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Chemical

Basis of Life
Introduc5on
C, H, O, N 96% of human body
Ca, P, K, S, Na, Cl, Mg, I, Fe -about 3.9%
Trace elements -Al, B, Cr, Co, Cu, F, Mn, Mo,
Se, Si, Sn, Va, Zn - some organisms (0.1%)

protoplasm

Inorganic cmpds. Organic cmpds.


Inorganic compounds

Suitable physical and chemical environment



Water, acids and bases, salts, gases
Water
60%-90%
Physical proper5es of water
Universal solvent
Liquid at room temperature
Neutral pH
Immiscible with lipids
High heat of vaporiza5on
High heat capacity
Cohesive and adhesive
High surface tension
The cohesion-
tension model of
xylem transport
Water
Physiological proper5es of water
Dissolves or holds in suspension the materials of the
protoplasm
Furnishes a medium for some vital processes
Moistens surfaces for gas diusion
Regulates body temperature
Helps in the func5on of sense organs
Serves as lubricant for movable surfaces
Serves as cushion for the brain and spinal cord
Acids and Bases

Acid?
HCl H+ + Cl-

Base?
NaOH Na+ + OH-
+
H concentration pH
(moles/liter) Value

100

pH
0 1M HCl, concentrated nitric acid

10-1 1 stomach acid (1.6 - 1.8), lime juice

increasingly ACIDIC
10-2 2 lemon juice

[H ] > [OH ]
-
10-3 3 acid rain, cola, vinegar, orange juice,
tomatoes
10-4 4 beer

+
10-5 5 black coffee, tea

10-6 6 saliva, urine, normal rain (5.5 - 5.9)

10-7 neutral 7 pure water (7.0); blood, sweat (7.4)


++ --
[H
(H ]=[OH
= OH )] egg (7.6 - 8.0)
10-8 8 seawater (7.8 - 8.3), bile (7.8 - 8.6)

10-9 9 baking soda


incresinglyBASIC
basic

)]
-
[OH

10-10 10 phosphate detergents, chlorine bleach,


-
(H ] << OH

milk of magnesia
increaingly

10-11 11 household ammonia, some phosphate-


+ +
[H

free detergents
10-12 12 washing soda

10-13 13 oven cleaner

10-14 14 1M NaOH, drain cleaner

+
Figure 2.1. The pH scale expresses the concentration of H in a solution on a
scale of 0 (very acidic) to 14 (very basic). Each unit of change in pH represents a
tenfold change in the concentration of H+. Lime juice, for example, is about ten
times more acidic than lemon juice.Except for gastric juice, nearly all body fluids
are finely adjusted to pH 7.4.
Salts

Salt?

HCl + NaOH Na+Cl- + H2O

NaCl Na+ + Cl-


Gases

Oxygen

Carbon dioxide
ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

HC compounds
molecules of life
About 1% of the cell
Abached to O, N and some contain S, P
Carbohydrates (types)
Monosaccharides: hexoses

Monosaccharides: pentoses
Carbohydrates (types)

Disaccharides
Carbohydrates (types)

Polysaccharides
a. Glycogen
b. starch
Cellulose
Chi5n
Carbohydrates (main func5ons)
Readily available source of energy
Structural
Cell iden5ty markers
Fats/Lipids
About 10% of the cell
Grouping: solubility proper5es rather than
chem. structure
hydrophobic
Building blocks?
(Faby acid types)

Main func5on?
Types of Lipids
1. Simple lipids (triacylglycerol)
fats and oils
Main func5on?
Types of Lipids
2. Compound lipids
a. Phospholipid

main func5on?
Types of Lipids
2. Compound lipids
b. Glycolipid

main func5on?
Types of Lipids

2. Compound lipids

c. lipoproteins
Types of Lipids
3. Steroids

main func5on?
Proteins
About 15% of the cell
C, H, O, N w/ S, P
Building blocks?
Easily denatured
fuel of the last resort
Proteins (types)
Fibrous proteins (structural)
Collagen, kera5n, brinogen/brin, muscle protein,
silk
Globular proteins (regulatory, protec5ve, & transport)
Albumin, globulins, An5bodies, hormones,
enzymes, hemoglobin
Conjugated proteins
chromoproteins (e.g. cytochrome)
- glycoproteins (e.g. mucin from connec5ve 5ssues)
- nucleoproteins (e.g. histones)
- lipoproteins (e.g. serum)
- phosphoprotein (e.g. casein in milk)
Kera5n and silk
Nucleic Acids

About 1% of the cell


C, H, O, N , P
Building blocks?
Func-ons?:
DNA (repository of gene5c informa5on)
RNA (molecular slave of DNA)
Major types? DNA and RNA
Nucleo5de
Phosphate group

Nitrogenous base

Pentose sugar
DNA
RNA
RNA
phenylalanine (Phe), leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile), methionine (Met), valine (Val), serine (Ser),
proline (Pro), threonine (Thr), alanine (Ala), tyrosine (Tyr), histidine (His), glutamine (Gln), asparagine
(Asn), lysine (Lys), aspartic acid (Asp), glutamic acid (Glu), cysteine (Cys), tryptophan (Trp), arginine
(Arg), and glycine (Gly).">
RNA
RNA
RNA
Other nucleic acids
Comparison Between DNA and RNA
Characteristics DNA RNA
Location Nucleus cytoplasm
# of strand double stranded single stranded
Helix Yes No
Bases AGTC AGUC
Complementary bases A-T; G-C A-U; G-C
Sugar Deoxyribose Ribose
Varieties Messenger RNA
Ribosomal RNA
Transfer RNA
Function Ensures that genetic information in
cell is identical. Molecular slave of DNA
Provides the instruction for bldg every
protein in the body.
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