are used

they must be as good or better than the original and approved by
the administrator.

3- Dimensional changes in wood usually effect the :

*/ loosening of the fitting and splitting of the wood.

4- If fabric sticks to the spars during the doping process, it may be

overcome by:

*/ Using a suction cup to loosen the fabric.

5- The maximum allowable time between preparation of wood surface

and actual gluing is approximately:

*/ Seven hours.

6- Oil and grease spots may be removed from fabric with:

*/ Naphtha

7- Glue should be discarded, after mixing , if not used within:

*/ 30 minutes.

8- A certain type glue has been widely used throughout the years and
has retained its basic characteristics. However, preservatives have
been added to increase its resistance to moisture. This glue is
known as :

*/ Synthetic resin.

216 focal point of airframe and structure

9- A spruce spar may contain knots providing they:

*/ Are not more than one-quarter inch in diameter, sound and light, at
least 20 apart and not on the edges.

10- The edge of a fabric patch should be :

*/ Pinked or frayed to a distance of approximately one-quarter inch.

focal point of airframe and structure 217

1- The four types of wood patches are :

*/ Surface or overlay, splayed, plug and scarf .

2- The glue that retains its strength and durability under very moist
conditions, even after exposed to water, is :

*/ Synthetic resin .

3- In order to remove the creases in the fabric cover before applying

dope to the wing, a mechanic should:

*/ Sponge the fabric lightly with water.

4- On a lacquer or pigmented dope surface, orange peel or pebble

finish is the result of:

*/ Insufficiently reduced lacquer or pigmented dope.

5- You are using a baseball stitch while hand sewing. The minimum
number of stitches per inch is four (1/4 between), however, you
must lock every:

*/ Eight or ten stitches.

6- After a regular inspection your aircraft fabric is found to be in good

condition. After your return from a flight, however, you notice
some deep wrinkles in the fabric of one wing . This would

*/ A probable internal structural failure of the wing.

7- Heavy cotton or linen rib stitching cord ranges in strength from :

*/ 35 to 300 pounds.

8- The standard width of grade A aircraft fabric is :

*/ 36 inches.

218 focal point of airframe and structure

9- In starting a line of rib stitching the first knot tied is :

*/ Square.

10- If the thickness of a spar is a what is the minimum slope of the

scarf of a solid spar splice?

*/ 10 a .

focal point of airframe and structure 219

1- The minimum specifications of grade A aircraft fabric is:

*/ Thread count 80, strength 80 pounds .

2- Rubbing compound is used to produce a high glass finish after the :

*/ Last coat.

3- Acetate and nitrate are the film-based compounds of aircraft dope.

Acetate is less inflammable than nitrate; however, the nitrate type
is more widely used. Generally speaking:

*/ Acetate is easier to apply.

4- While using a spray gun you notice that the pattern is heavy on
one side. The most probable cause is:

*/ The spray gun head has become dirty.

5- Generally speaking, a spar may be spliced at any point except:

*/ Under wing attachment fittings, engine mount fittings or lift and

interplane fittings.

6- One of the main reasons for the use of plywood, in aircraft repair
work, is:

*/ The excellent strength and weight ratio.

7- Ideal conditions for temperature and relative humidity, in a doping

room, are:

*/ 70-75 Deg. Of F. and relative humidity not over 65% .

8- An important step in beginning the doping of aircraft fabric is:

*/ Wet the fabric down with dope on the first coat.

220 focal point of airframe and structure

9- Why should the first two coats of dope be brushed on rather than

*/ for better penetration, tow lay the knap of the fabric, the first two
coats should be heavy .

10- The approximate gluing pressures are:

*/ Hard woods 125 to 175 psi, soft woods 125 to 150 psi .

focal point of airframe and structure 221

1- The minimum pressing time, when gluing woods, is :

*/ Seven hours.

2- The glue in which the manufacturer may add walnut-shell or wood

flour, to increase its working characteristics, is known as:

*/ Synthetic resin.

3- Rib stitching cord, to prevent fraying and aid preservation, is


*/ Bees-waxed.

4- You can check to see if wood is free of oil by :

*/ Going over the suspected surface with a wet cloth .

5- When applying glue to seal two wood members, the mechanic

should spread:

*/ Glue evenly on both wood members.

6- Gluing surfaces should be :

*/ Obtained satisfactorily by the original cutting with no supplemental

sanding or surfacing.

7- When a sewed lapped seam comes on or near a rib:

*/ It should be double sewed and reinforced.

8- Hand sewing thread and machine sewing thread must have,

respectively strength values:

*/ 14 lb. and five lb. .

222 focal point of airframe and structure

9- It is generally agreed that Irish linen:

*/ Is the better linen for aircraft fabric requirements.

10- Lacing cord must have a strength value of at least:

*/ 40 lb. single or 80 lb. double .

focal point of airframe and structure 223

1- The basic classification of woods used in aircraft structures are:

*/ Plywood, solid and laminated .
2- When bushings are used they should be slightly short so that when
the wood member shrinks the bushing do not protrude. This is for
the purpose of :
*/ Tightening the fittings firmly against the member.
3- Water to be used in the mixing of glues should be placed, prior to
*/ In the gluing room (temperature approximately 70 Deg. Of F.) to
attain the same room temperature.
4- On wood or metal covered leading edge, the fabric must have:
*/ An over lap of 4,be at least 8 wide and be pinked or frayed .
5- It is considered good doping practice to wet sand lightly, with NO.
000 sandpaper or its equivalent, after the :
*/ Fifth coat .
6- The maximum allowable deterioration for fabric is :
*/ 30 %.
7- What are the first results when the first coat of dope is applied with
a spray gun?
*/ Compressed air raises the knap of the fabric and the atomized dope
dries so fast it leaves a rough finish.
8- Prior to covering with fabric, all parts of the structure that will
come in contact with the fabric should be:
*/ Dope-proofed with aluminum foil, dope proof paint, cellulose tape,
or other suitable material.

224 focal point of airframe and structure

focal point of airframe and structure 225

Fuel& Fuel System

1- What is meant by the term fuel?

*/ Fuel is a substance that will combine with oxygen to produce heat.

2-What is meant by a hydrocarbon fuel?

*/ Chemical compounds that are made up of hydrogen and carbon.

3- What is meant by the Reid vapor pressure of aviation gasoline?

*/ Seven pounds per square inch .

4-What is the maximum Reid vapor pressure that is allowed for

aviation gasoline at 100 degrees Fahrenheit ?

*/ The pressure of the vapors above the fuel in a closed container at a

specified temperature (usually 100 degrees Fahrenheit). The RVP
of a fuel is a measure that relates to its tendency to vapor lock.

5- What are two types of liquid fuels that are used in internal
combustion engines?

*/ Volatile fuel and nonvolatile fuel .

6- What are three types of volatile liquid fuels may be used in

reciprocating engines?

*/ Alcohol, gasoline, and kerosene .

7- What are the two most widely used fuels for aircraft engines?

*/ Gasoline and kerosene .

226 focal point of airframe and structure

8- What is the purpose of tetraethyl lead that is added to aviation

*/ Tetraethyl lead increases the performance of the engine by allowing

higher compression ratios to be used without the fuel detonating.

9- What is meant by volatility of an aviation gasoline?

*/ The tendency of the fuel to vaporize (to change from a liquid into a

10- What problem can be caused by gasoline that vaporizes too


*/ Fuel lines will fill with vapor and prevent liquid fuel reaching the
carburetor. This is called a vapor lock.

focal point of airframe and structure 227

1- What problem can be by gasoline that dose not vaporize readily


*/ It can cause the engine to be hard to start, slow to warm up, and
have poor acceleration and uneven fuel distribution.

2- What is one reason automobile gasoline has not gained popularity

with the manufacturers of aircraft engines?

*/ The production of automobile gasoline (MOGAS)is often not held

to the close tolerances that aircraft engine manufactures demand of
the fuel they recommend.

3- When is carburetor ice most likely to from in the carburetor that is

installed on an aircraft engine?

*/ When outside air temperature is between 30 and 40 degrees

Fahrenheit, and the humidity of the air is high.

4- What is meant by an aromatic fuel?

*/ A fuel that has such chemical compounds as benzene, xylene, and

toluene added to it to improve its anti-detonation characteristics.

5 - What causes detonation?

*/ The fuel reaches its critical pressure and temperature and explodes
rather than burns.

6- What is meant by detonation?

*/ Detonation is an explosion, rather than a burning, inside the

cylinder of a reciprocating engine, cause by the fuel reaching its
critical pressure and temperature.

7- What is meant by the octane rating of an aviation gasoline?

*/ A rating that shows the relative anti-detonation characteristics of

aviation gasoline.

228 focal point of airframe and structure

8- What is meant by the performance number of an aviation gasoline?

*/ A rating for the anti-detonation of a fuel that is better than that of

iso octane ( the high rating fuel that is used in the octane rating

9- What causes detonation?

*/ The fuel reaches its critical pressure and temperature and explodes
rather than burns.

10- What can be the result of severe detonation in an aircraft engine?

*/ Detonation can cause severe structural damage to the engine.

focal point of airframe and structure 229

1- What is one problem of using aromatic fuel in an aircraft fuel


*/The aromatic additives have a strong solvent action on rubber

products in the fuel lines and fuel metering system.

2- What characteristic of an aviation fuel relates to its tendency to

vapor lock? */ Its vapor pressure.

3- What normally causes per-ignition in an aircraft engine?

*/Local hot spots inside the cylinders caused by valve edges or carbon
particles becoming incandescent.

4- What type of classification system is used for aviation gasoline that

has better anti-detonation characteristic than 100- octane gasoline?
*/ Performance number .

5- Why is ethylene dibromide used with aviation gasoline?

*/ Ethylene dibromide unites with some of the lead that has been left
from the tetraethyl lead and helps scavenge the lead deposits from
the cylinders so they will not foul the spark plugs.

6- What is the purpose of tetraethyl lead that is added to aviation


*/ Tetraethyl lead improves the anti-detonation characteristics of the

fuel by increasing its critical pressure and temperature.

7- How may the antiknock characteristics of aviation gasoline be


*/ By the addition of tetraethyl lead to the fuel.

230 focal point of airframe and structure

8- What are two distinct causes of corrosion that can be attributed to
ethyl gasoline?

*/ A- The reaction of lead bromide with hot metallic surfaces.

B- Hydrobromic acid that condenses as a product of combustion

when the engine is not running.

9- What action must be taken if aviation gasoline in an aircraft fuel

system is contaminated with turbine engine fuel?

*/ All of the contaminated fuel must be drained from the tanks and the
tanks flushed with the proper grade of fuel. If the fuel has gotten
into the fuel system, all of the system must be drained and flushed.
If the engine has been run on the contaminated fuel, it must be
given a thorough inspection .

10- In the dual numbering system that has been used for aviation
gasoline, what is the meaning of the second number?

*/ The second number is the octane rating of the fuel when it is being
used with a rich mixture. The first number is the octane rating of
the fuel when it is being used with a lean mixture.

focal point of airframe and structure 231

1- Why is it important that the fuel tanks of an aircraft be filled

completely as soon after flight as is practical?

*/ Water will condense in the air space above the fuel in a partially
filled fuel tank.

2- What color is 100-low-lead aviation gasoline?

*/ Blue .

3- What color is 100-octane aviation gasoline?

*/ Green.

4- What color is grade 80 aviation gasoline?

*/ Red.

5- What are the two basic types of turbine engine fuel used in aircraft?

*/ Kerosene fuel and a blend of gasoline and kerosene fraction .

6- What kind of fuel is jet-A fuel?

*/ Aviation kerosene.

7- What kind of fuel is jet-B fuel?

*/A blend of kerosene and gasoline fractions .

8- Do jet fuel identification numbers have any relationship to the

characteristics of the fuel?

*/ No .

9- What color is turbine engine fuel?

*/ Amber .

232 focal point of airframe and structure

10- Why are jet engine fuels more susceptible to contamination than
aviation gasoline?

*/ Their viscosity is higher than that of gasoline, so they hold more

contamination than gasoline dose.

focal point of airframe and structure 233

1- What two forms can water be in, in turbine engine fuel, that can
cause problems in an aircraft fuel system?

*/ Water that is dissolved in the fuel and water that is suspended

(entrained) in the fuel.

2- What is one of the dangers of entrained water in a turbine engine


*/ Particles of entrained water can coalesce and form free droplets of

water that can freeze on the surface of a fuel filter and shut of the
flow of fuel to the engine.

3- What damage can occur to an aircraft reciprocating engine if the

wrong grade of fuel is used?

*/ The wrong grade of fuel can cause a reciprocating engine to

detonate. Detonation causes structural damage to the engine.

4- What damage can occur in a turbine engine if too much aviation

gasoline is mixed with turbine engine fuel?

*/ The tetraethyl lead in the fuel can cause deposits to from on the
turbine blades and vanes.

5- What is ever permissible to use aviation gasoline in an aircraft

turbine engine?

*/ Yes, most turbine engine manufactures allow a certain limited use

of aviation gasoline.

6- What is the effect of microbial growth in an aircraft fuel tank?

*/ A scum forms inside the fuel tank that attracts water and holds it in
contact with the fuel tank skin. This water causes corrosion to
from inside the fuel tank.

234 focal point of airframe and structure

7- How is the fuel that is supplied to a high-output aircraft engine held
under pressure at the inlet of the fuel metering system?

*/ An auxiliary fuel pump pressurizes the fuel in the lines between the
fuel tank and the fuel metering system.

8- What is meant by an integral fuel tank in an aircraft?

*/ A fuel tank that is made by sealing off a portion of the wing and
using it as a fuel tank.

9- What is the purpose of the sump in an aircraft fuel tank?

*/ Water and other contaminants collect in the sump and they are
periodically drained from the tank

10- What is the purpose of the internal baffles in an aircraft fuel tank?

*/ Baffles keep the fuel from surging back and forth in flight.

focal point of airframe and structure 235

1- What information must be marked on the filler neck of an aircraft

fuel tank for a reciprocating engine-powered aircraft?

*/ The word FUEL and a notation of the minimum grade that is

approved for the aircraft.

2- What is the purpose of the scupper around the filler neck of a

aircraft fuel tank?

*/ Any fuel that spills when the tank is being filled collects in the
scupper and drains overboard, rather flowing into the structure.

3- What is a bladder-type fuel cell?

*/ A rubberized fabric liner that is installed in a portion of the aircraft

structure to hold the fuel.

4- What type of flexible hose is allowed in a fuel system on the engine

side of the firewall?

*/ Only a fire-resistant hose .

5- What type of strainer is installed in the outlet of the fuel tanks?

*/A coarse mesh finger strainer.

6- Why is a boost pump installed in an aircraft fuel tank?

*/ Boost pumps are used to prevent vapor lock by pressurizing the fuel
in the lines between the fuel tank and the engine, to provide fuel
pressure for starting the engines, and to transfer fuel from one tank
to another.

7- What type of fuel pump installed in an aircraft fuel tank?

*/ A vane-type pump .

236 focal point of airframe and structure

8- How is fuel pressure increased on a vane-type fuel pump?

*/ Increase the compression on the spring that holds the pressure relief
valve on its seat.

9- What is the purpose of the diaphragm in a vane-type fuel pump?

*/ Air pressure from the carbonator deck applies a force on the

diaphragm that increases the force that holds the relief valve on its
seat. The balance between the force from the diaphragm and the
force from the spring keeps the fuel pump output pressure a
constant amount greater than that of the air pressure entering the

10- How is detonation normally detected in an aircraft engine?

*/ Detonation is usually detected by a sudden increase in cylinder

head temperature.

focal point of airframe and structure 237

1- What are two advantages of an electrical type fuel quantity

indicator over an mechanical-type indicator?

*/ A- The fuel quantity indicator can be located at any location in the

aircraft .

B- The fuel level of several tanks can be read on one indicator.

2- What is the main advantage of an electronic-type fuel quantity

indicator over an electrical indicator?

*/ An electronic fuel quantity indicator shows the weight of the fuel in

the tanks, rather than just the volume.

3- What is the principle upon which an electronic-type fuel quantity

indicator system works?

*/ The probe in the fuel tank acts as a capacitor with the fuel serving
as the dielectric .The dielectric constant of the fuel varies with its
density .

4- What is meant by a drip-gage-type fuel quantity indicating system?

*/ A hand-operated fuel gage that may be pulled down from the

underside of the fuel tank to give an indication of the level of the
fuel inside the tank .

5- What is the principle of operation of a mass flow indicator that is

used in the fuel system of a turbine-powered aircraft?

*/ Fuel flows through a spring-restrained turbine inside the flow

meter. The amount the turbine deflects is affected by both the
density of the fuel and by the rate of flow .

238 focal point of airframe and structure

6- Why is the indication of a mass flow indicator more meaningful
that the indication of a vane-type flow meter?

*/ The indication of the mass flow indicator is affected by the density

as well as the volume of flow of the fuel, whereas that of a vane-
type flow meter is affected only by the flow.

7- Why is it important to know the temperature of the fuel in a jet

transport aircraft?

*/ These aircraft fly at such high altitudes that the fuel can become
cold enough to can dense water from the fuel, and the water will
freeze on the fuel filters and block them . If the fuel becomes too
cold, it can be routed through a fuel-oil heat exchanger.

8- Are leaking fuel cells repairable?

*/ Yes, you must follow the instructions of the manufacturer of the

fuel cell.

9- How is a leaking integral fuel tank repaired?

*/ The tank is drained and purged of all vapors. The leaking sealant is
removed and replaced with new sealant.

10- How is detonation normally detected in an aircraft engine?

*/ Detonation is usually detected by a sudden increase in cylinder

head temperature.

focal point of airframe and structure 239

1- What is indicated by the fuel pressure gage that is used with

injection system for a horizontally opposed engine?

*/ These gages read the pressure drop across the injector nozzles. This
pressure drop is proportional to the rate of flow through the

2- What is meant by a manifold cross-feed fuel system?

*/ All of the fuel tanks feed into a common manifold, and all of the
engines are fed from the manifold.

3- Why must some aircraft have a fuel jettisoning system?

*/ If the aircraft is certificated with a higher takeoff weight than is

allowed for landing, there must be provisions to jettison enough
fuel to bring the aircraft weight down to its certificated landing

4- What must be done before a welded fuel tank can be repaired?

*/ All traces of fuel vapors must be purged from the tank by steam or
carbon dioxide.

240 focal point of airframe and structure

focal point of airframe and structure 241

Welding & Sheet Metal

1- Before you weld a tube that has been filled with lion oil you would?

*/ Apply heat to burn oil away from the weld cleaning solution to
remove the oil .

2- When welding tubing head in a jig, you should allow for the
expansion as follows:

*/ 1/32 to 3/32 of an inch.

3- If cracks develop on the edge of a weld, the probable cause would


*/ cooling is too rapid.

4- The temperature of a neutral acetylene flame should be ;

*/ 5300 degrees F.

5- Which steel tubing is most generally used for substitution ;

*/ X4130 most use generally.

6- To anneal aluminum alloy that has been work hardened, you would
heat to;

*/ 750 to 800 degrees F.

7- The minimum thickness of the upset head should be;

*/1/2 diameter.

8- What is the AN designation for a flat head rivet, diameter 1/16


*/ AN 442.

242 focal point of airframe and structure

9- When welding aluminum the flame should be adjusted so that you
have a very;

*/ Slight excess of acetylene.

10- What is the appearance of a bad weld?

*/ Excessive weld material

focal point of airframe and structure 243

1- Reducing flame is one which has:

*/ An excess of acetylene.

2- If you have sheet steel, thickness of 11 gauge or .120 and it is

desired to bend it, using a1/8 radius, through an angle of 90 deg.,
the calculated bend allowance would be most nearly;

*/ 9/32 inches.

3- The recommended treatment of pontoons for protection is:

*/ Treatment by painting with standard paint and then treatment with a

hot rust preventive or substitute made of anti-corrosive grease of

4- To remove all trace of welding flux you would give the weld and
acid bat and rinse in clear warm water: What is the correct

*/ Warm solution, 50%sulphuric acid . Hold to 150 Deg of F for 10


5- Brass in a weld would cause it to be what?

*/ Soft .

6- Increasing the tension of the oil pressure relief valve would:

*/ Increase the oil pressure.

7- Is a person not holding a currently effective aircraft mechanics

rating allowed to repair a certificated aircraft?

*/ Yes, If the work is supervised by a person holding an effective

aircraft mechanics rating.

8- Evidence of an undercut weld would be shown by:

*/ The edge of the weld would not seem to join the metal.

244 focal point of airframe and structure

9- In welding the tanks and pressure are OK but the tip keeps popping

*/ Tip overheating.

10- The best indication of a good weld is:

*/ The fusion and penetration of the rod and base metal.

focal point of airframe and structure 245

1- A flame with excess acetylene is referred to:

*/ A reducing flame.

2- The proper way to repair a longerons dented at a station is :

*/ Use a patch plate as per manual 18.

3- If a fuselage has been damaged near the center, where would you
start from to check the alignment?

*/ From the first cross members in the front of the fuselage.

4- Stainless steel known as 18-8contains:

*/ 18 % chromium 8% silicon.

5- Why do you remove flux from a weld?

*/ Because it starts corrosion.

6- What would be the classification number of a carbon steel having

no alloy, and containing approximately 0.20-0.30 percent of

*/ 1025.

7- A control cable would be considered as being OK if it is :

*/ Pre stretched.

8- What is AN designation for a flat head rivet, diameter 1/16 length


*/ AN443.

9- What is the minimum allowable rivet margin from the edge of the
material .

*/ 2 times the diameter.

246 focal point of airframe and structure

10- A #3tip used for welding on the same thickness the tip size should

*/ 1 size larger.

focal point of airframe and structure 247

1- How do you prevent a plate from buckling when an excessive

number of rivets are used?

*/ Drill and rivet alternately.

2- To determined the thickness of aircraft tubing the mechanic uses:

*/ A plain micrometer and a small ball bearing.

3- Flexible aircraft cable is designated as:

*/ 7by7.

4- The purpose of the centrifuge used in liquid engines is: */ Remove

gases and vapors from the coolant.

5- For most aircraft welding the pressure of the acetylene for tips NO.
00 to NO. 6 should be:

*/ Approximately 1to 6 pounds square inch.

6- To heat-treat aluminum it should be quenched in:

*/ Warm oil.

7- On a riveted piece of Alclad that is in use the most probable place

that corrosion will first show up is :

*/ Around the rivet heads.

8- All welded tube structures such as used in aircraft should be flushed

out with linseed oil after welding to:

*/ Prevent inside corrosion.

248 focal point of airframe and structure

9- You would test for hardness of a piece of steel, prior to welding

*/ Applying a standard load to a smooth surface of the metal, with a

hardened steel ball or diamond core, and noting depth of
penetration in connection with a hardness chart.

10- Metals of different groups coming in contact with each other,

when unprotected, result in dissimilar metal corrosion, thus
between dissimilar groups of metals should be prevented.

*/ Contact surface should be adequately protect

focal point of airframe and structure 249

1- A welder must not use clothing that has grease spots or oil marks

*/ An explosion may occur if the grease or oil spots come in contact

with compressed oxygen.

2- Aircraft tubing is measured according to the :

*/ The outside diameter and wall thickness.

3- Nonferrous metals are those which contain no iron. Examples are

aluminum, magnesium, copper, silver and lead. Airplanes are
principally made of nonferrous metals because:

*/They are relatively strong and light in weight.

4- All forms and tempers of 2S material can be welded with either the
oxyhydrogen or oxyacetylene flame, sheet, plate, and bar stock
one-half inch or thicker can be arc welded. For all light gauges,
however, the flame generally preferred is:

*/ Oxyhydrogen.

5- Fuel line and fuel tanks are generally made from aluminum alloys
designated as:

*/ 2S, 3S, and 52C .

6- Anodizing is a process whereby:

*/ A thin film of aluminum oxide is formed on the surface of

aluminum alloy parts by an electro-chemical means to prevent

7- when forming sheet metal parts bend lines should:

*/ Be made to lie at an angle to the grain, preferably 90 degrees.

250 focal point of airframe and structure

8- Welding flux on aluminum is used for what purpose:

*/ To get rid of oxides.

9- A flux for silver soldering can be obtained by using:

*/ Zinc chloride.

10- The best method for removing rust from steel is:

*/ Careful sandblasting.

focal point of airframe and structure 251

1- Flux from non-ferrous metals can be removed by using: */ A 5%

solution of nitric or sulphuric acid and washing the parts
thoroughly and then rinse and test with an acidified solution of
silver nitrate.

2- A poor weld is usually the result of:

*/ Insufficient heat.

3- What does cold bending do to metal :

*/ Strain hardens it.

4- Oxygen and acetylene welding hose can be easily distinguished

from each other by:

*/ Left and right hand threads.

5- Malleable iron should always be brazed instead of fused because:

*/ The malleability of iron is destroyed if the temperature is raised

over 1300 degrees F.

6- Spot welding as compared to riveting is:

*/ 60 % stronger.

7- Welding aluminum differs from welding steel in that:

*/ The melting point of aluminum is much lower than steel and the
linear expansion is nearly three times as great.

8- Flux from ferrous metals can be removed by using:

*/ You do not use a flux when welding ferrous metals.

9- What procedure should be distinguish heat treatable alloys from

non-heat treatable alloys:

*/ Immerse sample of material in a 10 % solution of sulphuric acid.

252 focal point of airframe and structure

10- When making a weld on an airplane with arc welding equipment,
it is essential that:

*/ The welding equipment and airplane be properly grounded.

focal point of airframe and structure 253

1- High pressure steel generally is not welded because:

*/ The welding process takes out the high temper of the metal.

2- In general, the more responsive an alloy steel is to heat treatment:

*/ The less suitable it is for welding.

3- Rosette welds are generally employed to fuse:

*/ An inner reinforcing tube (liner) with the outer member.

4- Aluminum alloys, such as 24S, may be heat-treated under carefully

controlled condition in order to:

*/ Further increase their strength properties.

5- In welding fuel tanks made of aluminum alloy the best method of

producing gastight and liquid tight seams is to use:

*/ An oxyacetylene torch.

6- Commercially pure aluminum is designated 2S in the series of

numbers used to classify metals:

*/ Wrought and contains a low percentage of carbon.

7- In repairing a tube a V or fish mouth cut is made at the ends of

each tube where they are to be welded.

*/Give more shear area to the weld.

8- Prior to welding a joint, notches may be cut in the edges with a

chisel about one-sixteenth inch deep and about three-sixteenths
inches apart. These notches:

*/ Permit the flux to flow down the entire thickness of the metal, thus
ensuring good fusion and minimizing heat stress.

254 focal point of airframe and structure

9- the proper method or procedure in using a cutting torch is :

*/ Per-heat the metal as the cutting progresses.

10- An important precaution you should take when welding closed

steel tubing, or any closed container, is:

*/ Be sure the tubing or closed container is well vented.

focal point of airframe and structure 255

1- if a weld breaks loose, the most probable cause may be:

*/ The weld is too shallow.

2 - In order to prevent confusing the oxygen and acetylene fittings on

welding apparatus the hose connections are:

*/ Right-hand threaded for oxygen and left-hand threaded for


3 - When polishing at all-metal aircraft, it is of utmost importance not

to use an abrasive polish. This is due to:

*/ The possibility of wearing through the thin coating of pure

aluminum, thus exposing the metal alloy to deterioration.

4- You wish to prevent corrosion inside of a tube that is to be used for

airplane structural purposes. You should treat the inside of the
tube with:

*/ Tube oil or lion oil inserted hot and allowed to sock in before
draining and sealing the tubular surface.

5- Corrosion on aluminum may be arrested by the use of :

*/ Bicarbonate of soda and similar corrosion inhibiter.

6- Cleaning, prior to welding, may be accomplished by:

*/ The use of a wire brush of similar metal.

7- When welding brass plate, the welding rod should be :

*/ Harder.

8- Tubing should be flushed out to prevent deterioration and

corrosion. Satisfactory flushing elements are:

*/ Hot linseed oil, paralketone, or other corrosion inhibiter.

256 focal point of airframe and structure

9- Brazing may be done, in aircraft repair work, when:

*/ The particular application was original approved for the aircraft.

10- When welding , the highest temperature can be obtained by using:

*/ Neutral flame.

focal point of airframe and structure 257

1- The reason for preheating aluminum before you start welding is to:

*/ Decrease the effect of expansion.

2- To blow pipe shall be held at a certain angle and the inner cone of
the flame shall be a certain distance from the metal.

*/ 30 degrees and 1/16 inch to3/16 inch away.

3- Welding gas and oil tanks are usually made of:

*/ 2S.

4- In welding two pieces of sheet steel, 1/8 in. thick, the proper size of
the hole in the welding tip would be:

*/ 0.55 inch.

5- In an electric arc welder , the voltage output of the generator should

range from:

*/ 15 to 45 volts.

6- When is 4130 steel ready to have the welding rod applied?

*/ As it starts to puddle.

7- Which publication of the CAA governs the welding of a streamline


*/ Manual 18.

8- In repairing an engine mount the mechanic finds it necessary to

weld a reinforcing sleeve on one of the mount tubes.

*/ Fish mouth on the ends .

9- In welding a joint between two tubes the mechanic should:

*/ weld the joint in section so as to avoid stress and distortions.

258 focal point of airframe and structure

10 - After making a tubing weld, to prevent oxidation the inside of the
tube should be flushed wit.

*/ Raw linseed oil.

focal point of airframe and structure 259

1- The reason for the use of flux when welding aluminum is:

*/ To prevent the aluminum from oxidizing.

2- In a welding system where will a rupture plug be found generally?

*/ On the acetylene regulator.

3- When making a butt weld what is the regulation regarding the

distance or gap between the tow sheets?

*/ 1/8 inch.

4 - When drilling holes for rosette welds the hold in relation to the
outside diameter of the tube should be :

*/ OD.

5- After welding aluminum the CAA requires that the mechanic :

*/ Remove all remains of flux.

6- Oil should never be allowed near welding because:

*/ Oil is violently ignited when it is allowed to come into contact with

to acetylene.

7- The last tow digits in S.A.E. numbers used to classify metals are the
purpose of:

*/ Indicating the average carbon content in 100ths of percent.

8- A rivet property bucked will have an upset head diameter of:

*/ 1-1/2 diameter.

9- The rivet length to rivet a piece of .032 and .064 together, when
drilled with a #30drill will be:

*/ 9/32 of an inch.

260 focal point of airframe and structure

10- The diameter of a rivet through tubing should be what?

*/ Not less than 1/8 inch, or 1/8 ., the outside diameter of the tubing.

focal point of airframe and structure 261

1- Why do you use flux on aluminum ?

*/ To prevent oxidation.

2- On what type of steel is flux required?

*/ On stainless steel.

3- What is the proper procedure in normalizing x 4130 steel?

*/ Heat to the critical range and cool in air.

4- What does the O in 24S-O stand for?

*/ Annealed.

5- Safety belts installed in certificated aircraft are required to be

capable of withstanding a minimum stress before breaking of:

*/ 1000 lbs.

6- In riveting a reinforcing tube over another the diameter of the rivets

must be not less than:

*/ 1/8 tube diameter.

7- The heating solution for heat-treating aluminum alloy is :

*/ Nitrate bath or air.

8- What is the identification number of chrome molly steel?

*/ 4130.

9- The diameter of an upset rivet head is generally in relation to the

shank diameter:

*/ one and one half .

262 focal point of airframe and structure

10- If a rivet head cracks while driving the most probable cause is :

*/ Excess blows work hardening the metal.

focal point of airframe and structure 263

1- Why are more rivnuts per inch required than ordinary rivets?

*/ The strength is generally double and more are used as a safety


2- When rivets are run through the inside of a hollow tube:

*/ Care should be exercised when driving the head to prevent bending

the rivet inside the tube.

3- Normalizing is a method used to:

*/ Remove all stresses due to previous bending machining and


4- Rivet holes are usually drilled slightly larger than the rivets. This is
generally about:

*/ 0.003 inch.

5- The melting points of brass base metal as comparedto filler rod is

that the:

*/ Melting point of the filler rod melts at the same slightly lower
temperature than the base metal.

6- When riveting two sheets of aluminum together and one is thicker

than other, the formed head of the rivet should:

*/ Go on the side of the thin sheet.

7- the minimum edge distance for rivets used in aircraft is:

*/ Twice the diameter of the rivet.

8- If you are preparing to rivet through two pieces of metal whose

combined thickness is 0.064 inch, the shank of the rivet should be:

*/ 0.064 plus the diameter of the rivet .

264 focal point of airframe and structure

9- S3 rivets should never be used on structural members of a aircraft:

*/ Because they are too soft.

10- Rivets made from 17S material are identified by a:

*/ Raised tit on the head.

focal point of airframe and structure 265

1- When replacing rivets:

*/ The original size should always be size larger.

2- When 24 SO is used in the construction of aircraft, the suffix O


*/ Annealed .

3- When applied to aluminum alloy sheet, the term Alclad indicates

that the surface of the sheet has been treated for corrosion by:

*/ Coating with pure aluminum.

4- If you some 17S rivets above 3/16 in diameter, that had been aging
for tow hours after quenching :

*/ You could not use them because 17S rivets should be used within
thirty minutes after quenching.

5- When a piece of metal is normalized it means?

*/ That all internal stresses have been removed that were created by
working the material.

6- The procedure for use on badly corroded Alclad is:

*/ Treat with chromic acid.

7- what is the main constituent of the certified CAA anti-corrosion


*/ Wax .

8- How are the friction surfaces of cowl shutters lubricated?

*/ Graphite .

266 focal point of airframe and structure

9- The letter O in a SAE classification of a rivet or metal means:

*/ Annealed .

10- it is not considered good practice to use steel rivets when binding
aluminum because of the :

*/ Possibility of dissimilar metal corrosion due to electrolytic action .

focal point of airframe and structure 267

1- On single-lap sheet splice the minimum rivet edge distance is :

*/ Two times the rivet diameter .

2- You wish to bend a piece of sheet steel . The metal thickness is

one- eighth inch, radius of the bend will be one-quarter inch and
the itself will be 90 deg. . The bend allowance for these conditions
will be most nearly .

*/ One-half inch.

3- In plastic windshield installation involving rivets or bolts, the rivets

or bolts should be centered with the holes drilled oversize by:

*/ One-eighth inch.

4- The patching of holes in metal or plywood stressed covering, not to

exceed six inches in any direction when ribs, stringers, etc are not
directly affected, is considered a:

*/ Minor repair.

268 focal point of airframe and structure

focal point of airframe and structure 269

Hydraulic System
1- The hydraulic system is apparently OK but the landing gear will not
raise to the full up position; the probable cause is:

*/ Improper actuating cylinder adjustment.

2- How would you measure the clearance in a Goodyear Multi Disc


*/ With a filler gauge.

3- If you are to repair a pressure accumulator, it is necessary to:

*/ Release the air pressure.

4- A Scissors attachment is used on some shock struts to:

*/ Absorb torque loads.

5- With regard to position, how are chevrons replaced in a strut?

*/ With the apex down.

6- Where would you look for trouble if the wing flaps do not stay

*/ Leaky by-pass relief valve.

7- What is the trouble if after applying the brakes there is a reverse

flow to the reservoir?

*/ Leak in the master cylinder.

8- On a system having brake compensator cylinders, if the left brake

applies but the right does not, the probable cause is:

*/ Improper adjustment of the brake compensator cylinder (right).

270 focal point of airframe and structure

9- If the pilot complains of long travel of the pedal, the probable cause
is :

*/ Improper actuating cylinder adjustment.

10- A de-booster is used to:

*/ Reduce pressure to the brakes.

focal point of airframe and structure 271

1- The discs in the Goodyear type brakes should be adjusted to a total

clearance of

*/ 0/015 inch. .

2- If parking brakes have been set but during hot weather they jump
to the off position, the probable cause would be:

*/ Relief valve leak due to heat expansion.

3- Where is the sediment trap in a hydraulic system?

*/ In the reservoir.

4- Care must be taken of the fluid when filling the hydraulic system
because of :

*/ Girt or dirt getting in the fluid.

5- Under a full load the red line of the piston should be:

*/ inch beyond the packing gland nut.

6- What is the fluid used for windshield deicer equipment?

*/ Alcohol.

7- The object of the line disconnect is ?

*/ To prevent loss of system oil.

8- The color code for fire extinguishing equipment is:

*/ Brown.

9- If while in flight the flaps will only lower half way the probable
cause is:

*/ Flap pressure relief valve set too low.

272 focal point of airframe and structure

10- The shear pin in a hydraulic pump is for what purpose?

*/ It protects the engine accessory drive from extreme loads.

focal point of airframe and structure 273

1- In a system using mineral oil as hydraulic fluid what type of seals

and packing are general used?

*/ Neoprene.

2- When steadily pressing on the brake pedals of a hydraulic brake

system if the brakes continue to depress slowly without building
up pressure and there is no evidence fluid leakage, the cause of the
trouble probably is:

*/ A leak in the master cylinder.

3- When inflating an aero-type strut:

*/ The ship should have its normal load and should be in a taxiing

4- Hydraulic disc type brakes that are weak may be corrected by:

*/ Bleeding the brake pressure liners.

5- A relief valve in a hydraulic brake system is to :

*/ Maintain even pressure to the brakes.

6- In a hydraulic line, an orifice is for the purpose of:

*/ Restraining the rate of flow in the lines.

7- If a compensating port in a master cylinder became clogged it

would eventually cause:

*/ Locked brakes.

8- Snobbery at the pressure gauges are for the purpose of:

*/ Preventing the gauge from having rapid fluctuations.

274 focal point of airframe and structure

9- If the flaps fail to lower, the trouble may be due to :

*/ The relief valve by-passing.

10- Failure of the hydraulic flaps to retract fully may be caused by:

*/ Wrong adjustment of the four-way valve .

focal point of airframe and structure 275

1- Hydraulic brake system synthetic seals should be cleaned with:

*/ Alcohol.

2- A loss of fluid pressure, in a hydraulic system, would cause:

*/ Portions of the system to became inoperative .

3- In flight, if hydraulically operated flaps are unusually slow in

closing, it may be due to :

*/ A worn actuating piston.

4- The color code for hydraulic systems tubing is:

*/ Light blue, yellow, light blue.(New color code- light blue, yellow,

5- If the main hydraulic line breaks:

*/ The landing gear can be lower.

6- The flap overload valve:

*/ Prevents the flaps from lowering when the placarded maximum

flap-down speed is exceeded.

7- Lubrication of hydraulic system threads should be accomplished


*/ The same type of hydraulic fluid as used in the system.

8- A dent in hydraulic tubing that is less than 20% of the tube

diameter is not objection able unless it is in the heel of the bend.
Dents, under these circumstances, may be removed by:

*/ Drawing a bolt of proper size through the tube by means of a length

of cable.

276 focal point of airframe and structure

9- In testing an accumulator, first reduce the air preload to zero, then
apply hydraulic pressure at the system port (with the air valve
loosened) to an amount of:

*/ One and one-half times system pressure .

10- A pilot reports to you that he has very little brakes. You check
and find the fluid and pressure is satisfactory, however, the brake
is very hard. This would indicate:

*/ Excessive worn lining .

focal point of airframe and structure 277

1- Fluctuating pressure on the accumulator pressure dial indicates:

*/ Incorrect or over-air charge in the accumulator.

2- Minor dents and scratches in hydraulic tubing may be repaired by

burnishing with hand tools, providing they are not in the heel of a
bend and are no deeper than:

*/ 10% of the wall thickness of the tube involved.

3- Should the hydraulic relief valve stick in closed position the

hydraulic pump is protected by:

*/ A shear pin incorporated with the pump gear.

4- To prevent corrosion, aluminum tubing should be flushed (the

flushing fluid is usually introduced through small holes drilled in
the tubing) out with:

*/ Hot linseed oil, paralketone, or other corrosion inhibitor.

5- If both types of hydraulic fluid (vegetable and mineral) have been

added to the same hydraulic system, the most probable result will

*/ The formation of gummy deposits in the system.

6- /if the hydraulic system should fail or the pressure drop when you
start to lower the landing gear and it is necessary to use the hand
pump to lower it, the probable cause would be:

*/ Insufficient amount of oil in the system.

7- The purpose of the check valve is to:

*/ Maintain pressure in part of the system and prevent reverse flow.

8- If one brake pulls harder than other, the trouble is probably:

*/ Brakes out of adjustment .

278 focal point of airframe and structure

9- The purpose of the surge chamber is to:

*/ Absorb pressure shock in the system.

10- In order to correct spongy action of the brakes you should:

*/ Bleed the air from the brake system.

focal point of airframe and structure 279

1- What would be the probable trouble, if after the cylinder had been
overhauled, the piston cannot be pulled out:

*/ Rings or chevrons too tight .

2- A snubber is used in a hydraulic system to:

*/ Prevent pressure fluctuation from injuring the pressure gauge.

3- When a 100- hours check is being made, what would you check on
a plain oleo strut?

*/ Oil level and spring condition .

4- The fluid reservoir is provided to:

*/ Provide a reserve that will make up for losses due to leakage.

5- A bleeder valve in the hydraulic system is used to:

*/ Remove air from the system.

6- The pressure in the Douglas DC-3 pressure accumulator and lines is

maintained at:

*/ 800 pounds per square inch .

7- The effect of temperature increase on hydraulic fluid is:

*/ Expansion of the fluid .

8- To check the accumulator pressure the mechanic would:

*/ Note the pressure at which the hydraulic pressure falls of to zero

when some unit is operated with the pump inoperative.

9- In deflating an air oil strut the mechanic should:

*/ Crack the valve open with a wrench and let the air bleed out past
the threads.

280 focal point of airframe and structure

10- The fluid level, in the majority of struts, can be checked by:

*/Deflate the strut and fill with fluid until flush with filler plug hole.

focal point of airframe and structure 281

1- The proper inflation of a strut is determined by:

*/ The mark on the inner strut sleeve.

2- In inverted flight the hydraulic system will on most ships:

*/ Not operate due to starvation of the pump.

3- The color for deicing equipment is:

*/ Green and black .

4- What is the number of the CAA repair and alteration form?

*/ 337.

5- A check valve in a hydraulic system is generally used to:

*/ Confine fluid in some section and prevent reversal of flow.

6- When tightening the packing gland nut on a strut the mechanic

should :

*/ Take the weight off the strut.

7- The most common hydraulic selector valve is :

*/ Four way valve.

8- If the landing gear is lowered but struts back up, the probable cause

*/ Leaky selector valve .

9- A temperature valve expansion regulator in a hydraulic system is

for what purpose:

*/ Fluid under pressure heats and expands; the temperature relief valve
takes care of the expansion.

282 focal point of airframe and structure

10- Mixed hydraulic fluids in a brake system will cause:

*/ Brakes to drag and eventually fail:

focal point of airframe and structure 283

1- When a hydraulic four-way valve leaks at the core it may cause:

*/ An actuating cylinder to operate.

2- The term servo in a hydraulic brake system means:

*/ That the rotary motion of the wheel further expands and applies the

3- What is the purpose of a wing flap relief valve?

*/ It prevents the flaps from being lowered at excessive air speeds.

4- Hydraulic tubing sometimes cracks at flares causing leaks.

*/ Replacing the tube and male fitting.

5- In a hydraulic system, the sediment trap is generally located in the :

*/ Fluid reservoir .

6- Cleaning or flushing agents for a hydraulic system that is serviced

with a mineral based fluid are:

*/ Stoddard solvent or mineral based hydraulic fluid.

7- A red dot located on or near a hydraulic unit indicates:

*/ The system is serviced with mineral based hydraulic fluid.

8- An aerol scissors attachment is for the purpose of :

*/ Prevent rotating of the piston in the cylinder .

9- Flexible hose lines, in a hydraulic system, shall have a slack of


*/ 58 % .

284 focal point of airframe and structure

10- What is an important preliminary to removing a section of the
hydraulic system?

*/ Release pressure from the accumulator.

focal point of airframe and structure 285

1- An aspirator is a device used to:

*/ To pressurize the main reservoir.

2- You would set the hydraulic relief valve by:

*/ Adjusting the relief valve and then the line pressure valve.

3- Accumulators can be visually inspected for fluid leaks. They can

also be checked for air leaks by brushing the accumulator with
soapy water and observing for bubbles. In addition , a high-
pressure gage is necessary to check the accumulator charge of air,
however, the pressure gage reading must be watched very
carefully. The last reading of the gage, when checking the air
charge, before the needle drops suddenly to zero is accepted as:

*/ Accumulator air pressure .

4- The air charge in the pressure accumulator is :

*/ Approximately one-third system pressure.

5- When servicing a hydraulic system, one of the most important

precautions is to avoid:

*/ The use of dirty or contaminated hydraulic fluid.

6- If the hydraulic system pressure gage fluctuates violently the cause


*/ There is insufficient fluid in the reservoir.

7- The standpipe in a hydraulic reservoir:

*/ Provides a reserve supply of fluid for emergency use.

286 focal point of airframe and structure

8- What is probably the trouble if the landing gear dose not down all
the way?

*/ Actuating cylinder not adjusted properly.

9- If you had a leaky strut you would:

*/ Replace chevrons.

10- With what dose the average oleo strut take up the taxiing shock ?

*/ air or spring .

focal point of airframe and structure 287

1- Where would you look for trouble if the flaps cannot be lowered
when they are up:

*/ Wing flap relief valve set too low.

2- what would cause pump seizure:

*/ Expansion from overheating .

3- The purpose of the booster in the controls system is to:

*/ Aid in the movement of the controls .

4- The system pressure is maintained by:

*/ Pressure regulator .

5- What is the probable cause if the brakes act soft but still take hold:

*/ Expander boot stretched.

6- The air bleed of the brake system is located:

*/ In the upper portion of the brake actuating cylinder.

7- If a system is provided with plain rubber seals what kind of fluid

should be used ?

*/ Vegetable kind.

8- when setting the parking brakes on a hot day you would:

*/ Set only tight enough to hold the plane.

9- If you serviced a multi-disc brake with mineral oil and it was

designed for vegetable oil, it would cause:

*/Brakes to grab and failure .

288 focal point of airframe and structure

10- If the hydraulic system was serviced with the improper brake fluid
the system should be flushed with:

*/ Alcohol.

focal point of airframe and structure 289

1- The parts in the hydraulic brake that will first being to wear are:

*/ The discs and shoes.

2- Hydraulic pressure is expressed in :

*/ Pound per square inch .

3- Foaming in the tank is caused generally by:

*/ Low on fluid .

4- What is the purpose of the pressure accumulator?

*/ To maintain system pressure.

5- What is used as propeller device?

*/ Alcohol and glycerin mixture .

6- Where would a mechanic install a ferrule?

*/ On hydraulic lines, tubes, etc..

7- If a line in the landing gear retracting mechanism bursts the pilot

can still retract the landing gear by:

*/ Can not raise the gear in this case.

8- In most hydraulic systems the accumulator is located:

*/ Between the pump and the actuating units.

9- When continued low temperatures are to be encountered to prevent

the hydraulic system from becoming sluggish the mechanic

*/ Lag open lines with asbestos .

290 focal point of airframe and structure

10- The commercial number of hydraulic fluid for use in systems with
natural rubber seals is:

*/ 3586 .

focal point of airframe and structure 291

1- The reservoir standpipe is for the purpose of:

*/ Preventing the power pump from exhausting all the fluid in the tank
so that in the event of power pump failure there would be fluid
available for the hand pump.

2- In aircraft hydraulic systems, pressure accumulators are used:

*/ To stop fluid under pressure.

3- If the hydraulic hand pump is spongy, the probable cause is :

*/ Reservoir low and air in lines .

4- As incorporated in the hydraulic system, the surge chamber is a

device for:

*/ Modulating pressure surges in the hydraulic system.

5- A de-booster on the brake system is for the purpose of:

*/ Reducing the hydraulic fluid pressure.

6- Fluid is supplied to the shock struts on landing gears when:

*/ The struts fully collapsed .

7- Extreme tightening of the packing retainer nut on chevron


*/ Reduces its sealing properties.

8- Hydraulic brake systems should be flushed with:

*/ alcohol.

9- Baffles are installed in hydraulic reservoir to :

*/ Prevent condensation from taking place.

292 focal point of airframe and structure

10- A by-pass check valve is for what purpose:

*/ It enables the pilot to charge the accumulator by using the hand


focal point of airframe and structure 293

1- If brakes that are soft and weak become O.K. after pumping the
pedal a few times, one probable cause is that:

*/ The fluid supply is too low.

2- A bleed in a hydraulic system is a :

*/ Means of reducing pressure surges.

3- Cleaning or flushing agents for a hydraulic system that is serviced

with a vegetable based fluid are:

*/ Alcohol, thinner, toluene or vegetable based hydraulic fluid.

4- The respective colors of vegetable base and mineral base hydraulic

fluids are:

*/ Blue and red.

5- The hydraulic reservoir is located in the highest point of the system


*/ Maintain priming of the hydraulic pumps.

6- If the main hydraulic line breaks:

*/ The landing gear cannot be retracted.

7- When depressing a shock strut you should:

*/ Permit air to escape slowly through the valve core to protect against
a sudden release of the air.

8- The maximum allowable dent(not in the heel of the bend) in

bending a hydraulic tube shall not exceed in relation to the tube

*/ 20 % .

294 focal point of airframe and structure

9- If neoprene seals are used in the hydraulic system, the system
should be serviced with:

*/ Red colored fluid.

10-The hydraulic pump is not putting out maximum pressure. This

may be caused by:

*/ Pump relief valve is stuck in open position.

focal point of airframe and structure 295

Fluid Lines
& Fitting
1- How may local damage be repaired in a piece of high-pressure
hydraulic tubing?

*/ Remove the damaged tubing, and replace it with a new piece of

tubing having the correct part number.

2- Why is copper tubing seldom used as an fluid line an aircraft

hydraulic or fuel systems?

*/ Cooper becomes hard and brittle when it is subjected to vibration,

and it often breaks.

3- What are two types of fluid lines that are used in high-pressure
hydraulic systems?

*/ Metal tubing and flexible hose .

4-What is the temper condition of corrosion-resistant steel that is used

for fluid lines that carry high pressures?

*/ 1/4 -hard .

5- Is the diameter of metal tubing measured on its inside or its


*/ The outside diameter .

6- What is the outside diameter of a piece of number 6 aluminum

alloy tubing that has a wall thickness of 0.050 inch?

*/ Six sixteenths of an inch (3/8-inch) .

296 focal point of airframe and structure

7- What is the inside diameter of a piece of number 6 aluminum alloy
tubing that has a wall thickness of 0.050 inch.

*/ 0.275 inch .

8- When is flexible hose used in an aircraft hydraulic system?

*/ Any time there is relative motion between the two parts that are
joined by a fluid line .

9- Can Buna-N flexible hoses be used with phosphate ester-base

hydraulic fluid?

*/ No .

10- Can neoprene flexible hoses be used with gasoline?

*/ Yes .

focal point of airframe and structure 297

1- Can Butyl flexible hoses be used with phosphate ester-base

hydraulic fluid?

*/ Yes .

2- What is one of the main reasons for using Teflon hose in an aircraft
hydraulic system?

*/ Teflon hose has a very broad operating temperature range, it offers

very little resistance to fluid flow, and its service life is practically

3- How is the type of alloy use in the tubing for an aircraft fluid line

*/ The alloy designation is stamped on the outside of the tube, or it

may be identified by a color code painted on the tube

4- What two aluminum alloys are used for fluid lines that carry low

*/ 1100 and 3003 .

5- What two aluminum alloys are used for fluid lines that carry
medium pressures?

*/ 2024=T and 5052-O15 .

6- When should flexible fluid lines be installed in an aircraft?

*/ Flexible fluid lines are used to connect moving parts with stationary
parts or at any location where there is vibration .

7- What is the purpose of the colored line that runs the length of a
piece of flexible hose?

*/ This is called the lay line, and it is used to determine if the hose was
twisted when it was installed. This line should never spiral around
the hose.

298 focal point of airframe and structure

8- How can you be assured of selecting the correct flexible hose for a
particular installation in an aircraft?

*/ Use only the hose or hose assembly that is identified by part

number in the aircraft manufacturers parts manual.

9- How is a Teflon hose strengthened and protected from damage?

*/ Teflon hose is normally covered with braided stainless steel .

10- Is the size of a flexible hose determined by its inside diameter or

its outside diameter?

*/ Its inside diameter .

focal point of airframe and structure 299

1- How are fluid lines identified with regard to the fluid they carry?

*/ Whit colored bands around the ends of the tubing .

2- What color code is used to identify a fluid line that carries engine

*/ Red .

3- Which type of fluid line fitting ,an AN or an AC fitting, has a short

shoulder between the first thread and the beginning of the flare

*/ An AN fitting .

4- What color is used to identify an AN aluminum alloy fitting?

*/ Blue .

5- What is the flare angle that is used for AN coupling nuts and

*/ Thirty-seven degrees .

6- What the meant by the abbreviation PHDAN on a fluid line?

*/ The material carried in the line is physically dangerous .

7- What are the three parts of an MS flare less fitting?

*/ A body, a sleeve, and a nut .

8- Where are quick disconnect fitting used in an aircraft hydraulic


*/ At locations where the line must be frequently disconnected for

inspection and maintenance. They are often used to connect the
engine-driven pump into the system .

300 focal point of airframe and structure

9- What must be done to a flexible hose that has swaged-on end
fittings, if the hose is damaged?

*/This type of hose assembly cannot be repaired; it must be replaced

with a new hose assembly of the correct part number.

10- How much is piece of rigid aluminum alloy tubing allowed to be

flattened in the bend and still be usable in an aircraft fluid system?

*/The smallest dimension of the diameter of the flattened tubing must

be less than 75% of the original outside diameter of the tubing .

focal point of airframe and structure 301

1- What precautions must be taken if a piece of aluminum alloy tubing

has been bent, using dry sand to prevent the tubing being collapsed
in the bend?

*/ Take special precautions to be sure that all traces of the sand have
been removed from the tubing.

2- What is an advantage of a double flare over a single flare in a piece

of soft aluminum alloy tubing?

*/ A double flare is smoother, more concentric, seals better than a

single flare, and is more resistant to the shearing effect of torque .

3- What is the flare angle for tubing that is used in automotive fluid

*/ Forty-five degrees .

4- How much should the outside diameter of a single flare extend

beyond the end of the sleeve?

*/ The outside diameter of the flare should extend approximately 1/16-

inch beyond the end of the sleeve, but it should not be larger than
the major outside diameter of the sleeve .

5- On what types of tubing should a double flare be used?

*/ On 5052-O and 6061-T tubing for all sizes from 1/8-inch to 3/8-
inch diameter .

6- When is a piece of tubing beaded?

*/ A tube is beaded when it is to be connected with a hose and a hose

clamp .

302 focal point of airframe and structure

7- Dose a scratch or a nick in the outside of a piece of aluminum alloy
tubing that is used to carry hydraulic fluid, cause the tubing to be

*/ Not unless the scratch or nick is deeper than 10% of the wall
thickness or is the heel of a bend .

8- What size and material should be used for a piece of tubing that is
used to repair a section of rigid tubing in an aircraft hydraulic

*/ The tubing that is used for the repair must be of the same material
and thickness as the original tubing .

9- Is a dent in a piece of aluminum alloy tubing that is 10% as deep as

the outside diameter of the tube a reason for rejection of the tube?

*/ Not unless the dent is in the heel of a bend .

10- Why should every piece of rigid tubing that is installed in an

aircraft have at least one bend in it?

*/Bends are necessary to permit the tubing to expand or contract under

temperature changes and to absorb vibration .

focal point of airframe and structure 303

Aircraft Hardware, Material,

& Processes
1- What is meant by hardware with regard to aircraft construction and

*/ The various types of fasteners and miscellaneous small items used

in the manufacture of an aircraft.

2- What is the meaning of the following abbreviations in aircraft

hardware specifications?

A- AN . B- NAS . C- MS.

*/ A-Air Force- Navy .

B- National Aircraft Standards.

C- Military Standards.

3- Which type of the threaded fastener gives the greatest amount of

strength, a bolt or a screw?

*/ A bolt.

4- What are four types of threads that are used on threaded fasteners in
aircraft structure?

*/ A- American National Coarse. B- American National Fine.

C- American Standard Unified Coarse. D American Standard
Unified Fine.

304 focal point of airframe and structure

5- What is meant by each of these classes of thread fits?

A- Class 1 fit. A- Loose fit.

B- Class 2 fit. B Free fit
C- Class 3 fit. C Medium fit .
D- Class 4 fit. D Close fit .

6- What class of thread fit is normally used on an aircraft bolts?

*/ Class 3 (medium) fit .

7- Of what material are most standard AN aircraft bolts made?

*/ Cadmium-plated steel .

8- What mark on the head of a bolt is used to show that the bolt is
made of nickel steel?

*/ A cross or an asterisk

9- What mark on the head of a bolt is used to show that the bolt is
made of corrosion-resistant steel?

*/A single dash on the head .

10- What mark on the head of a bolt is used to show that the bolt is
made of aluminum alloy?

*/ Two dashes on the head .

focal point of airframe and structure 305

1- What mark on the head of a bolt is used to show that the bolt is a
close tolerance bolt?

*/ Across or an asterisk enclosed in a triangle.

2- What is the smallest diameter steel AN bolt that is allowed to be

used in aircraft primary structure?

*/ 10-32 (5/16-inch diameter)

3- What is the smallest diameter aluminum alloy AN bolt that is

allowed to be used in aircraft primary structure?

*/1/4 -inch

4- Is it normally permissible to replace an NAS internal-wrenching

bolt with a standard hex-head bolt?

*/No, the NAS internal-wrenching bolt is much stronger.

5- What must be used with an internal-wrenching bolt when it is

installed in an aluminum alloy structure?

*/ A special heat-treated washer.

6- What is the diameter of an AN4C6A bolt?

*/ 4/16-inch (1/4-inch).

7- Of what material is an AN4C6A bolt made?

*/ Corrosion- resistant steel .

8- What is the length of an AN4C6A bolt?

*/ 6/8-inch (3/4 inch) .

306 focal point of airframe and structure

9- What is the meaning of the last A in the designation of the
AN4C6A bolt?

*/The shank of the bolt is not drilled for a cotter pin.

10- How is a bolt that has been inspected by magnetic particle

inspection identified?

*/They are usually identified with colored lacquer applied after

inspection is completed.

focal point of airframe and structure 307

1- What type of load is property carried by a clevis bolt?

*/ A shear load only.

2- What is a typical application for a Jo-bolt in a modern aircraft?

*/They are quick and economical to install when the aircraft is being
built, and they are used in locations where they are not often
subjected to replacement or servicing.

3- What is an advantage of a lock bolt over a standard bolt, washer

and nut?

*/They are easier and more economical to install when the aircraft is
being built.

4- Is it generally permissible to substitute an alloy steel lock bolt for a

solid steel rivet?

*/ Yes.

5- How is a lock bolt removed from aircraft structure?

*/Split the collar with a chisel and remove it, then carefully drive the
pin out of the structure with a drift punch

6- What is the AN number for each of the following aircraft nuts?

A Castellated nut, B Castellated shear nut, C Fine-thread,

Plain hex nut

*/ A- AN310, B- AN32o, C- AN315.

7- What is one restriction on the use of a self-locking nut in aircraft


*/They may not be used in a such a way that either the bolt or the nut
is subject to rotation.

308 focal point of airframe and structure

8- What are two types of self-locking nuts that are used in aircraft

*/ A The all-metal type,

B The fiber-lock type.

9- How far should a bolt stick through a self-locking nut?

*/Flat-end bolts should extend through the nut for at least 1/32-inch,
and the entire chamfer of a chamfered bolt should extend through
the nut.

10- Is it permissible to reuse a self-locking nut?

*/ Yes , a self-locking nut is reusable as long as the nut cannot be

turned on the bolt with your fingers.

focal point of airframe and structure 309

1- What is the maximum temperature at which elastic stop nuts may

be used?

*/ 250 degrees Fahrenheit .

2- Where is it correct to use spring-steel speed nuts in an aircraft?

*/ Only in location where they were used in the original fabrication of

the aircraft.

3- What is an advantage of a channel nut over a regular nut in an

aircraft structure?

*/ Channel nuts may be installed in locations where a wrench cannot

be used to hold the nut when the bolt is being turned.

4- Why should a plain washer be used under a lock washer?

*/ A plain washer prevents damage to the surface material.

5- What are two types of shake proof lock washer that are used in
aircraft construction?

*/ Internal tab and external tab.

6- What is the general rule with regard to the placement of the bolt
head when a bolt is installed in an aircraft structure?

*/ As much as possible, the bolt should be installed so its head is on

top, or forward. This positioning is used to minimize the chance of
the bolt falling out if the nut should become accidentally lost.

7- Why is it important that many of the structural bolts in an aircraft

are installed with a torque wrench?
*/ Using the correct torque on an aircraft bolt allows the structure to
develop its design strength and greatly reduces the possibility of
failure due to fatigue.

310 focal point of airframe and structure

8- How often should torque wrenches that are used for aircraft
structural service or repair be checked for accuracy of calibration?
*/ They should be checked for accuracy at least once a month.
9- Is it permissible to over-tighten the nut on a bolt in order to make a
slot in the nut align with the cotter pin hole in the bolt?
*/ Yes, this is permissible except for highly stressed engine parts.
10- Unless it is otherwise specified, should the threads of a bolt be dry
or lubricated when using a torque wrench?
*/ Almost all torque charts are compiled for unlubricated, cadmium-
plated steel nuts.

focal point of airframe and structure 311

1- What are three types of screws that are used in aircraft

*/ A- Structural screws,
B Machine screws
C Self-tapping screws.
2- Of what material are structural screws made ?
*/ Heat-treated alloy steel .
3- Is it generally permissible to replace a standard screw and nut with
a self-tapping screw?
*/ No, they do not provide a joint with equivalent strength.
4- What are two uses for a drive screw?
*/ A- Sealing drain holes in structural steel tubing .
B Attaching name plates to castings .
5- What type of device is used to repair threads that have been
stripped out of an aluminum or magnesium casting?
*/ Heli-coil inserts .
6- How is an Acres sleeve secured in its hole?
*/ It may be bonded into hole with a sealant .
7- Where are Dzus fasteners used in an aircraft ?
*/ They are used to secure engine cowling and access doors that must
be opened frequently for inspection or servicing .
8- What are three types of fasteners that are used to secure aircraft
cowling or access doors?
*/ A- Dzus fasteners,
B Cam lock fasteners
C Air loc fasteners .
9- What two materials are used in the manufacture of aircraft control

*/ A Carbon steel,

B Corrosion-resistant ( stainless) steel .

312 focal point of airframe and structure

10- How many individual wires are used in a piece of extra-flexible
control cable?

*/ 133 (seven strands) of 19 wires each .

focal point of airframe and structure 313

1- How are cable terminals attached to a piece of extra-flexible control


*/ They are generally swaged onto the cable .

2- What is the purpose of a turnbuckle in an aircraft cable system?

*/ Turnbuckles are used to vary the length of a cable assembly to

adjust the cable tension .

3- What is another name for a flathead pin?

*/ Clevis pin .

4- Where are taper pins used in an aircraft structure?

*/ In locations where shear loads must be carried with an absolute

minimum of play between the parts .

5- What are two materials of which cotter pins are made?

*/ A Cadmium-plated, low-carbon steel,

B Corrosion-resistant steel .

6- How is a roll pin secured in its hole?

*/ The spring steel of which the roll pin is made presses out against
the sides of the hole and holds the pin in place .

7- What is the basic rule for the direction safety wire is to pull when a
part is safe tied with wire?

*/ The wire should always exert a pull in the direction of tightening of

the fastener.

8- How many turns of safety wire must be wrapped around the shank
of a turnbuckle before cutting off the excess wire?

*/ Four .

314 focal point of airframe and structure

9- What kind of rivet is used for riveting steel sheet?

*/ Mild steel rivets .

10- What is meant by the term icebox rivet?

*/ A rivet made of either 2017 or 2024 aluminum alloy. These rivets

must be heat-treated before they are used. In order to keep them
soft enough to drive after they have been removed from the heat
treatment quench bath, they are stored in a sub-freezing icebox.

focal point of airframe and structure 315

1- What is the diameter of an AN470AD4-4 rivet?

*/ 4/32-inch (1/8-inch) .

2- What is the length an AN470AD4-4 rivet?

*/ 4/16-inch (1/4 inch) .

3- What mark on the head of a solid rivet is used to identify each of

the following materials?

A- 2024 aluminum alloy, */ A- A raised double dash.

B- 2117 aluminum alloy, B- A dimple (recessed dot).
C- 5056 aluminum alloy, C- A raised cross.
D- 1100 aluminum alloy, D- No mark.

4- Of what material are each of these rivets made?

A- AD rivet, */ A- 2117 T aluminum alloy,

B- DD rivet, B- 2024Taluminum alloy,

C- A rivet, C- 1100 commercially pure aluminum.

D- B rivet, D- 5056 aluminum alloy.

5-What material are each of these rivets made?

A- AN426(MS20426), */ A- 100-degrecountersunkhead.

B- AN470(MS20470), B- Universal head.

C- AN430(MS20430), C- Round head.

D- AN441, D- Flat head.

6- Between what two points is the length of an AN426 rivet


*/ The end of the shank and the top of the head.

316 focal point of airframe and structure

7- Between what two points is the length of an AN470 rivet

*/ Between the end of the shank and the bottom of the head.

8- What is the number of the aluminum alloy rivets that should be

used to repair a magnesium aircraft skin?

*/5056 T aluminum alloy, because of its high magnesium content.

9- Of what two materials are most pull-thru rivets made?

*/ 2117-T4, or 5056 aluminum alloy .

10- Is it generally accepted that a self-plugging (mechanical lock)

rivet can be used to substitute for a solid rivet, size for size?

*/ Yes, inmost cases.

focal point of airframe and structure 317

1- In what increments of length are Cherry self-plugging, mechanical

locked blind rivets made?

*/ 1/32-inch increments.

2- What is the function of a Rivnuts?

*/A rivnuts provides a threaded hole in thin sheet metal. They were
originally developed to attach rubber deicer boots to the leading
edge of a wing.

3- What is the main use for a Deutsch rivet?

*/ A Deutsch rivet makes a strong, lightweight joint that can be

installed from one side of the parts that are being joined.

4- How is a Hi-shear pin rivet held in place?

*/ A collar is swaged into a groove around the end of the rivet pin.

5- What are the two classifications of plastic materials?

*/ A Thermo plastic,

B Thermo setting .

6- Which type of plastic material softens when it is heated and hardens

when it cools?

*/Thermo plastic .

318 focal point of airframe and structure

7- What is meant by a stretched acrylic material?

*/ Transparent acrylic plastic sheet that has been pulled in both

directions to rearrange its molecular structure. Stretched acrylic
has greater impact strength, has better chemical resistance, and is
less susceptible to crazing than non-stretched acrylic.

8- What may be used to remove hardened masking tape from a piece

of acrylic plastic?

*/ Aliphatic naphtha.

9- What are two materials that may be used as the core of a piece of
sandwich-type laminated structural material used in aircraft

*/ Fiberglass honeycomb .

10- What is the chief problem that is associated with using natural
rubber as a sealing material?

*/ Natural rubber deteriorates more readily than synthetic rubber, and

it is damaged by petroleum products.

focal point of airframe and structure 319

1- What type of synthetic rubber is used as seals in a hydraulic system

that uses phosphate ester- base hydraulic fluid?

*/Butyl synthetic rubber .

2- What is Buna-S synthetic rubber used for?

*/ Buna-S is normally used for tires and tubes as a substitute for

natural rubber .

3- What is Buna-N synthetic rubber used for?

*/ Buna-N is used for oil and gasoline hose, tank linings, gaskets and
seals .

4- What is neoprene synthetic rubber used for?

*/ Neoprene is used for weather seals, window channels, bumper pads,

oil-resistant hose, and carburetor diaphragms .

5- What is the proper name for a seal that is used between two
components that have movement between them?

*/ A packing .

6- Is an O-ring a one-way or a two-way seal?

*/ A tow-way seal .

7- What color marking is used on an O-ring seal to indicate that it is

usable with aviation gasoline?

*/ Red .Aviation gasoline is a hydrocarbon fluid .

8- What is the most reliable way to know that the O-ring seal you are
installing is the correct one for the installation?

*/ Only by buying the O-ring in a sealed envelope from a reportable

vendor and identifying the seal by the part number on the

320 focal point of airframe and structure

9- What is the proper name for a seal that is used between two
surfaces where there is no movement?

*/ A gasket .

10- Is a V-ring packing (a chevron seal) a one-way or two-way seal?

*/A one-way seal .

focal point of airframe and structure 321

1- What is the purpose of a backup ring used with an


*/ Backup rings support an O-ring in its groove and keep high fluid
pressure from extruding the O-ring into the space between the
piston and the cylinder wall .

2- What is the function of a wiper in the end cap of a hydraulic

actuator cylinder?

*/ Wipers prevent dirt from entering a hydraulic component and

damaging the piston shaft or the shaft seal.

3- What are the two parts of a two-part sealant?

*/ A The base sealing compound .

B The accelerator .

4- What is that actually controls the curing of a two-part sealant?

*/ Heat .

5- What is corrosion?

*/Deterioration of a metal by a chemical or an electrochemical attack .

6- Can corrosion take place inside a metal, or is it strictly a surface


*/ Corrosion can from on either the surface of a metal or inside the

metal .

7- How does surface corrosion appear on a piece of aluminum alloy?

*/ It first shows up as a gray or white powdery deposit on the surface

of the metal .

322 focal point of airframe and structure

8- What actually happens when a piece of metal corrodes?

*/ The metal is changed into a porous chemical salt that has no

strength .

9- What are three causes of direct chemical attack type of corrosion?

*/ A Spilled battery electrolyte .

B Welding flux that was not removed .

C Caustic cleaning solutions that are not removed .

10- What is the standard pressure of the atmospheric expressed in

inches of mercury and in pounds per square inch?

*/ 29.92 inches of mercury, or 14.69 pounds per square inch .

11- What are the two basic types of energy?

*/ A Potential energy,

B Kinetic energy .

focal point of airframe and structure 323

1- What type of metal forms a green film when it corrodes?

*/ Copper .

2- Exfoliation corrosion is an extreme case of what type of corrosion?

*/ Intergranular corrosion .

3- Which type of corrosion is similar in its action to the action which

takes place inside a dry-cell battery?

*/ Electrochemical attack .

4- How dose surface corrosion show up if it forms under a film of


*/ Small blisters from under the paint film and raise the paint .

5- What is the name of corrosion that attacks a metal along the

boundaries inside the metal?

*/ Intergranular corrosion .

6- What type of corrosion in aluminum alloy parts is intensified by

improper heat treatment?

*/Intergranular corrosion .

7- What may Intergranular corrosion be detected inside a piece of


*/ By the use of ultrasonic or eddy current inspection .

8- What type of corrosion occurs between two aircraft skins that that
are subject to very slight relative movement?

*/ Fretting corrosion .

324 focal point of airframe and structure

9- Which would be more susceptible to corrosion if all other
conditions are the same, a thick piece of metal or a thin piece of

*/ A thick piece of metal.

10- Why is the exhaust trail area of aircraft structure specially prone to

*/ The exhaust gas of both reciprocating engines and turbine engines

contain corrosive materials.

focal point of airframe and structure 325

1- What must be done to the vapors that are released inside a battery
box to prevent their causing corrosion of the aircraft structure?

*/ These vapors must be neutralized before they are released into the
air. Vapors from a lead-acid battery are neutralized by bicarbonate
of soda, and vapors from a nickel-cadmium battery are neutralized
by boric acid.

2- What is used in the bilge area of seaplanes and amphibians to

minimize corrosion in these areas?

*/Bags of potassium dichromate .

3- Where is corrosion likely to form on a magnesium wheel?

*/ Around the bolt heads, lugs, and wheel web areas .

4- Where is corrosion most likely to form on a magnesium aircraft


*/ Along the edges of the skins, around fasteners, and at any part of
the skin where the paint has been chipped or cracked .

5- How can control cable be inspected for internal corrosion between

its strands?

*/ Randomly clean short sections of the cable to the check for the
presence of corrosion deposits.

6- What must be done to an aircraft control cable if it is determined

that it has corrosion between the strands?

*/ The cable must be replaced.

7- What type of paint stripper is recommended for removing paint

from an aircraft surface?

*/ A general-purpose, water-instable paint stripper .

326 focal point of airframe and structure

8- How dose rust on a steel part differ from the oxide film that forms
on a piece of aluminum?

*/ The presence of rust on a steel surface attracts moisture from the air
and promotes additional attack. The oxide film that forms on
aluminum is nonporous and it does not allow air or moisture to
reach the metal. The oxide on aluminum prevents further attack.

9- What type of steel structural components should not have rust

removed by the use of power-driven steel brushes?

*/ Highly-stressed steel part .

10- How is pure aluminum protected from corrosion?

*/ By a non-porous oxide film that forms on its surface .

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1- What four steps should be taken to treat corrosion that is found on a

painted aluminum alloy aircraft surface?

*/ A- Remove all of the paint from the affected area .

B- Remove all of the salts of corrosion with a fine abrasive or an

approved metal polish .

C- Treat the surface with an inhibiting material such as sodium

dichromate .

D- Repaint the surface to match the original finish .

2- What is meant by cladding of aluminum alloy sheets?

*/ The lamination of a thin layer of pure aluminum on the surfaces of

the alloy sheet .

3- Should steel wool ever be used to remove corrosion from an

aluminum alloy surface ?

*/ No, use only aluminum wool, aluminum wire brushes, or fiber

bristle brushes .

4- In what units is pressure measured ?

*/Pound per square inch, inches of mercury, or inches of water .

5- What reference is used for measuring absolute pressure?

*/ Zero pressure, or a vacuum.

6- What five steps should be taken to treat a painted magnesium alloy

surface that shows signs of corrosion?

*/ A- Clean and strip the paint from the affected area .

B - Use a stiff hog-bristle brush to break away and remove all

traces of the corrosion deposits .

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C- Cover the cleaned area with a chromic acid solution .

D- Allow the treated area to remain wet for the recommended time
and then wipe off the solution and dry the surface .

E- Restore the original protective paint film .

7- Is titanium inherently corrosive or corrosion resistant?

*/ Titanium is inherently corrosion resistant .

8- What can be placed between sheets of magnesium or between

magnesium and aluminum to minimize the possibility of corrosion
forming between the sheets?

*/ Coat each surface with at least two coats of zinc chromate primer,
then place a strip of pressure-sensitive vinyl tape on one surface
and joint surfaces .

9- What are three common forms of energy?

*/ A Chemical, B Mechanical, C Electrical .

10- What are six forms of energy that can be converted into heat

*/ A Mechanical energy, B Electrical energy,

C Chemical energy, D Radiant energy,

E Nuclear energy, F The sun .

11- What are three methods of heat transfer?

*/ A Conduction, B Convection, C Radiation.

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1- What are two metals that may be plated onto steel to increase the
corrosion resistance of the steel?

*/ A Cadmium B Nickel .

2- What is meant by metal spraying?

*/ Coating the surface of the metal with a layer of aluminum or other

metal which has been melted and blown onto the surface while in
its molten state

3- What is meant by pickling a steel part ?

*/ Forming a nonmetallic, oil-absorptive phosphate coating on the

surface of the steel .

4- What kind of treatment is anodizing?

*/ The formation of a dense coating of aluminum oxide on the surface

of a sheet of aluminum alloy by an electrolytic process .

5- What kind of treatment is alodizing?

*/ The formation of a dense coating of aluminum oxide on the surface

of a sheet of aluminum alloy by a chemical process ?

6- Which type of fluid, liquid or gas, is considered to be


*/ A gas.

7- How may a damaged anodized surface on an aluminum alloy sheet

be repaired in the field?

*/ The protective oxide film may be restored by the chemical method

of Alodizing .

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8- What is used to clean a magnesium casting in preparation for
painting it?

*/ A dichromate solution .

9- What is the purpose of the chromic acid treatment for corroded

aluminum alloy?

*/ The chromic acid restores the protective oxide coating to the

surface of the treated metal .

10- What are three commonly used finishes for aircraft surfaces?

*/ A Nitrocellulose finish .

B Acrylic nitrocellulose finish .

C Epoxy finish .

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1- What should be done to a plastic windshield of an aircraft before it

is scrubbed?

*/ All of the salt deposits and dirt should be off with a stream of fresh,
clean water .

2- What may be used to remove dirt and mud from a transparent

plastic wind shield of a aircraft?

*/ A neutral soap solution and lots of clean water.

3- What should be used to remove hydraulic fluid or engine oil from

aircraft tires?

*/ A mild soap solution .

4- Which type of naphtha is used as a cleaning fluid for aircraft

surfaces, aromatic or aliphatic naphtha?

*/ Aliphatic naphtha .

5- What my be used to scrub an aluminum alloy surface to remove

corrosion products or stubborn paint films prior to retouching the

*/ Impregnated nylon webbing .

6- Why should emery paper or crocus cloth not be used to remove

corrosion deposits from aluminum or magnesium alloy?

*/Particles of the abrasive may become embedded in the soft

aluminum or magnesium and cause severe corrosion .

7- How may the hardness of a metal be increased without heat-

treating the metal?

*/ By cold working the metal (hammering or rolling it) .

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8- What is meant by a metal being malleable?

*/ The metal is capable of being hammered, rolled, or pressed into

various shapes without cracking or breaking .

9- What are three important considerations when selecting a material

to be used as an aircraft structural material?

*/ A- Strength,

B- Weight,

C- Reliability .

10- What is meant by the tensile strength of a material?

*/ The ability of a material to resist a force which tends to pull or


focal point of airframe and structure 333

1- What is meant by the compressive strength of a material?

*/The ability of a material to resist a force which tends to crush it (to

squeeze it together .

2- In what units is tensile strength of a material measured?

*/ Pound per square inch .

3- What happens to a metal when it is bent back and forth or


*/ It becomes work hardened, which makes it brittle and susceptible to

cracking .

4- What are the two types of heat treatment of aluminum alloy?

*/ A Hardening,

B Annealing (softening) .

5- What type of metal working process is forging?

*/ A hammering process used to from metal when it has been heated

to a temperature that is above its critical range .

6- What is meant by stress reliving steel?

*/ Heating the metal to the proper temperature and holding it at this

temperature for a specified length of time, then allowing the metal
to cool to room temperature in still air. This is called normalizing .

7- What is done to a metal when it is annealed?

*/ The metal is softened by heating it to a specified temperature,

holding it at this temperature for a specified period of time, and
allowing it to cool slowly in the furnace.

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8- What is done to a metal when it is normalized?

*/ The metal is strain relieved by heating it to the proper temperature

and holding it at this temperature for a specified length of time,
then allowing the metal to cool to room temperature in still air.

9- How is seamless steel aircraft structural tubing made?

*/ The tubing is cool-drawn through a ring-shaped die with a mandrel,

or a metal bar, inside the tubing to support it while the drawing
operations are being performed.

10- What type of steel is SAE 4130 steel?

*/ Chrome molybdenum steel .

focal point of airframe and structure 335

1- What is meant by the metal working process of extruding?

*/ Forcing metal, while in it plastic state, through a specially shaped

die. The cross sectional shape of the metal is the shape of the die

2- What meant by a ferrous metal?

*/ A metal whose principal constituent is iron.

3- What percent of carbon is in SAE 1025 steel?

*/ 0.25 percent .

4- How much carbon is in low-carbon steel?

*/ Between 0.10 and 0.30 percent .

5- How much carbon is in medium-carbon steel?

*/ Between 0.30 and o.50 percent .

6- How much carbon is in medium-carbon steel?

*/ Between 0.50 and 1.05 percent.

7- What is the main advantage of magnesium as a structural material

for aircraft construction?

*/Magnesium has the highest strength-to-weight ratio of any

commonly used metal.

8- What is the principal alloying agent in corrosion-resistant steel?

*/ Chromium.

9- What is the SAE number of the alloy steel that is used of the
hardware that is used in an aircraft structure?

*/ SAE 2330 .

336 focal point of airframe and structure

10- What is the SAE number of the alloy steel that is used for most of
the primary aircraft structure steel tubing?

*/ SAE 4130 .

focal point of airframe and structure 337

1- What kind of metal is Inconel?

*/ A nickel-chromium-iron alloy.

2- What is meant by a wrought aluminum alloy?

*/ An aluminum alloy that can be shaped by rolling, drawing, or


3- What are three methods of casting aluminum alloy?

*/ A Sand casting,

B Permanent mold casting,

C Die casting,

4- How may the strength of a non-heat-treatable aluminum alloy be


*/ By cold working, such as hammering, rolling, or drawing.

5- What is the alloy number for commercially pure aluminum?

*/ 1100 .

6- What is the chief alloying agent in 2024 aluminum alloy?

*/ Copper.

7- What is the chief alloying agent in 7075 aluminum alloy?

*/ Zinc .

8- What does the letter O indicate when it is used as a temper

designator for aluminum alloy?

*/ The metal has been annealed

338 focal point of airframe and structure

9- What type of heat treatment has been done to a metal that is
designated as 2024-T3 ?

*/ The metal has been solution heat-treated and then cold worked.

10- What type of heat treatment has been done to a metal that is
designated as 7075-T6 ?

*/ The metal has been solution heat-treated and then artificially aged.

focal point of airframe and structure 339

1- What is the purpose of cladding an aluminum alloy sheet?

*/ Cladding protects a sheet of aluminum alloy from corrosion. The

pure aluminum that is rolled onto the surface of the alloy sheet is
more corrosion resistant than the alloy sheet.

2- What is the main reason for using titanium as a structural material

in aircraft construction?

*/ Titanium is corrosion resistant, and it retains its strength when it is

exposed to high temperatures.

3- How is titanium protected from corrosion?

*/ A protective film of stable oxide forms on the surface of titanium.

This film keeps the titanium from corroding.

4- What is one of the advantages of beryllium copper for use in

instrument diaphragms?

*/ Beryllium copper has very good fatigue-and wear-resistance


5- What type of metal is brass?

*/ A copper alloy that contains small amounts of aluminum, iron, lead,

magnesium, manganese, nickel, phosphorous, and tin.

6- What type of metal is monel?

*/ A high-nickel alloy that contains nickel, copper, iron, and


7- What is the main advantage of magnesium as a structural material

for aircraft construction?

*/Magnesium has the highest strength-to-weight ratio of any

commonly used metal.

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8- What are two disadvantages of magnesium as a structural material
for aircraft construction?

*/ A- Magnesium is susceptible to cracking from vibration.

B- Magnesium is also susceptible to corrosion unless it is

adequately protected.

9- What are the main differences in the heat treatment procedures that
are used for aircraft metals?

*/ The temperature to which the metal is heated and the rate at which
the metal cooled.

10- What is meant by an alloy of metal?

*/ A mechanical mixture of metallic elements which has been changed

into a solid solution by heat.

focal point of airframe and structure 341

1- What are two ways an aluminum alloy part may be heated when it
is being heat-treated?

*/ A- It may be heated in an air furnace.

B- It may be heated in a salt bath.

2- What is meant by the soaking process that is used in heat


*/ Holding a metal in the furnace until it reaches a uniform

temperature throughout

3- What are the three liquids that may be used for quenching steel
when it is being heat-treated?

*/ A- Brine, B- Water, C- Oil .

4- Which requires the highest temperature in the heat-treatment of

SAE4130 steel: Normalizing, Annealing, or Hardening?

*/ Normalizing .

5- What is meant by ferrite?

*/ The particles of iron carbide that are scattered throughout the iron
matrix in steel at ordinary temperatures.

6- What is meant by austenite?

*/ The solid solution of carbon dissolved in the iron matrix at elevated


7- What determines the maximum hardness a piece of plain carbon

steel can attain?

*/ The carbon content of the steel.

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8- What is the correct name for centigrade temperature?

*/ Celsius temperature.

9- How is plain carbon steel hardened?

*/ Heat the steel to a temperature that is just above its critical

temperature, sock it for the required length of time, and cool it
rapidly by quenching it in a bath of brine, water, or oil.

10- What meant by Tempering steel?

*/ Removing some of the hardness from hardened steel. This makes

the steel less brittle.

focal point of airframe and structure 343

1- what is meant by Annealing steel?

*/ Making the steel as soft as is possible by heating it to the required

temperature and then allowing it to cool very slowly.

2- What is meant by Normalizing steel?

*/ Removing the internal stresses from steel that have been put there
by welding, casting, forming, or machining. Normalizing is done
by heating the metal to a specified temperature and then allowing
it to cool to room temperature in still air.

3- What is done to a piece of steel when it is case hardened?

*/ An extremely hard surface forms on the metal, but the inside of the
metal remains relatively soft and tough.

4- What type of heat treatment of steel is used to produce a hard,

wear-resistant surface over a strong, tough core?

*/ Case hardening .

5- Which is used to give a piece of steel the maximum softness:

Normalizing or Annealing?

*/ Annealing .

6- Why is steel tempered after it has been hardened?

*/ Tempering removes some of the hardness and makes the steel less

7- What are the two most generally used means of case hardening

*/ A Carburizing, B Nitriding .

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8- What is meant by the nitriding process for steel heat treatment?

*/ Nitriding is a form of case hardening in which the surface of the

steel is changed into aluminum nitrides by heating the steel in an
atmosphere of ammonia gas .

9- What are two types of heat treatment for aluminum alloys?

*/ A Solution heat-treatment, B Precipitation heat treatment .

10- What is the process used for solution heat treatment of aluminum

*/ The metal is heated to a specified temperature, held at this

temperature for a specified length of time, and then removed from
the furnace and quenched in water.

focal point of airframe and structure 345

1- What is the process for precipitation heat treatment of aluminum


*/ After a piece of aluminum has been solution heat-treated, it is

placed in the oven and heated to a specified temperature and held
for a specified length of time. After the part has soaked for the
correct length of time, it is removed from the furnace and allowed
to cool in still air to room temperature.

2- What dose precipitation heat treatment do to the ductility of an

aluminum alloy?

*/ Precipitation heat treatment decreases the ductility of the metal.

3- What can be done to an aluminum alloy to slow down the

hardening after it is removed from the quench bath in solution

*/ The part may be stored in an ice box at a temperature that is below

the freezing point of water.

4- How is an aluminum alloy annealed?

*/ Het the metal to the correct temperature and hold it until this
temperature is uniform throughout; then cool the metal slowly.

5- What are the two types of heat-treatment for magnesium alloy?

*/ A- Solution heat-treatment,

B Precipitation heat-treatment.

6- What may be done to 2024 aluminum alloy rivets, after they have
been heated and quenched, to keep them soft until they can be

*/They can be stored at a temperature below 32 degrees Fahrenheit in

an icebox.

346 focal point of airframe and structure

7- What qualities of magnesium alloy are improved by precipitation
heat treatment?

*/ Yield strength and hardness.

8- How may titanium alloy be stress relived?

*/ Heat the metal to a specified temperature and hold it until it has

reached this temperature throughout, then cool it in still air.

9- What is measured to determine the hardness of a metal when it is

tested on a Brinell tester?

*/ The diameter of the indentation that is made when the ball is forced
into the surface of the metal.

10- What happens to the temperature of the air in the troposphere as

altitude increases?

*/ Temperature decreases as altitude increases.

focal point of airframe and structure 347

1- What is measured to determine the hardness of a metal when it is

tested on a Rockwell tester?

*/ The depth to which the ball or diamond point penetrates the surface
of the metal.

2- What type of materials can be tested for hardness with a Barcol


*/ Soft aluminum alloys, copper, brass, and other soft metal.

3- What are eight characteristics of matter?

*/ A- Volume, B- Mass,

C- Attraction, D- Weight,

E- Density, F- Inertia,

G- Porosity, H- Impenetrability .

4- What are three basic quantities that require units of measurement?

*/ Mass, Length, and Time .

5- What two temperature scales are used for measuring absolute


*/ Rankin, and Kelvin .

6- What are three differences between a liquid and a gas?

*/ A- Gases expand to completely fill the container that holds them.

B- Gases are lighter than an equal volume of liquid.

C- Gases are highly compressible, but liquids are only slightly


348 focal point of airframe and structure

7- What are four scales are used to measure temperature?

*/ Fahrenheit, Celsius, Rankin, and Kelvin .

8- What is the formula for changing Celsius temperature into

Fahrenheit temperature?

*/ C = 5/9 (F 32) .

9- What is the formula for changing Kelvin temperature into Celsius


*/ C = K 273 .

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focal point of airframe and structure 351

:.Bijad, Ahmad 1328.

Focal point of airframe and structure, systems, parts/ :

Prepared by Ahmad Bijad

: : 2011=1390. : ... :
978-600-92233-6-7 352 :

2495276 : : :

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978-600-92233-6-7 :

1100 :

: 22024140 - 3

09121866558 -66755824


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