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Struktur sedimen
merupakan kenampakan dalam tubuh
batuan sedimen yang terbentuk karena
SEDIMENT STRUCTURE proses fisika, kimia dan biologis. Struktur
ini akan sangat penting karena dapat
menentukan setting pengendapan, tua
mudanya batuan sedimen atau top dan
An overview bottom lapisan batuan dan menentukan arah
arus purba
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KEGUNAAN STRUKTUR STRUKTUR BATUAN SEDIMEN


SEDIMEN Struktur sedimen termasuk ke dalam struktur primer yaitu
struktur yang terbentuk pada saat pembentukan batuan (pada saat
Interpretasi lingkungan pengendapan ( mekanisme sedimentasi/syngenetic).
transport, arah aliran, kedalaman, kekuatan angin &
kecepatan relative arus, tektonik sedimentasi, dankondisi Sedimentary structures occur at very different scales, from less
lingkungannya itu sendiri.) than a mm (thin section) to 100s1000s of meters (large
Menentukan bagian atas dan bawah lapisan yang outcrops); most attention is traditionally focused on the
bedform-scale
terdeportasi.
Microforms (e.g., ripples)
Menentukan paleogeografi dan arus purba suatu daerah. Mesoforms (e.g., dunes)
Macroforms (e.g., bars)

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a. Struktur Sedimen Pengendapan


Struktur sedimen yang terjadi pada saat pengendapan
Pembagian struktur sedimen batuan sedimen.
(Tucker 1981):

a. Struktur Sedimen Pengendapan


b. Struktur Sedimen Erosional Perlapisan/Laminasi
c. Struktur Sedimen Pasca Pengendapan Perlapisan merupakan suatu bidang kesamaan waktu yang
d. Struktur Sedimen Biogenik dapat ditunjukan oleh perbedaan besar butir atau warna dari
bahan penyusunnya.
Dikatakan perlapisan bila tebalnya >1 cm dan dikatakan
sebagai laminasi bila tebalnya <1 cm.

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Perlapisan dapat dibagi menjadi 4 macam :


Perlapisan/laminasi sejajar (Paralel Bedding/Lamination) :
Bentuk lapisan/ laminasi batuan yang tersusun secara horisontal
dan saling sejajar satu dengan yang lainnya.

Perlapisan/laminasi silang siur (Cross Bedding/Lamination) :


Bentuk lapisan/ laminasi yang terpotong pada bagian atasnya oleh
lapisan/laminasi berikutnya dengan sudut yang berlainan dalam
satu satuan perlapisan.

Perlapisan bersusun (Graded Bedding) :


Laminasi
Perlapisan batuan yang dibentuk oleh gradasi butir yang makin Copyright @ Bruce Molnia, USGS 1 dan 2
halus ke arah atas (normal graded bedding) atau gradasi butir yang
makin kasar ke arah atas (reverse graded bedding). Normal graded
bedding dapat dipakai untuk menentukan top atau bottom lapisan
batuan.
Gelembur gelombang (current ripple) :
Bentuk permukaan perlapisan bergelombang karena adanya arus
sedimentasi
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Bedding Planes Graded


bedding
Younger

Fining-upward
successions and
coarsening-upward
successions are the Y
products of vertically
stacked individual beds Older

Copyright @ Bruce Molnia, USGS Decrease in depositional energy with sedimentation


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Reverse (Inverse) Graded Bedding Ripple Marks Ripples and Mudcracks

Younger

Copyright @ Bruce Molnia, Terra Photographics Copyright @Michael Collier

Y Mud cracks demonstrate


Mud Cracks

drying-out of a thin layer of


Older sediment fine enough to Desiccation of
have significant cohesion. muddy sediments
Definite proof of terrestrial
Increase in depositional energy with sedimentation setting or very shallow water
Example: debris flows (a lot less common than normal graded beds) marginal marine. Courtesy NASA Visible Earth

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Ripple marks b. Struktur Sedimen Erosional


merupakan struktur yang terbentuk akibat oleh erosi aliran fluida dan
Symmetric ripples indicate aliran sedimen sebelum pengendapan diatas bidang lapisan merupakan
struktur yang terbentuk akibat oleh erosi aliran fluida dan aliran
bi-modal current
sedimen sebelum pengendapan diatas bidang lapisan
Concave = up

Diantaranya:
Y 1. Flute cast : struktur sedimen berbentuk seruling dan terdapat pada dasar
suatu lapisan, dapat dipakai untuk menentukan arus purba.
2. Scour Marks, Channels and Scours, dst

Asymmetric ripples indicate


undirectional current

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SOLE MARK/FLUTE CAST

bentukan sole mark yang


menyerupai cekungan memanjang
yang melebar ujungnya membentuk
jilatan api.
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CHANNEL & SCOURS


SCOUR MARK

cetakan gerusan yang memotong


cetakan gerusan yang memotong
bidang perlapisan dan laminasi
bidang perlapisan dan laminasi
dengan ukuran kecil.
dengan ukuran hingga beberapa
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c. Struktur Sedimen Pasca Pengendapan


LOAD CAST
Struktur sedimen yang terjadi setelah pengendapan batuan
sedimen.
Load cast : struktur sedimen terbentuk pada permukaan lapisan akibat
pengaruh beban sedimen di atasnya.

Slump : struktur krn adanya bidang gelincir

Flame structure : bentukan seperti api yang di akibatkan lapisan di


atasnya lebih berat dan lapisan yang di bawahnya tertarik ke atas.

Convolute Bedding: bentuk liukan pada batuan sedimen akibat proses


deformasi.
---
Sandstone dike : lapisan pasir yang terinjeksikan pada lapisan
sedimen di atasnya akibat proses deformasi. Contoh lain : Ball-and-
Pillow Structures, Dish-and-Pillar Structure, Stylolites, dll.
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Raindrops : jejak air hujan terbatas untuk terestris

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FLAME STRUCTURE
SLUMP

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CONVOLUTE BEDDING
RAINDROPS

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Sedimentary structures

Cross stratification

The angle of climb of cross-stratified deposits increases with


deposition rate, resulting in climbing ripple cross
lamination
Sandstone dikes in the Colorado Springs area are
evidence of large earthquakes during the Laramide Antidunes form cross strata that dip upstream, but these are
mountain-building event. not commonly preserved

A single unit of cross-stratified material is known as a set; a


succession of sets forms a co-set
a seam of sedimentary material that fills in a crack and cuts across sedimentary or
other types of strata. They are often associated with earthquakes, but may be the result
of debris flows, impact craters, salt domes, fault zones, or glaciers.
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Sedimentary structures

Cross stratification produced by wave ripples can be


distinguished from current ripples by their symmetry and by
laminae dipping in two directions
Hummocky cross stratification (HCS) forms during storm
events with combined wave and current activity in shallow seas
(below the fair-weather wave base), and is the result of
aggradation of mounds and swales

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Sedimentary structures

Cross stratification produced by wave ripples can be


distinguished from current ripples by their symmetry and by
laminae dipping in two directions
Hummocky cross stratification (HCS) forms during storm
events with combined wave and current activity in shallow seas
(below the fair-weather wave base), and is the result of
aggradation of mounds and swales

Heterolithic stratification is characterized by alternating


sand and mud laminae or beds
Flaser bedding is dominated by sand with isolated, thin mud drapes
Lenticular bedding is mud-dominated with isolated ripples

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Sedimentary structures

Tide-influenced sedimentary structures can take different


shapes:
Herringbone cross stratification indicates bipolar flow directions,
but are rare
Mud-draped cross strata are much more common, and are the
result of alternating bedform migration during high flow velocities
and mud deposition during high or low tide (slackwater)
Tidal bundles are characterized by a sand-mud couplet with varying
thickness; tidal bundle sequences consist of a series of bundles
that can be related to neap-spring cycles

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Sedimentary structures

Gravity-flow deposits

Debris-flow deposits are typically poorly sorted, matrix-


supported sediments with random clast orientation and no
sedimentary structures; thickness and grain size commonly
remain unchanged in a proximal to distal direction
Turbidites, the deposits formed by turbidity currents, are
typically normally graded, ideally composed of five units
(Bouma-sequence with divisions a-e), reflecting decreasing
flow velocities and associated bedforms

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Sedimentary structures

Gravity-flow deposits

Debris-flow deposits are typically poorly sorted, matrix-


supported sediments with random clast orientation and no
sedimentary structures; thickness and grain size commonly
remain unchanged in a proximal to distal direction
Turbidites, the deposits formed by turbidity currents, are
typically normally graded, ideally composed of five units
(Bouma-sequence with divisions a-e), reflecting decreasing
flow velocities and associated bedforms

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Sedimentary structures

Imbrication commonly occurs in water-lain gravels and


conglomerates, and is characterized by discoid (flat) clasts
consistently dipping upstream

Sole marks are erosional sedimentary structures on a bed


surface that have been preserved by subsequent burial
Scour marks (caused by erosive turbulence)
Tool marks (caused by imprints of objects)

Paleocurrent measurements can be based on any sedimentary


structure indicating a current direction (e.g., cross stratification,
imbrication, flute casts)

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Sedimentary structures

Imbrication commonly occurs in water-lain gravels and


conglomerates, and is characterized by discoid (flat) clasts
consistently dipping upstream

Sole marks are erosional sedimentary structures on a bed


surface that have been preserved by subsequent burial
Scour marks (caused by erosive turbulence)
Tool marks (caused by imprints of objects)

Paleocurrent measurements can be based on any sedimentary


structure indicating a current direction (e.g., cross stratification,
imbrication, flute casts)

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Sedimentary structures

Imbrication commonly occurs in water-lain gravels and


conglomerates, and is characterized by discoid (flat) clasts
consistently dipping upstream

Sole marks are erosional sedimentary structures on a bed


surface that have been preserved by subsequent burial
Scour marks (caused by erosive turbulence)
Tool marks (caused by imprints of objects)

Paleocurrent measurements can be based on any sedimentary


structure indicating a current direction (e.g., cross stratification,
imbrication, flute casts)

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Sedimentary structures

Trace fossils (ichnofossils) are the tracks, trails or burrows left


behind in sediments by organisms (e.g., feeding traces,
locomotion traces, escape burrows)
Disturbance of sediments by organisms is known as
bioturbation, which can lead to the total destruction of
primary sedimentary structures
Since numerous trace fossils are connected to specific
depositional environments, they can be very useful in
sedimentologic interpretations

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Struktur biogenik

Struktur biogenik sebenarnya masuk ke dalam ranah ichonology

Struktur ini dapat menunjukkan lingkungan pengendapan, menunjukkan lingkungan pengendapan ternyata dapat
tingkat dan proses sedimentasi. dipakai untuk mengetahui sedimentasi apakah berlanjut
atau tidak.

Binatang dapat meninggalkan jejak dengan cara menyentuh, dapat mendokumentasikan perilaku makhluk hidup yang
menapak, bergerak melintasi, makan pada permukaan sedimen, telah punah dan juga organism yang tidak mempunyai
member/melubangi endapan sedimen untuk mencari makanan, bagian tubuh yang keras.
menggali lubang untuk hidup dan membentuk suatu bentukan
setelah keluar dari lubang sedimen menunjukkan penunjuk arah atas suatu lapisan.

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