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Abstracts of Sugar Tech ,Vol. 11 No.

1 (2009)
(An International Journal of Sugar Crops & Related Industries)

Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research, Lucknow: Envisioning improved sugarcane

production technology for high yields and high sugar recovery in India

R.L.Yadav D.V.Yadav A.K.Sharma G.K.Singh

Abstract The Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research (IISR) is a leading crop science research institute of
India conducting research on fundamental and applied aspects of sugarcane cultivation as well as to
coordinate the research work on sugarcane in different states of the country. Established on February 16,
1952, the Institute has expanded considerably in terms of infrastructure. The Institute has 5 full-fledged
Divisions and carried out pioneering research work on crop improvement, crop production, crop protection,
crop mechanization and crop quality management aspects of the sugarcane crop. The Institute has all
requisite modern facilities and is all set to share its research facilities and professional manpower with other
agencies/institutions working on the cause of sugarcane development in India. To impart a still bigger role,
the institute is thinking of a need for a key shift from sugarcane research systems to sugarcane innovation
systems that need to have a guiding agenda developmental rather than scientific, relations involved
diverse and consultative rather than narrow and hierarchical, and the partners in various combinations of
scientists, entrepreneurs, farmers, developments workers and policy actors from the public and private
sectors rather than scientists in other public agencies.

Keywords IISR, Sub-tropical & Tropical, sugarcane crop improvement research, crop production research,
crop protection research, sugarcane crop mechanization research, crop quality management,
commercialization, linkages.

Nitrogen benefits of legume green manuring in sugarcane farming systems in


G. Umrit M.A. Bholah K.F. Ng Kee Kwong

Abstract Field trials were laid down at four locations in Mauritus from 2003 to 2006 to determine the
contribution of LGM to the N nutrition of sugarcane and whether LGM could partly substitute for mineral
fertilizer N. Data showed that N returns to soil from LGM crops ranged between 100 and 267 kg N ha -1 of
which between 50 and 70 % was obtained from biological fixation. The availability of N in legume biomass
to the subsequent plant cane crop, as determined by the 15N dilution technique, ranged between 21 and 44
kg N ha-1. Incorporation of LGM prior to planting significantly increased yield of plant cane fertilized with
half the recommended rate of mineral N. Based on the results of this study, current rate of fertilizer N for
plant and first ratoon cane following a LGM crop may be reduced by half without a loss in the yield.
Keywords Legumes, nitrogen, sugarcane, green manure, nitrogen fixation.
Sugarcane phytoliths: Encapsulation and sequestration of a long-lived carbon

Jeff Parr Leigh Sullivan Robert Quirk

Abstract The potential to reduce emissions from agriculture and increase the amount of carbon captured in
soils is currently being examined by researchers in a number of countries. This paper describes a process of
carbon capture and long-term storage using silica phytoliths and, provides the results of a study of this
process on newly planted and ratooned sugarcane varieties. Our results indicate that a) there was significant
variation in the phytolith occluded carbon (PhytOC) content of different varieties, b) this did not appear to
be directly related to the quantity of silica in the plant but rather the efficiency of carbon encapsulation by
individual varieties and c) it was possible to accurately quantify this carbon fraction prior to its
incorporation into soil. The carbon content of the varieties tested under the particular suite of environmental
conditions for which they were grown ranged from 0.12 t e-CO 2 ha-y-1 to 0.36 t e-CO2 ha-y-1. This PhytOC
process provides an approach, which reduces emissions from agriculture for the long-term (millennia), as
opposed to many other soil organic carbon fractions that may decompose over a much shorter time.
Moreover, the ability to quantify PhytOC prior to its incorporation into the soil will provide a distinct
practical advantage for the quantification of this carbon form over other soil carbon fractions in emerging
emissions trading and offset markets.

Keywords Soil organic carbon; phytoliths, phytOC, terrestrial carbon sequestration, occluded carbon;
organic matter decomposition

Rapid propagation of sugarcane planting materials by using stratified Rayungan


Eka Sugiyarta Sri Winarsih

Abstract Conventionally sugarcane propagation using bud setts takes a longer time. Consequently variety
utilization period is limited because of clonal degeneration. A study was therefore undertaken to speed up
the distribution of planting materials by using stratified rayungan method. The results of the study
revealed that the sprouted buds from the stump with 9 - 14 and 15 -20 bud positions were faster than that of

9 20 bud position. At 3 and 4 months after planting, the total number of shoots from stump with 9 - 14 and
15 - 20 bud positions was greater than that of 9 20 bud position. PS 851 variety produced more shoots
than PSJT 941, however, the performance of PSJT 941 shoots was better than that of PS 851. The effect of
IAA was better than that of root stimulant, while PSJT 941 showed better response to rooting stimulant than
PS 851. The period of storage significantly influenced the percentage of fresh seedlings. Viability more
than 80 % was found from rayungan seedlings having 4 leaves for PSJT 941 and 5 leaves for PS 851.
Application of rooting stimulant was needed to speed up root growth and enhanced viability for the
seedlings having 3 or 4 leaves. The distribution of rayungan planting materials to another sugarcane area
for 3 days is still feasible.

Keywords : Propagation, planting material, "rayungan", plant growth regulator, sugarcane

Soluble acid invertase and sucrose phosphate synthase: Key enzymes in regulating
sucrose accumulation in sugarcane stalk

You-Qiang Pan Hai-Ling Luo Yang-Rui Li

Abstract The present study was conducted to assess the relative importance of reducing sugar contents,
soluble proteins and activities of four enzymes viz., soluble acid invertase (SAI), sucrose synthase (SS),
neutral invertase (NI) and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) in regulation of sucrose accumulation during
the growth and development of internodes in sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids). Fourteen internodes
from internode 2 to internode 15 were sampled from the stalks of the first ratoon crop of two sugarcane
cultivars, i.e. ROC20 and RB72-454. The internodes were cut into small pieces and frozen in liquid
nitrogen and then stored in -30 oC freezer until used. Content of sucrose, reducing sugar, soluble protein and
activities of SPS, SAI, SS and NI were assayed. The results of multiple regression and partial correlation
analyses showed that the sucrose content was negative correlated with the content of the reducing sugar and
soluble protein during the growth and development of the internodes. Path coefficient analysis and
optimum combination regression equation showed that soluble protein was more important than reducing
sugar in regulating the sucrose level in sugarcane internodes. The sucrose content was positively correlated
with the activity of SPS and negatively correlated with the activities of SAI, SS and NI in the both
cultivars, but only the SAI in ROC20 and SAI and SPS in RB72-454 were significant at the level 0.05 in T-
test for the optimum combination regression equation. Soluble protein was more important than reducing
sugar in regulating sucrose accumulation in sugarcane internodes. SAI and SPS were the key enzymes in
regulating sucrose accumulation during the growth and development of the internodes of sugarcane stalk.
The results of the present study provided references for further research on regulating the sucrose
accumulation in sugarcane stalk at molecular level.

Keywords: Sugarcane, internode, sucrose accumulation, soluble acid invertase, sucrose phosphate synthase

Field performance of micropropagated plants and potential of seed cane for stalk
yield and quality in sugarcane

S. K. Sandhu S. S. Gosal K.S. Thind S.K. Uppal Bipen Sharma Madhu Meeta Karnail Singh
G.S. Cheema

Abstract Two field experiments were conducted to ascertain the potential of micropropagation technique
for faster production of seed cane by using tissue culture plants raised through apical meristem culture in
first generation (TC 0) followed by clonal propagation through cane setts in next generation (TC1). About
18, 520 plants, produced from a single shoot through micropropagation, were required at row to row and
plant to plant spacing of 90 and 60 cm, respectively as compared to 88 quintal of cane seed in conventional
methods for planting in an area of one hectare. Multiplication ratio was 100-150 times using tissue culture
plants as compared to 11-12 using conventional cane setts, leading to drastic reduction in seed cane
requirement. The TC 1 exhibited superiority over vegetatively propagated conventional crop for millable
canes and stalk yield by 17 and 10.4 per cent, respectively. Though the single cane weight and cane
diameter (non-significantly) were slightly lesser in TC1 as compared to conventional crop, this did not
distress its potential as seed crop. The incidence of Ratoon Stunting Disease (RSD) and Leaf Scald Disease
(LSD) was very low in TC 1 crop as compared to conventional crop. The findings established the potential
of tissue culture technique for the production of quality seed free of pests and pathogens in the existing
varieties and rapid multiplication of newly released varieties for quick adoption by the growers.

Keywords sugarcane, micropropagation, apical meristem culture, multiplication rate, seed cane
Transformation of sugarcane with ACC oxidase antisense gene

Ai-Qin Wang Wei-Qing Dong Yuan-Wen Wei Cheng-Mei Huang Long-Fei He Li-Tao Yang
Yang-Rui Li

Abstract The present study is an attempt to validate the function of sugarcane ACO by construction of
plant expression vectors for sugarcane ACO sense and anti-sense genes and their effective
transformation.Plant expression vectors for sugarcane ACO anti-sense gene was constructed and then
transformed into sugarcane variety ROC22 mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The transgenic shoots
were screened under the selective pressure of 40 mg/l G418 and 300 mg/l cefalexin and 19 resistant plants
were obtained, two of which were further proved to be positive through detecting NPTII by PCR. The
transformation rate was found 10.5%. The positive plants were found to grow slowly and were more dwarf
compared to non-transgenic ones. The present work reveals the efficient genetic transformation system and
development of transgenic sugarcane plant with ACO anti-sense gene. This work will help in understanding
the ethylene and growth relationship and will also help breeders in breeding programs tailored to develop
new varieties using molecular approaches.

Keywords ACC oxidase, anti-sense gene, sugarcane, genetic transformation

Interaction between sugarcane and Colletotrichum falcatum causing red rot :

Understanding disease resistance at transcription level

R. Viswanathan A. Ramesh Sundar P. Malathi P.R. Rahul V. Ganesh Kumar R. Banumathy

P.T Prathima M.Raveendran K.K Kumar P. Balasubramanian

Abstract Detailed studies were taken up on host pathogen interaction between sugarcane and
Colletotrichum falcatum causing red rot at the transcription level with a set of sugarcane varieties varying
in disease resistance. A set of gene specific primers were designed to detect transcripts of resistance gene
analogues (RGAs), defense-related genes, transcription factors and signaling pathway genes induced
during the host-pathogen interaction. mRNA extracted from pathogen inoculated canes at different time
intervals were screened with 50 primers. Many of the transcripts were found to be expressed from the time
of inoculation till 48h. However, differential gene expression was found only for chitinase, metallothionein,
R30 (RGA), receptor protein kinase, reversibly glycosylated protein and signal sequence hydrophobic
region (SSHR) between resistant and susceptible varieties. Additionally differences in transcript size were
noticed for some of the screened primers. We have standardized differential display (DD)-RT-PCR protocol
with silver staining method to identify differential transcripts. Work on transcriptional variation in C.
falcatum-sugarcane interaction has been performed for the first time and this promises a new approach to
identify gene(s) involved in red rot resistance in sugarcane.

Keywords Gene specific primers, expressed sequence tags, resistance gene analogue, differential display
RT-PCR, differential expression.
Assessment of the tachinid Sturmiopsis inferens as a natural and applied biological
control agent of sugarcane shoot borer (Chilo infuscatellus) in southern India

J. Srikanth K.P. Salin N.K. Kurup K. Subadra Bai

Abstract In field studies during 2000-2005, seasonal dynamics of sugarcane shoot borer Chilo
infuscatellus Snellen (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and its parasitoid Sturmiopsis inferens Tns. (Diptera:
Tachinidae) were examined and augmentative releases of the parasitoid against the borer were evaluated at
Coimbatore, India. The borer was active throughout the study period with the overall range of 0.3 - 28.6%
fortnightly deadheart incidence. With considerable year-to-year variation, the borer peaked during July-
August in high incidence years but showed indistinct peak activity periods in low attack years. Sturmiopsis
inferens was found in all the study years with zero activity in some fortnights and overall maximum
parasitism rates of 23.3 and 21.0% in 2000 and 2001, respectively; parasitoid activity dropped drastically in
2002 and the decline continued thereafter. The high parasitism years witnessed distinct peak activity in
March and somewhat higher activity in July-August. Simple and multiple correlation analyses showed
inconsistent influence of weather parameters on borer and parasitoid activity. Shoot borer activity was
weakly related to St. inferens activity either in individual years or in the entire five-year period.
Augmentative releases of
St. inferens gravid females at dosages of 25-95 females/ha enhanced parasitism rates and reduced borer
incidence in some trials but produced variable effects in some other trials. Dosage of parasitoid was not
related to post-release parasitism rates in release plots. The results of the field trials and their implications
are discussed.

Keywords Sugarcane, Chilo infuscatellus, Sturmiopsis inferens, seasonal dynamics, augmentative release,
impact assessment

Haploids in apozygotic seed progenies of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.)

E.I. Maletskaya S.S. Yudanova S.I. Maletskii

Abstract The apozygotic mode of seed reproduction (in vivo) in sugar beet provided quite an efficient
realization of embryogenetic program in haploid embryo sac cells. It leads to a relatively high occurrence
frequency of haploid seedlings in apozygotic seed progenies. It is emphasized that haploid plants are
drastically different from those of diploid both in their morphology and duration of basic individual
developmental stages. Considerable epigenomic variability was observed in haploid plant microsporocyte
populations, and it, provided realization of meiotic process. A relatively high frequency of microspore
diads, triads and tetrads in haploid plants were reported.

Keywords Sugarbeet, haploids, apozygotic, seed progenies

Evaluation of Suitable Tropical Sugarbeet Hybrids with Optimum Time of Sowing

A. Balakrishnan T. Selvakumar
Abstract The investigation was carried out in tropical sugarbeet at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University,
Coimbatore to evaluate optimum time of sowing with suitable hybrids. The experiment was conducted in
strip plot design. The main plot consists of four times of sowing (15 days interval from 1 st September to 15th
October) and three tropical sugarbeet hybrids (Cauvery, Indus and Shubhra) in sub plot. Higher crop
biometrics of tropical sugarbeet was recorded in October 1st sowing and was on par with 15th September
and 15th October sowing. The yield characters and yield (72 and 88 t ha -1 during 2005 and 2006
respectively) of tropical sugarbeet and brix reading were higher in 1 st October sowing during both the
experiments conducted during 2005-06 and 2006-07. With respect to tropical sugarbeet hybrids, Cauvery
performed better in yield (76 and 92 t ha -1 during 2005 and 2006 respectively) and Shubhra recorded higher
brix reading (20 %). September second fortnight to October second fortnight sowing with Cauvery hybrid
performed better for tropical sugarbeet emergence, establishment, yield and quality.

Keywords Sugarbeet, Hybrid, Sowing time, Yield.

SUGAR-EX: An information and communication technology based decision making


T. Rajula Shanthy N. Mukunthan

Abstract Knowledge based applications of artificial intelligence have enhanced productivity in varied
fields of science and technology. In the recent past, the advances in this field have percolated for use in
agriculture as well. Sugarcane, a long duration crop is ravaged by many insect and non-insect pests limiting
the cane yield. An expert system on sugarcane pests and their management that can bring broad knowledge
base narrowed into a slice of in-depth system was developed. The concept of artificial intelligence has
been deployed using simple commercial software packages with easy-to-use interfaces. This expert system
takes into consideration sixteen major pests of sugarcane utilizing their symptoms/ details of pest stages as
identification cues. The primary goal of this expert system is to make expertise on sugarcane pests and their
management available to sugarcane development personnel and cane growers in a portable computer based

Keywords Sugarcane pests, decision support system, expert system. Information and communication tool,
knowledge base

Treatment of drainage from acidic canelands using a constructed wetland

Robert Quirk Mike Melville Andrew Kinsela Jason Reynolds Tim Zwemer Marty Hancock
Ben Macdonald Ian White

Abstract This paper describes trials of a constructed freshwater wetland to treat highly acidic drainage
from acid Sulfate soil in a sugarcane farm. A constructed freshwater wetland was used to treat acidic
discharge from drained acid sulfate soils on a sugar cane farm in the Tweed River flood plain, northern
New South Wales (NSW). The bunded 1.44 ha wetland was laser levelled into 6 segmented bays with an
overall hydraulic gradient of 0.13%. Water retention time varies between 19 and 82 days dependent on the
prevailing evapotranspiration rate. The wetland, which receives about 12% of runoff from a hydraulically
isolated 100 ha sugarcane area by pumping, is designed to treat the highly acidic groundwater-dominated
recession phase of drainage with large concentrations of dissolved aluminium, iron and manganese.
Common couch grass (Cynodon dactylon) and Eleocharis reeds were established in the wetland by natural
recruitment. Transects of water quality wetland during filling and while in operation revealed that pH
increased while electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen (DO), redox potential (RP), dissolved
sulfate, total potential and total actual acidity (TPA and TAA) decreased dramatically through the wetland.
Iron oxyhydroxide flocks are deposited in the inlet bay of the wetland and the redox-pH relation is
consistent with ferrolysis. As water moves further into the wetland it is titrated by the organic matter
present, resulting in the reduction of protonic acidity, sulfate, dissolved metal concentrations and EC. The
advantages and disadvantages of using the wetland as a practical method to treat drainage within a farming
system are discussed. The wetland successfully treated acid drainage.
Keywords Acid sulfate soil drainage, constructed wetland, water quality treatment, sugar cane farming.

Diversification of breeding program to develop multipurpose sugarcane cultivars

Manjunatha S. Rao Pipat Weerathaworn

Abstract Diversification is one way of sustenance of any crop. With this in mind, we initiated a selection
program at Mitr Phol Sugarcane Research Centre, Thailand to develop sugarcane cultivars for value
addition through improved fiber content. A set of 21 cultivars, selected on fibre, Brix, and yield was
evaluated along with a standard commercial cultivar K 84-200 in a field trial (RCBD with three
replications) during the period 2005 to 2007. Cane stalk samples collected from 7 th month till harvest were
analyzed for fibre content and Commercial Cane Sugar (CCS) to establish their maturity pattern. We
observed significant differences for cane yield, CCS, purity, sugar yield, fibre content and fibre yield. Fibre
content ranged from 13.5% to 19.3% with two cultivars outperforming K 84-200 by more than 25% for
fibre content while 12 cultivars had additional fibre content of more than 1% compared to K 84-200. Seven
cultivars were multipurpose types with superior fibre content, CCS, and yield. Cultivar MPT 99-582, which
recorded cane yield of 102 t/ha, CCS 13.2 and fibre content 15.5% was better performing than K 84-200 by
8, 10, 12, 23 and 21% for fibre, CCS, cane yield, sugar yield and fibre yield, respectively. Based on their
performance in terms of fibre, CCS, and yield, 11 cultivars were selected and planted in two ecological
trials (six 10 meter rows with 4 replication in RCBD). The data from these two trials reconfirmed the
multipurpose nature of the varieties with MPT 99-582 being superior. The studies indicated that we could
select multipurpose cultivars with improved fibre content and sugar yield. These cultivars would increase
the amount of bagasse produced in sugar mills leading to a higher quantity of bagasse available either for
co-generation or production of particle boards.

Keywords By-product, diversification, multipurpose varieties, fiber

Rearing Dipha aphidivora, the pyralid predator of sugarcane woolly aphid

Ceratovacuna lanigera, on its frozen host may be unfeasible

J. Srikanth N. Mukunthan B. Singaravelu N.K. Kurup G. Santhalakshmi

Abstract In Petri plate tests, neonate or third to fourth instar larvae of the predator Dipha aphidivora
Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) were offered its host Ceratovacuna lanigera Zehntner (Homoptera:
Aphididae), the woolly aphid of sugarcane, frozen and stored at -4 0C, and thawed at room temperature
before releasing the predator. In preliminary tests, neonate and grown-up larvae built webs, fed on aphids,
pupated and emerged as adults. In two tests with neonate larvae, adult emergence was 45.5 and 80.0% in
17-21 days. The predator moths laid eggs on white coarse filter paper strips but not on hard paper strips of
different colors placed in oviposition cages. Egg-laden filter paper or leaf bits placed in Petri plates with
frozen aphids showed hatching but larvae did not survive long. Poor survival of neonate larvae in several
additional tests with fresh or one-year old frozen aphid indicated that the method may not be useful for
long-term rearing of the predator. Short-term survival of grown-up larvae on frozen aphid may enable the
use of the latter as food for predator larvae in transit.

Keywords Sugarcane, woolly aphid, Ceratovacuna lanigera, pyralid predator, Dipha aphidivora, rearing,
frozen host
Nutrient application improves stubble bud sprouting under low temperature
conditions in sugarcane

Radha Jain S. Solomon A. K. Shrivastava P. Lal

Abstract A study was undertaken to enhance the stubble bud sprouting under low temperature conditions
by application of calcium (as CaCl 2 ), potassium (as KCl) and manganese (as MnCl 2) each at the rate of
0.5% solution. Stubble bud sprouting under controlled condition was about 64.3%, 73%, 68.7% due to
calcium, potassium and manganese treatment respectively as compared to untreated check (46.0%). The
number of ratoon tillers per stubble, as recorded after 60 days of ratoon initiation, was 157%, 57%, 85.7%
more in the calcium, potassium and manganese treatment respectively. Weight of buds, tillers and roots
was found maximum with manganese treatment followed by calcium and potassium treatment. Results
suggested an improvement in stubble bud sprouting and subsequent re-growth of stubble in winter-initiated
ratoon by nutrient application, which may help in enhancing ratoon productivity.

Keywords stubble bud, sprouting, nutrients, low temperature

Effect of growth regulators on in vitro multiplication and rooting of shoot cultures in


Shweta Pathak M. Lal A.K. Tiwari M.L. Sharma

Abstract An experiment was carried out to study the effect of growth regulators on in vitro multiplication
of shoot cultures and their rooting in sugarcane varieties CoS 99259 and CoSe 01235. About 1.5 cm long
shoot tip explants comprising apical meristems and 1-2 leaf primordia were carefully excised from the
apical region, sterilized and inoculated on agar (8.0 g/l) gelled MS medium supplemented with various
concentrations and combinations of BAP, kinetin and NAA. The results showed that MS medium
supplemented with BAP, Kinetin and NAA (0.5 mg/l each) was most suitable for producing optimum
number of shoots in both the varieties. For rooting, the multiplying cultures were separated in smaller
groups and transferred on half strength MS liquid medium containing 50g/l sucrose and different
concentrations of auxins (NAA and IBA). Maximum 94% shoot cultures developed vigorous root system
on half strength MS liquid medium containing 50 g/l sucrose and 5.0 mg/l NAA.

Keywords Sugarcane, micropropagation, growth regulators.

Meeting the Challenges of Sugar Crops and Integrated
Industries in Developing Countries IS-2008

Sinai University and Sama Al-Arish Resort, Egypt 11-14th September


IS-2008 : Conference Report and Recommendations

The 3 rd International Conference IS-2008 was held at Sinai University, Al Arish (Egypt) from 11-14 th
September,2008. The conference was jointly organized by International Association of Professionals in
Sugar and Integrated Technologies (IAPSIT) and Sinai University. The IS-2008 conference was well
attended and represented by over 300 delegates from 23 developed and developing countries. The IS-2008
conference was organized under the auspices of H.E. Hosni Mubarak, President of Egypt and supported by
the Department of Agriculture, Egyptian Sugar Crops Council and many other government and private
bodies. The conference delegates came from China(67), India(39), Indonesia (13), Brazil(7), Pakistan (3),
Nigeria(4), France(1), Kenya(1), Thailand (3), Myanmar(4), Australia (3), USA(3), South Africa(3),
Vietnam(1), Fiji(1), Sudan(5), Bangladesh(1), Mauritius(2), Egypt (100), Tanzania(1), Reunion(2) and U.K.