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Diagram jaringan (Network Diagrams)

Critical Path Method (CPM)

Proyek konstruksi skala besar melibatkan sejumlah pekerjaan-pekerjaan sub komponen, seperti yang
tercantum dalam tabel 1. Setiap komponen, seperti ekskavasi lahan dan pondasi biasanya juga
terdiri dari serangkaian jaringan operasi (tindakan) yang kompleks yang setiap operasi tersebut
membutuhkan skedul anggaran dan waktu. Karena mungkin saja ada seratus pekerjaan yang terlibat,
diagram batang sederhana tidak lagi mencukupi sehingga untuk menangani pekerjaan dan proyek
berskala besar dan menengah seperti ini, beragam grafis teknis dikembangkan, yang disebut dengan
diagram jaringan. Salah satu diagram jaringan yang paling banyak dikenal dan dipakai adalah the
"critical path method, or CPM."
Mirip seperti diagram garis atau diagram alir proses, diagram ini terdiri dari setiap garis yang
menghubungkan satu titik pekerjaan dengan pekerjaan lainnya yang dihubungkan dengan anak
panah. Bentuk mata panah menandai tujuan pekerjaan berikutnya. Rentangan garis antara ujung
dan pangkal panah menandai waktu penyelesaian terpanjang, normal dan tersingkat.

Lintasan kritis ditandai dengan lintasan yang waktu penyelesaiannya terlama, sebagai konsekuensi
adanya gangguan progress pekerjaan seperti skedul di luar jalur, situasi di luar kendali. Lintasan kritis
membantu manajer proyek menyusun ulang skedul sehingga tetap dapat menggunakan tenaga kerja
sesedikit mungkin.

Such network diagrams are not only for construction projects, they are also valuable tools for any
project that combines multiple tasks. A project can be as simple as installing one piece of equipment
or as complex as carrying out a multiyear research and development study, a major plant
maintenance program (turnaround), or the construction of a new plant. Network diagrams help
project managers monitor and control project costs, time, labor, equipment, and materials. In its
simplest form a CPM chart may be constructed as a modified bar chart, with an indication of the
comparative time and sequence to complete each job, such as shown in Figure 10-6. All subprojects
or tasks are plotted with their line length exactly scaled to the time involved, and a base time
scale is maintained from the start to the finish. In addition to constructing and working with these
charts manually, programs have been devised which permit the computer generation of a CPM plan,
and the constant ability to detail which tasks are on the critical path, which have spare time, and so
on, as the work progresses. Programs are also available to facilitate manpower and equipment
scheduling based upon the CPM plan (for instance, workforce demand leveling), and to help
monitor the progress of construction, pinpoint jobs that must be done in succession and
simultaneously, and update the plan. For larger and more complex projects the CPM charts are more
frequently constructed as flow-sheet-type layouts. The jobs (or activities) are symbolized by lines
with arrows which point in the general direction of the project time flow, but are not drawn on a
time scale (see Figures 10-7 and 10-8). The project number is usually indicated above or below each
line, and sometimes the job duration is listed on the other side of the line. Each arrow starts at a
preceding node P and ends on a succeeding node S. The nodes are usually symbolized by small
labeled circles and numbered in sequence; their exact position, and the arrow lengths are
immaterial. Each activity ends at a particular node, and that activity must be completed before the
next activity starts. Note that in Figure 10-7 (and its job sheet in Table 10-3) there is no requirement
or implication that jobs B, C, and D need to be started simultaneously;