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Networking Basics

1. Network - Sharing of data and resources for easy access of user.

2. LAN A LAN (local area network) is a group of computers

and network devices connected together, usually within the
same building.
3. Wan - A Wide Area Network (WAN) is a network that covers
a broad area, WAN connects several LANs. The Internet is
an example of a worldwide public WAN.
4. Topology - Physical or logical structure of a Network is called
5. BUS Topology - In the Bus topology, every workstation is
connected to a main cable called the bus.

6. Star Topology - In the star topology, there is a central Device

(Switch/Server) on which all the workstations are directly

7. Ring Topology - Ring topology is a computer network

configuration where each network computer and
devices are connected to each other forming a large

8. Token ring Topology - a network where all computers on

the network are connected in a circle fashion. Token
contains a piece of information which along with data is sent
by the source computer. This token then passes to next
node, which checks if the signal is intended to it. If yes, it
receives it.
9. Mesh Topology - In the full mesh topology, each workstation is
connected directly to each other.

10. Tree Topology - When we use two or more than two topology
connected together for the redundancy purpose.

11. Internet - The Internet is a global network connecting millions

of computers, which is accessible to the general public. More than
100 countries are linked into exchanges of data, news and
12. Intranet - A collection of private computer networks
within an organization.
13. Server A system that provides services to other systems in
the network. There are file servers, boot servers, database
servers, license servers, print servers, installation servers, and
even servers for particular applications.
14. Client A system that uses remote services from a server.
15. Domain A computer network with centralized administration
is called domain.

16. Workgroup A workgroup is a collection of computers

on a local area network that share common resources
and responsibilities. Workgroups provide easy sharing of
files, printers and other network resources. Each
computer works as a server and client.
17. Router Routers are used to connect networks together and
route packets of data from one network to another. Router is a
breakup broadcast domain.

18. Switch Switch is a small hardware device that joins

multiple computers together. It has the memory.
Switches breakup collision domain and large broadcast
19. Hub A Hub is a networking device that allows one to
connect multiple PCs to a single network. It is also called multiple
port signal repeater. It has no memory. Hub creates one collision
domain and one broadcast domain.
20. CSMA/CD - Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision
Detection, is a protocol that helps devices share the bandwidth
without having collision.
(Bakeoff Algorithm Once transmitting stations on an Ethernet
segment hear a collision, they send an extended jam signal to
ensure that all stations recognize the collision. After the jamming
is complete, all stations have equal priority to transmit data. But
they must make sure the media is clear before transmitting and
that they all have equal priority.
21. CSMA/CA - Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision
Avoidance, a network contention protocol that listens to a network
in order to avoid collisions, unlike CSMA/CD that deals with
network transmissions once collisions have been detected.
22. Network Segmentation Breaking up a larger network in to
a number of smaller one is called network segmentation.
23. Possible caused of LAN traffic congestions
(!) Broadcast Storms.
(!!) Multicasting.
(!!!)Low Bandwidth.
(! V) Adding hubs for the connectivity to the network.
24. IP Address - An Internet Protocol address is a 32 bit logical
address of a computer.
25. Mac Address - A MAC address is a 48 bit permanent
hexadecimal address of a computer. Its a physical
address of a computer. This is in-built on the LAN Card.
24 bits assigned by IEE and 24 bit assigned by Vendor.

25. Four Router Functions

Packet Switching
Packet filtering
Internetwork Communication
Path Selection

26. Two Advantages of using routers in your network.

They dont forward broadcast by default.

They can filter the network based on layer 3 information.

27. Bandwidth Data carrying capacity of a network.
28. DTE/DCE Data Terminal Equipment/Data communication
Equipment It provides two ends of the communications. The term
is most often used in reference to serial communications. In
practical terms, the DCE is usually a modem and the DTE is the
computer itself.
29. CSU/DSU The CSU / DSU is a digital-interface device used
to connect a router to a digital circuit like a T1 or T3 line. The
CSU/DSU also provides signal timing for communication between
these devices.
30. CRC - The cyclic redundancy check is a technique for
detecting errors in digital data, but not for making corrections
when errors are detected. It is used primarily in data transmission.
31. FCS Frame check sequence (FCS) refers to the extra bits
and characters added to data packets for error detection and
32. Latency Latency is the time measured from when a frame
enters a port to the time it exits a port.
33. PDU To communicate and exchange information each layer
uses Protocol Data Units.
34. Broadcast- One to all
35. Multicast One to many
36. Unicast One to one
37. Modem (Modulator De modulator) basically it converts
analogue signal into digital signal and digital signal into analogue
38. DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) it gives equal uploading and
39. ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) Uploading
speed would be less than the downloading speed.
40. Port Numbers - In computer networking, a port number is
part of the addressing information used to identify the senders
and receivers of messages. Port numbers are most commonly
used with TCP/IP connections.
The port numbers are divided into three ranges: the Well
Known Ports, the Registered Ports, and the Dynamic or
Private Ports.
The Well Known Ports are those from 0 through 1023.
List of well known Port numbers:-

Port Number Description

21 FTP -- Control
22 SSH Remote Login Protocol
23 Telnet
25 Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
53 Domain Name System (DNS)
69 Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)
70 Gopher Services
110 POP3
115 Simple File Transfer Protocol (SFTP)
118 SQL Services
119 Newsgroup (NNTP)
137 NetBIOS Name Service
139 NetBIOS Datagram Service
143 Interim Mail Access Protocol (IMAP)
150 NetBIOS Session Service
156 SQL Server
161 SNMP
179 Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
190 Gateway Access Control Protocol (GACP)
194 Internet Relay Chat (IRC)
444 Simple Network Paging Protocol (SNPP)
445 Microsoft-DS
458 Apple QuickTime
546 DHCP Client
547 DHCP Server
569 MSN

Protocols: - A set of rules that allow two electronic items to

connect and exchange information with one another. Used to
define a method of exchanging data over a computer network
such as local area network, Internet, Intranet, etc.
OUI Organizationally Unique Identifier
EIA/TIA Electronic Industries Association/Telecommunications
Industry Alliance.
RJ- Registered Jack
UTP - Unshielded Twisted-Pair.

Network Hierarchy

1. Core Layer The core layer is literally the core of the network.
The core layer is responsible for transporting large amounts of
traffic both reliably and quickly. We use higher series of switches
on the core layer.

2. The Distribution Layer It is the communication point between

the access layer and the core. The primary functions of the
distribution layer are to provide routing, filtering and WAN access
and to determine how packets can access the core. Mostly routers
are used on this Layer.

3. The Access Layer The access Layer controls user and

workgroup access to internetwork resources. The access layer is
sometimes referred to as the desktop layer. Mostly
computers/lower level switches are used on this layer.

Difference between a collision domain and broadcast domain

Collision domain is an Ethernet term used to describe a network
collection of devices in which one particular device sends a packet
on a network segment, forcing every other device on that same
segment to pay attention to it. On a broadcast domain, a set of all
devices on a network segment hear all broadcasts sent on that

IEEE -Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers